San Miguel, Bulacan

Municipality of San Miguel
Bayan ng San Miguel
San Miguel De Mayumo
—  Municipality  —
San Miguel De Mayumo Arch

Seal
Map of Bulacan showing the location of San Miguel
Municipality of San Miguel is located in Philippines
Municipality of San Miguel
Location in the Philippines
Coordinates: 15°8′45″N 120°58′42″E / 15.14583°N 120.97833°E / 15.14583; 120.97833Coordinates: 15°8′45″N 120°58′42″E / 15.14583°N 120.97833°E / 15.14583; 120.97833
Country  Philippines
Region Central Luzon (Region III)
Province Bulacan
District 3rd District
Founded 100 BC
Barangays 49
Government
 – Mayor Roderick D.G. Tiongson
 – Vice Mayor Ma. Gemma S. Alcantara
Area
 – Total 231.40 km2 (89.3 sq mi)
Population (2007)
 – Total 138,839
 – Density 600/km2 (1,554/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
ZIP code 3011
Dialing code 044
Income class 1st class
Population Census of San Miguel
Census Pop. Rate
1995 108,147
2000 123,824 2.95%
2007 138,839 1.59%
San Miguel de Arkanghel Church built in the 18th century
The house were Emilio Aguinaldo slept before he departed to Pangasinan

San Miguel de Mayumo is a 1st class, partially urban[1] municipality located in the 3rd district[1] of the province of Bulacan, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 138,839 people[1].

Contents

History

The municipality of San Miguel De Mayumo was established in 1763 with Carlos Agustin Maniquiz, Maria Juana Puno - wife of Carlos Agustin Maniquiz and Miguel Pineda as the first town mayor of San Miguel. Miguel Pineda was a native of Angat who decided to settle permanently in the Barrio of San Bartolome now named Barangay Tartaro. He found the place ideal for hunting and was later chosen as the leader of other settlers. He formed an alliance with Mariano Puno, the recognized leader of the adjacent prosperous village called Sto. Rosario now named Barangay Mandile. The two leaders decided to form a town named Miguel De Mayumo after the name of Miguel Pineda and mayumo, a Kapampangan word for sweets for the goodwill and generosity of Mariano Puno. The town was supposed to be part of Pampanga. San Miguel’s culture drifted from Kapampangan influence. San Miguel used to be the biggest town in Bulacan but when San Ildefonso was proclaimed a town during the 1900s and during the Marcos regime, he made Dona Remedios Trinidad a town (named after his wife's mother), San Miguel was right as the 2nd.

There is a story attached to the timely discovery of a stone image of an archangel when the town was in abundance and the inhabitants wish to change the name of the town. A council was formed for this purpose and in the midst of a meeting; a man rushes forward to report a discovery of a stone image of an angel in one of the Madlum Caves. The council deemed it befitting to name the town after the angel. The discovered stone image was of San Miguel De Arkanghel. The people believed it to be a Divine Almighty sign of good graces. The council decided in reverence and homage to the angel to add the word “San” and retain the original name of the town Miguel De Mayumo to San Miguel De Mayumo. The official name of the town at present is Municipality of San Miguel.

The Pact of Biak-Na-Bato

During the revolution in 1897, newly appointed Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera decided to crush Emilio Aguinaldo and his troops in Cavite, but Aguinaldo fled to Batangas and joined forces with Gen. Miguel Malvar. The Spaniards continue their pursuit but the troops outwitted them by going to the province of Rizal (formerly Morong) & finally to Biak na Bato in San Miguel de Mayumo, Bulacan. Aguinaldo made the mountain caves into his headquarters while Primo de Rivera quoted, "Biak na Bato will fall into my hands...but I cannot promise to dissolve the Revolution." Emilio Aguinaldo established the first constitutional government in the Philippines.

Pedro A. Paterno, a Filipino who studied in Spain, presented himself to the Governor-General & told them he would like to help them by negotiating a peace treaty with the revolutionaries, and Rivera agreed. Paterno right Manila on August 4 but was halted by Gen. Paciano Rizal, who was against the treaty and said he would rather be thrown into a pit lined with bolos & sharp lances, but in the end, he agreed & had Paterno escorted to Biak na Bato. Paterno arrive on August 9 but did not reach his goal so he had to come back three more times during the negotiations. Aguinaldo commanded reforms & truce up to September 1900. he also told Paterno to consult with the other revolutionary leaders.

Paterno kept on going back and forth to Manila and Biak na Bato until the two sides made a negotiation. After two weeks Primo de Rivera signed the Pact of Biak na bato in Malacanang without Aguinaldo, for Aguinaldo felt he might get arrested so he choose Paterno to be his representative to sign the treaty. The treaty was signed on December 14 to 15,1897.

In 1959, the sitio of Bagong Silang was converted into a barrio.[2]

On August 26, 2007, residents at the foot of the Biak-na-Bato mountains petitioned President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo to declare the mountains protected areas to stop marble quarrying and mining there. Biak-na-Bato (21.17 km² in the villages of Kalawakan and Talbak in Doña Remedios Trinidad town and the villages of Biak-na-Bato and Sibul) was one of the camps of the revolutionary Katipunan forces in the 19th century, was declared a national park by Manuel L. Quezon on Nov. 16, 1937 through Proclamation No. 223.[3]

The Battle of San Miguel

Battle of San Miguel
Part of Rebel attacks in Bulacan[4]
Date May 23, 1898-?
Location San Miguel, Bulacan
Result unknown
Belligerents
Rebels Guardia Civil
Commanders and leaders
Pablo Tecson unknown
Strength
unknown unknown
Casualties and losses
unknown unknown

Started on May 23, 1898 when a rebel group led by Brigadaire General Pablo O. Tecson [1859-1933]. He attacked the Guardia Civil. He later become the governor general of Bulacan 1902-1906, elected after American rule. He also paricipated in the ratification of the first Philippine Constitution with Emilio Aguinaldo. He became secretary of Department of Agriculture and donated a parcel of land, now called Camp Tecson - Philippine Army.

Pablo Tecson was born on July 4, 1859 in San Miguel de Mayumo province of Bulacan. He begun his studies in San Miguel and later at the San Juan de Letran where he finished his Bachelor of Arts.

He served at the Pahayagan Patnubay ng Catolico, published in April 1890. Father Maria Gil was editor, Mariano Sevilla, Joaquin Tecson, Juan Evangelista, Pascual Poblete, Modesto Santiago and Gabriel Francisco formed the staff.

He was one of the founders of Katipunan's Balangay Arao in San Miguel. He participated in the attack of the garrison in San Miguel and San Rafael. He was the Brigadier General of the Brigada del Pilar. He became a delegate to the Malolos Congress representing the province of Cagayan. During the deliberations, he was the one that broke the tie and made the separation of the church and state final.

After the Philippine–American War, he was appointed governor of Bulacan province and was a chosen delegate of the Philippine Commission World Fair in 1904. He resigned from government service in 1906 and went to farming. He was of the first to promote silk culture industry and because of this he was named Secretary of Department of Agriculture. He donated the land for the use of the Constabulary Station in San Miguel, now called Camp Tecson - Philippine Army in Sibul Spring Bulacan. He died in 1933.

Pablo Tecson Incumbency 1902 – Assessment of lands and houses was ordered. 1904 – The Ley Rentas Internas was passed and many people objected. 1905 – During his incumbency, the Provincial Capitol was built on the land donated by Felipa Santos (Mother of Don Antonio Bautista) and Agapita Tiongson. The Associacion Femenista de Filipina Movement was organized in Bulacan, Bulacan headed by Doña Concha Felix. She was supported by Trinidad Rizal, Helen Wilson and other women leaders from Manila.

The Siege of Baler

The Revolutionary Colonel of 'The Siege of Baler' - Siege of Baler: Simon O. Tecson [1861-1903].

Simon Ocampo Tecson was born on February 5, 1861 in San Miguel de Mayumo now called San Miguel, Bulacan to parents Tiburcio Tecson and Paula Ocampo. He was the second child among four siblings. Simon O. Tecson married Tomasa Mossesgeld Santiago.

Like thousands of other Filipinos desiring independence from Spain, Simon O. Tecson joined the Katipunan when he found himself one time in Manila. When the Revolution broke out, he joined the fighting in Bulacan. In June 1897, he was appointed Brigadier-General of Bulacan at the Mt. Puray Assembly. From Cavite, General Emilio Aguinaldo transferred the revolutionary government to Biak-na-Bato, a barrio of San Miguel de Mayumo. On November 1, 1897, Isabelo Artacho and Felix Ferrer wrote a constitution for this Biak-na-Bato Republic. Simon O. Tecson who at this time had become close to Aguinaldo, was chosen to be one of the signatories of the Constitution during the ratification of the Philippine Constitution.

Towards the end of 1897, a truce in the fighting was agreed upon by both Spaniards and Filipinos. Aguinaldo agreed to go on voluntary exile to Hong Kong together with some of his friends and allies. However, Simon O. Tecson did not join Emilio Aguinaldo in Hong Kong. When Emilio Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines in May 1898, Simon O. Tecson offered his services to Emilio Aguinaldo’s revolutionary army. Emilio Aguinaldo gave Simon O. Tecson the rank of Colonel and appointed him second in command of the 4th zone comprising the towns of San Rafael, San Miguel and San Ildefonso, Bulacan. Maintaining the peace and order of Bulacan as well as the province of Nueva Ecija became his major task.

However, Simon O. Tecson would be most remembered for the event that would be later on called 'The Siege of Baler' - Siege of Baler.

Baler, Aurora is a small town located on the eastern coast of Luzon, part of the jurisdiction of the District of El Principe. In June of 1898, the Spanish forces holding Baler continued to resist whereas most of the other towns had already surrendered to Emilio Aguinaldo’s forces. Captain Enrique de las Morenas was in charge of the defense of Baler. For fear of attack, he ordered his men to seek refuge inside the church of Baler on June 27, 1898. Providing themselves with arms, ammunition and food, the Spaniards turned the church into a formidable fortress.

The end of 'The Siege of Baler' occurred on June 2, 1899. The Spaniards went outside of the church to negotiate the terms of surrender. Representing Emilio Aguinaldo and the newly established Philippine Republic was Revolutionary Colonel Simon O. Tecson who negotiated that the Spanish troops would not be treated as prisoners of war. With the terms of surrender completed, the rest of the Spanish troops marched out of the church with their weapons while Filipino troops lined up the pathway. Out of the more than 50 soldiers who sought refuge in the church of Baler before the siege, only 35 survived.

'The Siege of Baler' represents the culmination of the more than three hundred-year hostility between Philippines - Filipinos and Spaniards - Spain. It ended in forgiveness and reconciliation. This event is made even more memorable through the passage of Republic Act No. 9187 on February 5, 2003 calling for the celebration of Philippine-Spanish Friendship Day every June 30. The historic 'The Siege of Baler' honors the Filipino and Spanish heroes who fought and died for their principles.

Simon O. Tecson fought in the Philippine-American War. He surrendered to the Americans on February 12, 1901 in San Miguel de Mayumo. He refused to take the oath of allegiance to the United States of America resulting in his deportation to Guam on June 16, 1901. When a general amnesty was offered to all Filipino insurgents on July 4, 1902, Simon O. Tecson was one of those who availed of this opportunity. On September 21, 1902, Simon O. Tecson took his oath of allegiance and was allowed to return to the Philippines.

He died on November 15, 1903 at the age of 43 in his beloved hometown of San Miguel de Mayumo.

Japanese Occupation

Founded in World War II, Japanese Imperial ground troops was entered and occupied the town municipality of San Miguel on 1942. Bulaceño guerrillas was fall and invaded for the couple of four years by retreat from the Imperial Japanese ground troops around the municipal town of San Miguel and before the liberation on 1945.

Liberation and invasion of San Miguel

Invasion of San Miguel
Part of World War II, the 1944-1945 Philippine Campaign and Pacific War
Date January to August 1945
Location San Miguel, Bulacan
Result Filipino Victory, Japanese Imperial forces surrender and retreated by Filipino troops and guerrillas and they captured to liberated the town in San Miguel, Bulacan.
Belligerents
Philippines Philippine Commonwealth
Japan Empire of Japan
Strength
Philippine Commonwealth Military
3rd Infantry Division, Philippine Commonwealth Army
32nd Infantry Division, Philippine Commonwealth Army
36th Infantry Division, Philippine Commonwealth Army
37th Infantry Division, Philippine Commonwealth Army
~ 76,000 Filipino troops
Bulaceño Guerrilla Resistance
Bulaceño Guerrilla Resistance
~ 3,600 Bulaceño Guerrillas
Imperial Japanese Military
Japanese 14th Area Army
~ 95,000 Japanese troops
Casualties and losses
Philippine Commonwealth Military
3,000 killed
14,000 wounded
Bulaceño Guerrilla Resistance
400 killed
1,200 wounded
Imperial Japanese Military
18,000 killed
67,000 wounded
8,000 captured
86,000 Bulaceño civilians killed

On January to August 1945, Filipino troops of the 3rd, 32nd, 36th and 37th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was liberated and recaptured the town municipality of San Miguel and aided the local Bulaceño resistance against the Japanese Imperial forces and ended in World War II. While the massacre of all 86,000 Bulaceño civilians killed by the hand of Japanese troops in San Miguel.

Barangays

San Miguel is administratively subdivided into 49 barangays.[1] Of these, 11 are considered urban and the rest rural. The most populous barangay is Sibul and the least populous is Pacalag.

Name Classification[1] Population[1]
Bagong Pag-asa Urban 1,306
Bagong Silang Rural 1,746
Balaong Urban 2,665
Balite Rural 2,608
Bantog Urban 3,336
Bardias Urban 1,541
Baritan Rural 1,015
Batasan Bata Urban 2,117
Batasan Matanda Urban 2,735
Biak-na-Bato Urban 1,192
Biclat Rural 1,495
Buga Urban 1,653
Buliran Rural 4,560
Bulualto Rural 2,622
Calumpang Rural 3,870
Cambio Rural 1,990
Camias Urban 6,706
Ilog-Bulo Rural 1,416
King Kabayo Rural 1,514
Labne Rural 1,461
Lambakin Rural 2,336
Magmarale Rural 2,077
Malibay Rural 2,031
Maligaya Urban 1,723
Mandile Rural 1,627
Masalipit Rural 2,697
Pacalag Rural 891
Paliwasan Rural 2,404
Partida Rural 3,162
Pinambaran Rural 3,671
Poblacion Urban 3,386
Pulong Bayabas Rural 1,187
Pulong Duhat Rural 1,132
Sacdalan Rural 1,745
Salacot Rural 3,010
Salangan Rural 4,300
San Agustin Rural 3,743
San Jose Urban 5,310
San Juan Rural 6,749
San Vicente Urban 2,955
Santa Ines Rural 5,135
Santa Lucia Rural 2,745
Santa Rita Bata Rural 3,036
Santa Rita Matanda Rural 2,438
Sapang Rural 1,503
Sibul Rural 8,570
Tartaro Rural 5,374
Tibagan Rural 3,099
Tigpalas Rural 3,255

Tourist Attractions: Nature and Historical Places

Sibul Springs
  • Sibul Springs

Sibul Spring is famous for the springs coming directly from the mountains, which attracted a lot of people including the past presidents like Manuel L. Quezon & famous artists during the pre-war & post-war era.

  • Madlum Caves and River
  • Heritage Houses
  • Banal na Bundok
  • St. Michael the Archangel Parish Church
  • San Miguel Municipal Hall
  • Biak-na-Bato National Park
  • San Miguel Arc
  • Clock Tower

Philippine National Artists born in this Town

Famous people from San Miguel

  • Felipe Buencamino (1848–1929) - Born in this town on September 22, 1848. Leader of the revolutionaries, & became kalihim ng suliraning panlabas of the first Republic of the Philippines. one of the founders of Iglesia Filipina Independiente. He joined the revolutionary movement and fought in the battles of Kamansi and Mount Arayat. He helped write the Constitution of the Philippine Republic at Malolos. He was named to the Aguinaldo cabinet as "secretario de fomento" or secretary of development. Died on February 6, 1929
  • Pablo O. Tecson [1859-1933]. 'The Battle of San Miguel' started on May 23, 1898 led by Brigadaire General Pablo Ocampo Tecson, attacked the Guardia Civil. He later become the Governor General of Bulacan province, 1902-1906, elected after American rule - Philippine-American War. He also paricipated in the ratification of the first Philippine Constitution with Emilio Aguinaldo. He became secretary of Department of Agriculture and donated a parcel of land, now called 'Camp Tecson' - Philippine Army in Sibul Spring - San Miguel, Bulacan. The Tecson of San Miguel, Bulacan and the Ticzon of San Pablo City, Laguna are descendants of the three Tek Son brothers from Guangzhou, China.
  • Simon O. Tecson [1861-1903]. The Revolutionary Colonel of 'The Siege of Baler' - Siege of Baler. Simon Ocampo Tecson fought in the Philippine-American War. He surrendered to the Americans on February 12, 1901 in San Miguel de Mayumo. He refused to take the oath of allegiance to the United States resulting in his deportation to Guam on June 16, 1901. When a general amnesty was offered to all Filipino insurgents on July 4, 1902, Simon O. Tecson was one of those who availed of this opportunity. On September 21, 1902, he took his oath of allegiance and was allowed to return to the Philippines. He died on November 15, 1903 at the age of 43 in his beloved hometown of San Miguel de Mayumo. The Tecson of San Miguel, Bulacan and the Ticzon of San Pablo City, Laguna are descendants of the three Tek Son brothers from Guangzhou, China.
  • Emiliano O. Tecson. Emiliano Ocampo Tecson participated in the ratification of the first Philippine Constitution with Emilio Aguinaldo. The Tecson of San Miguel, Bulacan and the Ticzon of San Pablo City, Laguna are descendants of the three Tek Son brothers from Guangzhou, China.
  • Trinidad P. Tecson (1848–1928) - Trinidad Perez Tecson is one of the revolutionaries during Philippine Revolution who is famous for being the 'The Mother of Biak-na-Bato' - Pact of Biak-na-Bato and 'The Mother of Philippine Red Cross' - Philippine Red Cross born in this town on November 18, 1848. During the Philippine Revolution, she joined the rebellion, took care of the sick and wounded in the mountains. Along with three other companions, she went to the courthouse in Kalookan to seize firearms. They overpowered the Guardia Civil and carried away their guns. She was with the revolutionaries in 12 battles under five Filipino generals and organized groups of women to nurse wounded the Filipino soldiers. Emilio Aguinaldo called her 'The Mother of Philippine Red Cross' - Philippine Red Cross. She died on January 28, 1928. Trinidad Tecson Elementary School is a memorial school for her, District IV Manila - Division of City Schools-Manila. The Tecson of San Miguel, Bulacan and the Ticzon of San Pablo City, Laguna are descendants of the three Tek Son brothers from Guangzhou, China.
  • Maximo Viola (1857–1933) - Born in this town & was a friend & taveling companion in Europe of Jose Rizal, he advanced the money needed for the printing of the novel Noli Me Tangere
  • Narcisa Doña Sisang de Leon - A film producer, LVN Films matriarch.
  • Carlos A. Santos-Viola - An architect. He is best known for designing and building churches for the Iglesia ni Cristo (INC) religious group.

Religions

Roman Catholic is the predominantly inthis town with 90%,The second is the Members Church of GOD,International with 4%, Iglesia ni Cristo with 1%, Evangelicals With 3% and Other Religious Groups with 2%.

Education

The town has numerous public schools offering elementary and high school education. Some of the elementary public schools are:

  • San Miguel South Central Elementary School, located in Brgy. Poblacion.
  • San Jose Elementary School, located in Brgy. San Jose
  • San Miguel North Central School, in Brgy. Camias
  • Dr. Juan F. Pascual Memorial School, located in Brgy. Salangan
Children's Haven Logo

Some of public high schools are:

  • John J. Russel Memorial High School, located at Sibul, San Miguel, Bulacan
  • Partida High School, located at Partida, San Miguel, Bulacan
  • San Miguel National High School, located in Brgy. San Juan.
  • Vedasto Santiago High School, San Miguel High School Annex, located in Brgy. Salacot.
Central Elementary School

Some of the private schools offering elementary and pre-elementary education are:

  • Children's Haven School of San Miguel Bulacan, located in Brgy. San Jose.
  • D. C. Nicolas School, located in Brgy. Tigpalas
  • Park Ridge School of Montessori, located in Brgy. Camias.
  • Saint Paul University at San Miguel, located in Brgy. Salangan
  • School of Mount St. Mary, located in Brgy. Sta. Rita (New)

Some of the tertiary schools which is:

  • Bulacan Polytechnic College (San Miguel Campus) in Brgy. Salacot
  • Integrated College of Business and Technology at Brgy. Salangan San Miguel
  • Saint Paul University at San Miguel, located in Brgy. Salangan

Products of San Miguel

  • Pastillas - Pastillas de leche, made from fresh carabao milk, is the main product of the municipality of San Miguel de Mayumo. Mayumo is the local term for sweets.[5]
  • Rags/Door-mats - Strips of cloth usually thrown away by fashion houses and seamstresses are the basic materials for this home industry, which is a major source of livelihood for residents of barangay Sibul
  • Stone Craft/Souvenir Making - As a home industry in barangay Biak-na-Bato, this is a good source of income for its residents. They make use of indigenous materials such as limestone, stones gathered from Balaong River, which traverses the Biak-na-Bato National Park, and seashells, in the preparation of souvenir items.
  • Fruit/Vegetable Carving and Food Preservation - Beautiful carving of flowers, leaves, nipa huts and baskets are carved/etched on rinds of fruits and vegetables. Fruits in season such as santol, lime, pomelo and guyabano are used.
  • Cracklings (Chicharon) - Pork rind/skin cooked, seasoned and made into cracklings or chicharon, is a major livelihood in the municipality
  • Kesong Puti - Kesong Puti or homemade cottage cheese is made from pure carabao milk. It can be eaten with bread, or as some locals do, with rice
  • Macapuno Candy - Young coconut or macapuno are candied and made into sweets. These sweets, along with pastillas de leche, ube, and yema are the sweets manufactured and specialties of the municipality.

Heritage Houses

San Miguel is also famous because of the old houses built in different times, with different style & color stractures even though some of the houses were bomb during the Japanese many still exist today, but sadly others are being torn down to be sold or to make way for new buildings. The town is also called the "Vigan of Bulacan". Also Historical landmarks and old stones houses in the town proper are existing testimonies to the abundance and prosperity of the past and the admirable skills in craftsmanship of Bulakeños.

How to get here

From Manila:

The town is around 75 km. north of Metro Manila, the business center of the country. If one uses public transportation to get to the town, one could take the buses that ply the Cagayan Valley Road route. Some of these buses are Baliwag Transit, ES Transport, and Five Star Transport. The buses reach the town in around 2 hours.

If one would use private transportation, one could take the North Luzon Expressway from Manila. Take the exit at Sta. Rita (approximately 30 minutes). Just follow the Cagayan Valley Road passing through the towns of Plaridel, Pulilan, Baliuag, San Rafael and San Ildefonso.

From San Fernando City, Pampanga:

Take the North Luzon Expressway going south or Manila. You may exit at Pulilan Exit. A few meters after the exit, turn left towards Pulilan town proper. Upon reaching the new Pulilan town market (where 5 roads converge), follow the Cagayan Valley Road route going north.

One can also take the Gapan-Olongapo Road going east. Upon reaching the intersection of the Gapan-Olongapo Road and Cagayan Valley Road (after approximately 1.5 hours), turn right to go south along Cagayan Valley Road. You will reach the town after approximately 30 minutes.

From Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija:

Just take any of the buses that go south that follow the Cagayan Valley Road. San Miguel is approximately 1 hour from Cabanatuan.

2010 Elections

POSITION CANDIDATE PARTY TOTAL VOTES
Municipal Mayor Roderick D.G. Tiongson Liberal
34,152
Municipal Vice Mayor Ma. Gemma Sevilla-Alcantara Liberal
33,932
Municipal Councilors
Josephine C. Buan Liberal
29,687
Emmanuel D. Magtalas Liberal
27,541
Ernesto S. Sulit Liberal
25,965
Raul A. Mariano Lakas-Kampi-CMD
25,000
Anika Corinne D. Santiago Lakas-Kampi-CMD
24,889
Vincent Abril M. Maniquis Liberal
23,482
Marivee Mendez-Coronel Lakas-Kampi-CMD
21,882
Romeo C. Dizon Aksyon
18,292

References

External links


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