international educationcan mean many different things and its definition is debated. Some have defined two general meanings to the concept of international education in regard to students. The first refers to education that transcends national borders through the exchange of people, as in study abroad. The second, explored in depth here, is a comprehensive approach to education that intentionally prepares students to be active and engaged participants in an interconnected world.
Understanding of a broad array of phenomena is enhanced and deepened through examination of the cultures, languages, environmental situations, governments, political relations, religions, geography, and history of the world. While definitions vary in the precise language used, international education is generally taken to include:
# Knowledge of other world regions & cultures;
# Familiarity with international and global issues;
# Skills in working effectively in global or cross-cultural environments, and using information from different sources around the world;
# Ability to communicate in multiple languages; and
# Dispositions towards respect and concern for other cultures and peoples.
International Education is also a major part of international development. Professionals and students wishing to be a part of international education development are able to learn through organizations and university and college programs. Organizations around the world use education as a means to development. The
United Nations Millennium Development Goalsinclude to education specific goals:
Millennium Development Goals http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/reports/index.htm
achieve universal primary education in all countries by 2015 and eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005
Other mention of education in regard to international development: Education For All (EFA): www.unesco.org/education/efa/wef_2000An international stategy to operazionalize the Dakar Framework for Action; The World Education Forum (Dakar 2000) agreed to reach 6 goals by 2015:o expand early childhood care and educationo improve access to complete, free schooling of good quality for all primary school-age childreno greatly increase learning opportunities for youth and adultso improve adult literacy rates by 50%o eliminate gender disparities in schoolingo improve all aspects of education quality.
Dakar Framework for Action (http://www.unesco.org/education/efa/ed_for_all/dakfram_eng.shtml)
UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005–2014)-highlight the central role of education in the pursuit of sustainable development. www.unesco.org/education/desd
comparative education; and Liberalism, Realism, Power Transition Theory, International Development, as focus areas that provide insight into international phenomena relevant to "International Education."
International Education both as a field of study focusing on study abroad and preparing students for international occupations as well as as an active part of international development is taught in many colleges and universities around the world.
List of Colleges and Universities offering courses specifically in International Education
Harvard Graduate School of Education http://www.hgse.harvard.eduInternational Education Policy program http://www.gse.harvard.edu/academics/masters/iep/index.html
The George Washington University http://www.gwu.eduGraduate School of Education and Human Development http://gsehd.gwu.eduProgram: International Education
American University http://www.american.eduSchool of Education, Teaching, and Health http://www.american.edu/cas/sethProgram: International Training and Education
NYU Steinhardt http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/humsocsci/international/Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human DevelopmentProgram: International Education
Indiana University, Bloomington http://www.indiana.edu/~intlweb/Program: International Studies
Penn State http://www.ed.psu.edu/cied/College of EducationProgram: Comparative and International Education
University of Massachusetts http://www.umass.eduGraduate School of Education http://www.umass.edu/education/Program: International Education http://www.umass.edu/education/academics/epra/ed_intl.shtmlCenter for International Education (CIE) http://www.umass.edu/cie/
University of California, Irvine http://internationalstudies.ss.uci.edu/
List of Organizations involved in International Educational Development
UNESCO www.unesco.org UNESCO is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. Its stated purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and the human rights and fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the UN Charter.
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) www.unicef.orgUNICEF is currently focused on 5 primary priorities: Child Survival and Development, Basic Education and Gender Equality (including girls' education), Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse, HIV/AIDS and children, and Policy advocacy and partnerships for children’s rights.
United National High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) www.unhcr.org The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees is mandated to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees. It strives to ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another State, with the option to return home voluntarily, integrate locally or to resettle in a third country.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)www.undp.org UNDP is the UN's global development network, an organization advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life. It is on the ground in 166 countries, working with them on their own solutions to global and national development challenges. As they develop local capacity, they draw on the people of UNDP and our wide range of partners.
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)www.usaid.gov USAID is an independent agency that provides economic, development and humanitarian assistance around the world in support of the foreign policy goals of the United States. USAID is the principal U.S. agency to extend assistance to countries recovering from disaster, trying to escape poverty, and engaging in democratic reforms.
World Bank International Development Program (IDP)www.worldbank.org/ida The International Development Association (IDA) is the part of the World Bank that helps the world’s poorest countries. Established in 1960, IDA aims to reduce poverty by providing interest-free credits and grants for programs that boost economic growth, reduce inequalities and improve people’s living conditions.
The Carnegie Corporation- International Development Program (IDP) www.carnegie.org/sub/program/intl_development.htmlThe International Development Program (IDP) was established in 1999 for the express purpose of carrying out Carnegie Corporation activities in sub-Saharan Africa. IDP “attempt [s] to strengthen a limited number of Commonwealth African universities to serve as models of successful transformation, assist the cause of women’s higher education there, and position selected African public libraries for the information age.”
The International Economic Development Council, IEDC, [http://www.iedconline.org] based in Washington, DC provides the leading source of education for economic developers at all levels. Courses are offered throughout the year in different geographical locations, ranging from basic economic development courses to Certified Economic Development programs.
International Development Exchange www.idex.org IDEX is a non-profit organization that partners with grassroots groups in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, while actively engaging and educating North Americans in the challenges facing communities in these regions.
Academy for Educational Development www.aed.orgAED is a bridge, a link between the problem and the solution, the need and the resource, people and their potential. It is an independent, nonprofit organization committed to solving critical social problems and building the capacity of individuals, communities, and institutions to become more self-sufficient. AED works in all the major areas of human development, with a focus on improving education, health, and economic opportunities for the least advantaged in the United States and developing countries throughout the world.
National Association of Development Organizations www.nado.orgThe National Association of Development Organizations provides advocacy, education, research and training for the nation's regional development organizations. Building on nearly four decades of experience, the association offers its members exclusive access to a variety of services and benefits -- all of which are designed to enhance the ability of regional development organizations to foster "regional solutions" to local government, business and community needs.
Society for International Development www.sidw.orgSociety for International Development is a global network of individuals and institutions concerned with development. In its pursuit for social justice and institutional change, SID plays an important mediating and facilitating role among progressive civil society groups, connecting activists, intellectuals, academics and policy-makers working at community, national and international level.
Institute of International Education (IIE) www.iie.orgInformation about IIE international training programs, research on international education issues, and IEE services for students, advisers, or human resources professionals.
United Nations www.un.org The purposes of the United Nations, as set forth in the Charter, are to maintain international peace and security; to develop friendly relations among nations; to cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these ends.
[http://www.nafsa.org|www.nafsa.org] : supports those engaged in international education and exchange and global workforce development programs with educational programs, conferences, and publications. publishes the journal "International Educator" to encourage dialogue about the importance of
international educationand the current challenges faced by those supporting it.
International Education Collaborative www.intled.orgThe International Education Collaborative (IEC) exists to provide advocacy for and facilitate collaboration among institutions of higher learning concerned with international education issues, most particularly international student recruitment. The International Education Collabortive seeks to develop and share best practices, tools, and technology to empower each geographic region/state to achieve maximum impact in worldwide marketing and student recruiting efforts.
List of the Academic Journals
* [http://www.iul-world.com/arie/indexarie.html Analytical Reports in International Education]
* [http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/carfax/1359866X.html Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education] 1. American Educational Research Journal
2. Chinese Education and Society- Focus on educational development and the confluence between NGO’s with the development of China’s education.
3. Chronicle of Higher Education
4. Comparative Education
5. Contemporary Politics
6. Educational Review
7. Environmental Education Research- Focus on sustainable development, educational development and environmental education.
8. Higher Education
9. Higher Education in Europe
10. Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning- Focus on sustainable development, profession education, curriculum development and environmental education.
11. Intercultural Education
12. International Journal of Educational Development
13. International Review of Education
14. Journal of Developing Studies
15. Journal of Education for International Development
16. Journal of Education Policy
17. Journal of Geography in Higher Education-Focus on professional development, sustainable development, curriculum development, and higher education.
18. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, and Educational Development
19. Journal of Studies In International Education.
20. Studies in Higher Education- Focus on education development, faculty development and professional development.
21. Teaching in Higher Education- Focus on intellectual development.
22. The Development Education Journal
23. National Center for Education Statistics- Focus on faculty development, program development and public schools.
Jamison, Kevin (2004) . "Case for the Internationalization of Virginia High School Curricula", with commentary by Ambassador
James Creagan, Christine Drake Phd, Senator Richard Lugar, and various other International Education experts.
Kagan, Sharon, and Vivien Stewart. " [http://www.internationaled.org/PDKintro.htm Introduction to International Education] ", originally published in Phi Delta Kappan, November 2004.
Abdi, Ali A. and Ailie Cleghorn, (Eds.). (2005). Issues in African Education: Sociological Perspectives. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Carter, Carolyn S. (1999). Education and Development in Poor Rural Communities: an Interdisciplinary Research Agenda. Charleston, WV: Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Appalachia Educational Laboratory.
Caillods, Francoise, Gabriele Gottelmann-Duret, Keith Lewin. (Eds.). (1997). Science Education and Development: Planning and Policy Issues at the Secondary Level. Paris: Unesco, International Institute for Educational Planning; Oxford, U.K.: Pergamon.
Cummings,William K. and Noel F. McGinn (Eds.). (1997). International Handbook of Education and Development : Preparing Schools, Students, and Nations for the Twenty-first Century. Kidlington, Oxford, UK; New York: Elsevier Science.
Garrett, Roger M. (Ed.). (1984). Education and Development. London: Croom Helm; New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Haddad, Wadi D. et al. (1990). Education and Development: Evidence for New Priorities. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Heward, Christine and Sheila Bunwaree. (Eds.). (1999). Gender, Education, and Development: Beyond Access to Empowerment. London; New York: Zed Books; New York: Distributed in USA exclusively by St. Martin’s Press.
Lynch, James. (1997). A Human Rights Analysis. Education and Development. London; Herndon, VA: Cassell.
Lynch, James, Celia Modgil and Sohan Modgil. (Eds.). (1997). Education and Development: Tradition and Innovation. London: Cassell, 1997.
Mak, Grace C. L. (Ed.), (1996). Women, Education, and Development in Asia : Cross-National Perspectives. New York: Garland Pub.
McMahon, Walter W. (1999). Education and Development: Measuring the Social Benefits. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
Morris, Paul and Anthony Sweeting, (Eds.). (1995). Education and Development in East Asia. New York: Garland Pub. 1995.
Nwomonoh, Jonathan. (1998). Education and Development in Africa : a Contemporary Survey. San Francisco: International Scholars Publications.
Peters, Michael A. and A.C. Besley. (2006). Building Knowledge Cultures: Education and Development in the Age of Knowledge Capitalism. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Rojewski, Jay W. (Ed.). (2004). International Perspectives on Workforce Education and Development. Greenwich, Conn.: Information Age Pub.
Talati, Jamsheer J. et al. (1998). Higher Education: a Pathway to Development. Karachi: The Aga Khan University: Oxford University Press.
Youngman, Frank. (2000). The Political Economy of Adult Education and Development. Leicester, UK: NIACE; London; New York : Zed Books ; New York : Distributed in the USA exclusively by St. Martin’s Press.
World Population Monitoring, 2003: Population, Education and Development. (2005). Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. New York: United Nations.
CHAPTERS IN BOOKS
Arnove, Robert F., Stephen Franz and Kimberly Morse Cordova. (2001). Education and Development. In Hillman, Richard S. (Ed.), Understanding Contemporary Latin America. Boulder, Co.: L. Rienner.
Szirmai, Adam. (2005). Education and Development. In Dynamics of Socio-economic Development : An Introduction. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press.Walters, Shirley. (2000). Globalization, Adult Education, and Development. In Stromquist, Nelly P. and Karen Monkman (Eds.), Globalization and Education: Integration and Contestation Across Cultures. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.
Brock, Colin; Cammish, Nadine; Aedo-Richmond, Ruth; Narayanan, Aparna; Njoroge, Rose (1997). Gender, Education and Development: A Partially Annotated and Selective Bibliography. Education Research Paper. London (England): Department for International Development.
(1996). Developing Areas Studies: A Guide to Reference Sources.Montreal (Quebec): McGill Univ., McLennan Library.
Heeg, Michael, Ed.; Boston, Carol, Ed (1996). Directory of Education-Related Information Centers. Rockville, MD. Washington, DC: ACCESS ERIC, Educational Resources Information Center (ED).
*Scanlon, D. G. (ed.). (1960). "International Education: A Documentary History". New York: Bureau of Publications: Teachers College, Columbia University.
*Vestal, T.M. (1994). "International Education: Its History and Promise for Today". London: Praeger.
*Valeau, E.J., Raby, R.L, (eds.), et. al. (2007). "International Reform Efforts and Challenges in Community Colleges". New Direction for Community Colleges, No. 138. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
* [http://www.nafsa.org/ NAFSA: Association of International Educators] : NAFSA serves its members, their institutions and organizations, and others engaged in international education and exchange and global workforce development.
* [http://www.internationaled.org/ Asia Society International Education]
* [http://www.iss.edu] International Schools Services
* [http://internationaled.org/congressionaltestimony.htm#testimony Testimony on International Education before the Subcommittee on Select Education, House Committee on Education and the Workforce ]
* [http://ngsednet.org/community/index.cfm?community_id=174 National Geographic EdNet]
* [http://www.oxfam.org.uk/what_we_do/issues/education/index.htm Oxfam Education]
* [http://www.ced.org/projects/educ_forlang.shtml Education for Global Leadership: The Importance of International Studies and Foreign Language Education for U.S. Economic and National Security] - U.S. Committee for Economic Development
* [http://globalri.org Global Rhode Island]
* [http://iew.state.gov International Education Week (IEW)] , a joint initiative of the U.S. Dept. of State and the U.S. Dept. of Education
* [http://www.ericdigests.org/2003-1/current.htm Current Challenges of International Education] = From the
Education Resources Information CenterClearinghouse on Higher Education Washington, DC.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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