Settlement movement (Israel)
Settlement movement ( _he. תנועת מיישבות) is a term used in
Israelto describe national umbrella organisations for kibbutzim, moshavim, moshavim shitufiim, and communal settlements. It is not related to the term Israeli settlement, which denotes settlements outside of the Green Line.
Most kibbutzim are members of either the
Kibbutz Movementor the Religious Kibbutz Movement, whilst most moshavim and communal settlements are divided between the Moshavim Movement, Mishkei Herut Beitar, the Agricultural Unionand HaOved HaTzioni. Many religious moshavim are affiliated with Hapoel HaMizrachior Agudat Israel Workersmovements. Moshavim established after 1967 in the West Bank, outside the Green Line, are typically affiliated with Amana.
In the past there were several other organisations; the Kibbutz Movement was formed by a merger of the
United Kibbutz Movementand Kibbutz Artziin 1999, the former also formed by a merger of HaKibbutz HaMeuhadand Ihud HaKvutzot veHaKibbutzimin 1981. Most of the former organisations had political affiliations; HaKibbutz HaMeuhad was aligned with Ahdut HaAvodaand Ihud HaKvutzot veHaKibbutzim with Mapaiand Labour.
To the extent that kibbutzim, moshavim, and moshavim shitufiim are
agricultural cooperativesbased on individual membership, the national settlement movements in Israel are viewed as secondary cooperatives or cooperative federations, whose members are lower-level primary cooperatives.
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