Kashrut


Kashrut
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Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus, כַּשְׁרוּת) is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha (Jewish law) is termed kosher in English, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér (כָּשֵׁר), meaning "fit" (in this context, fit for consumption by Jews according to traditional Jewish law with the idea of "clean", "intact" and "spotless". Food that is not in accordance with Jewish law is called treif (Yiddish: טרײף or treyf, derived from Hebrew טְרֵפָה trēfáh). Kosher can also refer to anything that is fit for use, or that is correct according to Halakha, such as a Hanukiyah (candelabra for Hannukah),or a Sukkah (a Sukkot booth).

Many of the basic laws of kashrut are derived from the Torah's Books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy, with their details set down in the oral law that according to Jewish tradition was handed down by word of mouth down the generations from Moses[1] and it was finally codified in the Mishnah, which is the earliest portion of the Talmud. Later summaries of Halakhah such as the Shulhan Arukh, and elaborations by rabbinical authorities exist.

The Torah does not state reasons for most kashrut laws. Many varied reasons have been suggested, including philosophical, practical and hygienic. The Guide for the Perplexed, by Maimonides, addresses this topic. The word kosher has become English vernacular, a colloquialism meaning proper, legitimate, genuine, fair, or acceptable.[2][3][4]

Contents

Principles

There are three categories of Kosher food – meat, dairy and parve (or pareve).[5] The laws of kashrut pertaining to these derive from various passages in the Torah, and are numerous and complex, but the key principles can be summarized as follows.

Permitted and forbidden animals

Only meat from particular species is permissible. Mammals that both chew their cud (ruminate) and have cloven hooves can be kosher. Animals with one characteristic but not the other (the camel, the hyrax and the hare because they have no cloven hooves, and the pig because it does not ruminate) are specifically excluded (Leviticus 11:3–8).[6][7]
In 2008, a rabbinical ruling determined that giraffes and their milk are eligible to be considered kosher. The giraffe has both split hooves and chews its cud, characteristics of animals considered kosher. Findings from 2008 show that giraffe milk curdles, meeting kosher standards. Although kosher, the giraffe is not slaughtered today because the process would be very costly. Giraffes are difficult to restrain, and their use for food could cause the species to become endangered.[8][9][10]

Non-kosher birds are listed outright (Deuteronomy 14:12–18) but the exact zoological references are disputed and some references refer to families of birds (24 are mentioned). The Mishnah[11] refers to four signs provided by the sages.[12] First, a dores (predatory bird) is not kosher. Additionally, kosher birds possess three physical characteristics: an extra toe[clarification needed], a zefek (crop,) and a korkoban (gizzard) with a peelable lumen. However, individual Jews are barred from merely applying these regulations alone; an established tradition (masorah) is necessary to allow birds to be consumed, even if it can be substantiated that they meet all four criteria.[13] The only exception to this is turkey. There was a time when certain authorities considered the signs enough, so Jews started eating this bird without a masorah because it possesses all the signs (simanim in Hebrew) and there is a place for this[clarification needed] in Jewish law.[citation needed]

Fish must have fins and scales to be kosher (Leviticus 11:9–12). Shellfish and other non-fish water fauna are not kosher.[14] Here is a list of kosher species of fish. Insects are not kosher except for certain species of kosher locust.[15] Generally any animal that eats other animals, whether they kill their food or eat carrion (Leviticus 11:13–31), is not kosher, as well as any animal that was partially eaten by other animals (Exodus 22:30/Exodus 22:31).

Classes Unclean
Mammals Carnivores; Animals that either do not chew the cud or do not have cloven hooves (i.e., the camel, the hyrax, the hare and the pig)
Birds Birds of prey; Scavengers
Reptiles All reptiles are unclean (includes amphibians)
Water Animals Those that do not have both fins and scales
Insects All, except the locust

Separation of meat and milk

Meat and milk (or derivatives) cannot be mixed (Deuteronomy 14:21) in the sense that meat and dairy products are not served at the same meal, served or cooked in the same utensils, or stored together. Observant Jews have separate sets of dishes, and sometimes different kitchens, for meat and milk, and wait anywhere between one and six hours after eating meat before consuming milk products.[16] The milchig and fleishig utensils and dishes are the commonly referred to Yiddish delineations between dairy and meat utensils and dishes respectively.[17]

Examples of cloven hooves in goats (upper left), pigs (lower left) and cattle (lower right). But horses lack cloven hooves (upper right).

Kosher slaughter

Mammals and fowl must be slaughtered by a trained individual (a shochet) using a special method of slaughter, shechita (Deuteronomy 12:21). Among other features, shechita slaughter severs the jugular vein, carotid artery, esophagus and trachea in a single continuous cutting movement with an unserrated, sharp knife, which is intended to avoid unnecessary pain to the animal[citation needed] as consciousness is lost quickly due to loss of cerebral blood pressure. Failure of any of these criteria renders the meat of the animal unsuitable. The body must be checked after slaughter to confirm that the animal had no medical condition or defect that would have caused it to die of its own accord within a year, which would make the meat unsuitable.[18] These conditions (treifot) include 70 different categories of injuries, diseases, and abnormalities whose presence renders the animal non-kosher. It is forbidden to consume certain parts of the animal, such as certain fats (chelev) and the sciatic nerves from the legs. As much blood as possible must be removed (Leviticus 17:10) through the kashering process; this is usually done through soaking and salting the meat, but organs rich in blood (the liver) are grilled over an open flame.[19] Fish (and locusts, for those Sephardi Jews who agree that they are both kosher and edible) must be killed before being eaten, but no particular method has been specified in Jewish law.

Kosher utensils

Utensils used for non-kosher foods become non-kosher, and make even otherwise kosher food prepared with them non-kosher. Some such utensils, depending on the material they are made from, can be made suitable for preparing kosher food again by immersion in boiling water or by the application of a blowtorch. Food prepared by Jews in a manner that violates the Shabbat (Sabbath) may not be eaten until the Shabbat is over.[20]

Passover laws

Pesach (Passover) has special dietary rules, the most important of which is the prohibition on eating leavened bread or derivatives of this (chametz, Exodus 12:15). Utensils used in preparing and serving chametz are also forbidden on Passover unless they have been cleansed (kashering).[21] Observant Jews keep separate sets of meat and dairy utensils for Passover use only.

Special supervision

According to some, certain foods must be prepared in whole or in part by Jews. This includes grape wine,[22] certain cooked foods (bishul akum),[23] cheese (gvinat akum), and according to some also butter (chem'at akum);[24] dairy products (Hebrew: חלב ישראל chalav Yisrael "milk of Israel");[24][25] and bread (Pat Yisrael).[26]

A cocoon found among barleycorns in a commercially available bag of barley. Foods such as seeds, nuts and vegetables need to be checked to avoid eating insects.

Produce of the Land of Israel

Biblical rules control the use of agriculture produce. For produce grown in the Land of Israel a modified version of the biblical tithes must be applied, including Terumat HaMaaser, Maaser Rishon, Maaser Sheni, and Maaser Ani (untithed produce is called tevel); the fruit of the first three years of a tree's growth or replanting are forbidden for eating or any other use as orlah;[27] produce grown in the Land of Israel on the seventh year is Shviit, and unless managed carefully is forbidden as a violation of the Shmita (Sabbatical Year). Some rules of kashrut are not universally observed: the rule against eating chadash (new grain) before the 16th of the month Nisan; many hold that this rule does not apply outside the Land of Israel. In addition, some groups follow various eating restrictions on Passover that go beyond the rules of kashrut, such as not eating gebrochts or garlic.

Possible reasons for kashrut laws

Jewish philosophy divides the 613 mitzvot into three groups—laws that have a rational explanation and would probably be enacted by most orderly societies (mishpatim), laws that are understood after being explained, but would not be legislated without the Torah's command, (edot), and laws that do not have a rational explanation (chukim). Some Jewish scholars say that kashrut should be categorized as laws for which there is no particular explanation, since the human mind is not always capable of understanding divine intentions. In this line of thinking, the dietary laws were given as a demonstration of God's authority and man must obey without asking why.[28] However, Maimonides believed that Jews were permitted to seek out reasons for the laws of the Torah.[29]

Some theologians have said that the laws of kashrut are symbolic in character: Kosher animals represent virtues, while non-kosher animals represent vices. The 1st century BCE Letter of Aristeas argues that the laws "have been given ... to awake pious thoughts and to form the character".[30] This view reappears in the prolix allegories of Philo of Alexandria and in the writings of early Christian Church Fathers. This symbolism hypothesis features in the work of the 19th century Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch.

The Torah prohibits 'seething the kid (goat, sheep, calf) in its mother's milk', a practice perceived as cruel and insensitive.

While Kashrut predates the germ theory of disease certain rules appear to protect human health. Prohibitions on consuming carrion eaters (Leviticus 11:31) or the use of bowls and vessels in which animals have died (Leviticus 11:31–32) can be seen as preventing disease. Likewise, rules for processing meat, such as glatt, the requirement that lungs be checked to be free of adhesions, would help prevent consumption of animals that had been infected with tuberculosis. Similarly, the ban on slaughtering unconscious animals would prevent certain sick and possibly infectious animals from being consumed. The prohibition against eating pigs (Leviticus 11:3–8) is the preponderance of parasites (e.g., worms) in pigs. The prohibition against eating the harvests of the first three years and the seventh year (Leviticus 19:23-25; 25:3-5) may be seen as letting the soil replenish so that the harvest is not depleted of nutrients.

There have been attempts to provide empirical support for the view that Jewish food laws have an over-arching health benefit or purpose, one of the earliest being from Maimonides in his Guide for the Perplexed. In 1953, David Macht, an Orthodox Jew and proponent of the theory of biblical scientific foresight, conducted toxicity experiments on many kinds of animals and fish.[31] His experiment involved lupin seedlings being supplied with extracts from the meat of various animals; Macht reported that in 100% of cases, extracts from ritually unclean meat inhibited the seedling's growth more than that from ritually clean meats.[32]

Jewish mysticism

Hasidism believes that everyday life is imbued with channels connecting with Divinity, the activation of which it sees as helping the Divine Presence to be drawn into the physical world;[33] Hasidism argues that the food laws are related to the way such channels, termed sparks of holiness, interact with various animals.

According to the teachings of Hasidism, sparks of Holiness are released whenever a Jew manipulates any object for a holy reason (which includes eating, if it is done with the intention to provide strength to follow the laws of the Torah);[34] however, in the view of Hasidism, not all animal products are capable of releasing their sparks of holiness.[35] The Hasidic argument is that God designed the animals in a way that gives clear signs about whether sparks can be released from them or not, the signs being expressed in the biblical categorization into ritually clean and ritually unclean;[36] the signs themselves are not believed to be the cause of the animal being kosher, and hence if a cow happens to be born with a fully fused hoof, it does not become non-kosher on this basis alone.

According to Christian theologian Gordon J. Wenham, the purpose of kashrut was to help Jews maintain a distinct and separate existence from other peoples; he says that the effect of the laws was to prevent socialization and intermarriage with non-Jews, preventing Jewish identity from being diluted.[37] Wenham argued that since the impact of the food laws was a public affair, this would have enhanced Jewish attachment to them as a reminder of the distinct status of Jews.[37]

Non-Orthodox practice

While Orthodox and Conservative authorities hold that Jews should follow the laws of kashrut as a matter of religious obligation, the Reform and Reconstructionist movements hold that these laws are no longer binding. Historically, Reform Judaism actively opposed kashrut as an archaism inhibiting the integration of Jews in the general society. More recently, some parts of the Reform community have begun to explore the option of a more traditional approach.[citation needed] This tradition-leaning faction agrees with mainstream Reform that the rules concerning kashrut are not obligatory, but believe that Jews should consider keeping kosher because it is a valuable way for people to bring holiness into their lives. Thus Jews are encouraged to consider adopting some or all of the rules of kashrut on a voluntary basis. The Reconstructionist movement advocates that its members accept some of the rules of kashrut.

Linguistic borrowing

By extension, kosher has come to mean legitimate, acceptable, permissible, genuine, and authentic.[2][3][4][38] For example, the Babylonian Talmud uses kosher in the sense of virtuous, when referring to the Dãrayavahush I (known in English, via Latin, as Darius) as a "kosher king"; Darius, a Persian King, assisted in building the Second Temple.[39]

The word kosher is also part of some common product names. Sometimes it is used as an abbreviation of koshering, meaning the process for making something kosher; for example, kosher salt is a form of salt with irregularly shaped crystals, making it particularly suitable for preparing meat according to the rules of kashrut, because the increased surface area of the crystals absorbs blood more effectively. At other times it is used as a synonym for Jewish tradition; for example, a kosher dill pickle is simply a pickle made in the traditional manner of Jewish New York City pickle makers, using a generous addition of garlic to the brine,[40] and is not necessarily compliant with the traditional Jewish food laws.[41]

Kashrut in the United States

About one-sixth of American Jews maintain the kosher diet.[42] Many Jews observe kashrut partially, by abstaining from pork or shellfish, or not drinking milk with a meat dish. Some keep kosher at home but will eat in a non-kosher restaurant. Jews comprise only about 20% of the market for kosher food in the United States. A sizable non-Jewish segment of the population views kosher certification as an indication of wholesomeness. Strict vegetarians, Muslims, Hindus, and people with allergies to dairy foods, often consider the kosher-parve designation as an assurance that a food contains no animal-derived ingredients, including milk and all of its derivatives,[43] although the products still might contain fish or eggs.

Vegetables

Many vegetarian restaurants and producers of vegetarian foods acquire a hechsher, certifying that a Rabbinical organization has approved their products as being kosher. The hechsher usually certifies that certain vegetables have been checked for insect infestation and steps have been taken to ensure that cooked food meets the requirements of bishul Yisrael. Vegetables such as lettuce, cabbage, broccoli and cauliflower must be checked for insect infestation. The proper procedure for inspecting and cleaning varies by species, growing conditions, and views of individual rabbis.

Pareve foods

On the other hand, some processes convert a meat or dairy product into a pareve (neither meat nor dairy) one. For example, rennet is sometimes made from stomach linings, yet is acceptable for making kosher cheese,[44] but such cheeses might not be acceptable to some vegetarians, who would eat only cheese made from a vegetarian rennet. The same applies to kosher gelatin, which is derived from fish and therefore (like all kosher fish products) pareve. Eggs are also considered pareve despite being an animal product; Mayonnaise, for instance, is usually marked "pareve" despite by definition containing egg.

Kashrut has procedures by which equipment can be cleaned of its previous non-kosher use, but that might be inadequate for those with allergies, vegetarians, or adherents to other religious statutes. For example, dairy manufacturing equipment can be cleaned well enough that the rabbis grant pareve status to products manufactured with it. Nevertheless, someone with a strong allergic sensitivity to dairy products might still react to the dairy residue, and that is why some products that are legitimately pareve carry "milk" warnings.

History of kosher marketing

In 1911, Procter & Gamble was the first company to advertise that their product, Crisco, was kosher. Over the next two decades, companies such as Lender's Bagels, Maxwell House, Manischewitz, and Empire evolved and gave the kosher market more shelf space. In the 1960s, Hebrew National hotdogs launched a "we answer to a higher authority" campaign to appeal to Jews and non-Jews alike. From that point on, kosher became a symbol for both quality and value. The kosher market quickly expanded, and with it more opportunities for kosher products. Menachem Lubinsky, CEO of LUBICOM Marketing Consulting, created Kosherfest in the 1980s to provide a forum for those involved in the kosher industry to meet and exchange ideas. Lubinsky projects that in the next few years there may be as many as 14 million kosher consumers and $40 billion in sales of kosher products.

Product labeling standards

The circled U indicates that this product is certified as kosher by the Orthodox Union (OU). The word "pareve" indicates that this product contains neither milk nor meat derived ingredients

Although reading the label of food products can identify obviously non-kosher ingredients, some countries allow manufacturers to omit identification of certain ingredients. Such 'hidden' ingredients may include lubricants and flavorings, among other additives; in some cases, for instance, the use of natural flavorings, these ingredients are more likely to be derived from non-kosher substances[citation needed]. Furthermore, certain products, such as fish, have a high rate of mislabeling which may substitute a non-kosher fish into a package labeled as a species of kosher fish.[45]

Producers of foods and food additives can contact Jewish religious authorities to have their products certified as kosher: this would most likely involve a visit to the manufacturing facilities by a committee from a rabbinic organization, rather than by an individual rabbi, in order to inspect the production methods and contents, and if everything is sufficiently kosher a certificate would be issued.

Manufacturers sometimes identify the products that have received such certification by adding particular graphical symbols to the label. These symbols are known in Judaism as hechsherim. Due to differences in kashrut standards held by different organizations, the hechsheirim of certain Jewish authorities may at times be considered invalid by other Jewish authorities[citation needed]; the certification marks of the various rabbis and organisations are too numerous to list, but one of the most commonly used in the United States of America is that of the Union of Orthodox Congregations, who use a U inside a circle, symbolising the initials of Orthodox Union. A single K is sometimes used as a symbol for kosher, but since many countries do not allow letters to be trademarked (the method by which other symbols are protected from misuse), it only indicates that the company producing the product claims that it is kosher.

Many of the certification symbols are accompanied by additional letters or words to indicate the category of the product, according to Jewish religious law; the categorisation may conflict with legal classifications, especially in the case of food that Jewish religious law regards as dairy, but legal classification does not.

  • D—Dairy
  • M—Meat, including poultry
  • Pareve—Food that is neither meat nor dairy
  • Fish
  • P—Passover-related (P is not used for Pareve)

In many cases constant supervision is required because, for various reasons, such as changes in manufacturing processes, products that once were kosher may cease to be so. For example, a kosher lubricating oil may be replaced by one containing tallow, which many rabbinic authorities view as non-kosher. Such changes are often co-ordinated with the supervising rabbi, or supervising organisation, to ensure that new packaging does not suggest any hechsher or kashrut. In some cases, however, existing stocks of pre-printed labels with the hechsher may continue to be used on the now non-kosher product. An active grapevine among the Jewish community discusses which products are now questionable, as well as products which have become kosher but whose labels have yet to carry the hechsher. Some newspapers and periodicals also discuss kashrut products.

Many coffee creamers currently sold in the United States are labeled as "non-dairy", yet also have a "D" alongside their hechsher, which indicates a dairy status. This is because of an ingredient (usually sodium caseinate), which is derived from milk. The rabbis categorize it as dairy that cannot be mixed with meat, but the US government considers it to lack the nutritional value of milk.

Products labeled kosher-style are nonkosher products that have characteristics of kosher foods, such as all-beef hot dogs,[46] or are flavored or prepared in a manner consistent with Ashkenazi practices, like dill pickles.[47] The designation usually refers to delicatessen items.

Legal usage

Advertising standards laws in many jurisdictions prohibit the use of the phrase kosher in a product's labelling, unless it can be shown that the product conforms to Jewish dietary laws; however, the legal qualifications for conforming to Jewish dietary laws are often defined differently in different jurisdictions. For example, in some places the law may require that a rabbi certify the kashrut nature, in others the rules of kosher are fully defined in law, and in others still it is sufficient that the manufacturer only believes that the product complies with Jewish dietary regulations. In several cases, laws restricting the use of the term kosher have later been determined to be illegal religious interference.

Maintaining a kosher certification usually involves a cost for periodic inspections by a mashgiach.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Pirkei avoth Chapter 1 verse 1
  2. ^ a b Eric Partridge, Tom Dalzell, Terry Victor, The New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English: J-Z, Volume 2, Taylor & Francis, 2006, p. 1172, ISBN041525938X
  3. ^ a b Worldnetweb.Princeton dictionary definition of Kosher.
  4. ^ a b Phythian, B. A. (1976). A concise dictionary of English slang and colloquialisms. The Writer, Inc. p. 110. ISBN 0871160994. "Kosher Genuine. Fair. Acceptable." 
  5. ^ Kosher-directory.com
  6. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 79
  7. ^ For a comprehensive review of the issue involving the difficulty that neither the hyrax nor the hare are ruminants, see Rabbi Natan Slifkin's "The Camel, the Hare and the Hyrax."
  8. ^ Giraffe is kosher, rabbis rule in Israel
  9. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 82:1–5
  10. ^ Rabbi Air Z. Zivotofki. "What's the Truth About Giraffe Meat!". Kashrut.com. http://www.kashrut.com/articles/giraffe/. 
  11. ^ Bavli Chullin 3:22–23
  12. ^ Kashrut.com: Are Turkeys Kosher?, part 2
  13. ^ Kashrut.com: Are Turkeys Kosher?, part 3
  14. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 83 and 84
  15. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 85
  16. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 87 et seq
  17. ^ Jewish Virtual Library Kashrut: Jewish Dietary Laws
  18. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 1–65
  19. ^ Shulchan Aruch Yoreh De'ah 66–78
  20. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim, 318:1
  21. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim, 431–452
  22. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 114
  23. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 113
  24. ^ a b Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 115
  25. ^ Many rely on lenient rulings by Rabbi Moshe Feinstein in Teshuvot Igrot Moshe. Yoreh De'ah 1:47 and other 20th century rabbinic authorities who rule that strict government supervision prevents the admixture of non-kosher milk, making supervision unnecessary. See also Rabbi Chaim Jachter. "Chalav Yisrael – Part I: Rav Soloveitchik's View". http://www.koltorah.org/RAVJ/13-7%20Chalav%20Yisrael%20-%20Part%201.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  26. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah 112, Orach Chayim 603
  27. ^ Star-k.org
  28. ^ William H. Shea, Clean and Unclean Meats, Biblical Research Institute, December 1998 (archived from the original on 2008-02-12)
  29. ^ Mishneh Torah Korbanot, Temurah 4:13 (in eds. Frankel; "Rambam L'Am")
  30. ^ Letter of Aristeas, 145–154
  31. ^ Macht (September–October 1953) (pdf). An Experimental Pharmalogical Appreciation of Leviticus XI and Deuteronomy XIV. XXXVII. Bulletin of the History of Medicine. pp. 444–450. http://members.dslextreme.com/users/hollymick/Macht1953.pdf. 
  32. ^ Macht 1953 op. cit.
  33. ^ The Chassidic Masters on Food and Eating, chabad.org
  34. ^ Meat, chabad.org
  35. ^ לקוטי אמרים תניא (Hebrew), chabad.org
  36. ^ Re'eh, rabbifriedman.org (archived from the original on 2007-08-29).
  37. ^ a b Gordon J. Wenham, The Theology of Unclean Food, The Evangelical Quarterly 53, January March 1981, pp.6–15
  38. ^ Jewish dietary laws
  39. ^ Tractate Rosh Hashanah 3a, Schottenstein Edition, Mesorah Publications Ltd.
  40. ^ Brief note on kosher pickles in "The Pickle Wing" of nyfoodmuseum.org
  41. ^ Kashrut: Jewish Dietary Laws "Judaism 101"
  42. ^ Stern, the author of How to Keep Kosher: A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding Jewish Dietary Laws, is one of a million or so American Jews (out of around six million total) who keeps her kitchen year-round according to the laws of kashruth, or kosher.
  43. ^ Kosher-directory.com
  44. ^ The rennet must be kosher, either microbial or from special productions of animal rennet using kosher calf stomachs.Oukosher.org, Retrieved August 10, 2005.
  45. ^ See: New York Times Article on Fish Mislabeling
  46. ^ Zeldes, Leah A. (2010-07-08). "Know your wiener!". Dining Chicago. Chicago's Restaurant & Entertainment Guide, Inc.. http://www.diningchicago.com/blog/2010/07/08/know-your-wiener/. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  47. ^ Zeldes, Leah A. (2010-07-20). "Origins of neon relish and other Chicago hot dog conundrums". Dining Chicago. Chicago's Restaurant & Entertainment Guide, Inc.. http://www.diningchicago.com/blog/2010/07/20/chicago-hot-dog-yellow-mustard-neon-green-relish#pickle. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 

Further reading

  • Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger: An analysis of the concepts of pollution and taboo, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1966
  • Samuel Dresner, Seymour Siegel and David Pollock The Jewish Dietary Laws, United Synagogue, New York, 1982
  • Binyomen Forst, The Laws of Kashrus, Moznaim, 1999
  • Isidore Grunfeld, The Jewish Dietary Laws, London: Soncino, 1972
  • Isaac Klein, A Guide to Jewish Religious Practice, JTSA, 1992
  • David C. Kraemer, Jewish Eating and Identity Throughout the Ages, Routledge, 2008
  • James M. Lebeau, The Jewish Dietary Laws: Sanctify Life, United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism, New York, 1983
  • Yacov Lipschutz, Kashruth: A Comprehensive Background and Reference Guide to the Principles of Kahruth. New York: Mesorah Publications Ltd, 1989
  • Munk, Shechita: Religious, Historical and Scientific Perspectives, Feldheim Publishers, New York, 1976
  • Aharon Pfeuffer Kitzur Halachot Basar B'Chalav
  • Jordan D. Rosenblum, Food and Identity in Early Rabbinic Judaism, Cambridge University Press, 2010

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • kashrut — or kashruth [käsh ro͞ot′, käsh′ro͞ot΄] n. 1. the dietary regulations of Judaism: see KOSHER 2. the state of being in compliance with such regulations * * * kash·rut also kash·ruth (käshʹrəth, rəs, käsh ro͞otʹ) n. 1. The state of being kosher …   Universalium

  • Kashrut — See Beth Din. Collins dictionary of law. W. J. Stewart. 2001 …   Law dictionary

  • kashrut — (kashruth) m DEFINICIJA v. kašrut …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • kashrut — or kashruth [käsh ro͞ot′, käsh′ro͞ot΄] n. 1. the dietary regulations of Judaism: see KOSHER 2. the state of being in compliance with such regulations …   English World dictionary

  • Kashrut — Ein Automat für koschere Gummibärchen im Jüdischen Museum Berlin Die Jüdischen Speisegesetze, (hebr.: כַּשְרוּת, Kaschrut, in aschkenasischer Aussprache Kaschrus), sind Regelungen zur Zubereitung von Speisen, die im Tanach, der Hebräischen Bibel …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • kashrut — noun see kashruth …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • kashrut — noun The Jewish dietary laws, stating which foods are fit to eat (kosher) …   Wiktionary

  • kashrut — n. body of Jewish dietary law which determines whether something is clean or fit to eat; adherence to Jewish dietary laws (also kashruth) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • kashrut — [kaʃ ru:t] (also kashruth) noun the body of Jewish religious laws concerning the suitability of food, the use of ritual objects, etc. Origin Heb., lit. legitimacy (in religion) …   English new terms dictionary

  • kashrut — kash·rut …   English syllables


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