Momentane

In Finnish grammar, the momentane is a verb aspect indicating that an occurrence is sudden and short-lived.

Finnish has a number of momentane markers; they differ in the valency and voice of the verbs they produce, but all indicate sudden, short-lived occurrences; for example, the verb ammahtaa (to dash ahead suddenly; not said of a person) is an anticausative, momentane version of ampua (to shoot). Another example is the verb katsaista (to take a quick look), which is a momentane version of katsoa (to look). For semantic reasons, not all momentane markers can be used with all verbs; for example, an anticausative marker can only be used with verbs representing occurrences that can happen accidentally or on their own. Verbs with momentane markers are considered independent words, and native speakers rarely analyze them, but do synthesize them. Often the parent verb is not in use, leaving only the derived forms such as the momentane.

Often these are combined with a frequentative to indicate a series of short actions. For example, heilua "to swing"; heilahtaa "to swing once by itself"; heilahdella "to swing to and from continuously". Another note is that the root may not be a fully formed verb, but mere onomatopoeia, e.g. pam+auttaa "to bang (something suddenly once)".

The markers are affected by consonant gradation, as illustrated by this pair of first infinitives vs. second-person indicatives: pamahtaa ~ pamahdat, pamauttaa ~ pamautat.

See also

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  • momentané — momentané, ée [ mɔmɑ̃tane ] adj. • 1542; momentenéXIVe; bas lat. momentaneus, de momentum → moment ♦ Qui ne dure qu un moment, qui n est pas destiné à continuer. ⇒ 1. bref, 1. court, éphémère, passager, provisoire, temporaire. Interruption… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • momentané — momentané, ée (mo man ta né, née) adj. Qui ne dure qu un moment. Un effort momentané. •   Lorsque votre impatience aura été suspendue par ces délais momentanés qui lui servaient de digue, avec quelle impétuosité ne se répandra t elle pas au… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • MOMENTANÉ — ÉE. adj. Qui ne dure qu un moment. Un effort momentané. Une action momentanée. Hasarder sa vie pour un plaisir momentané …   Dictionnaire de l'Academie Francaise, 7eme edition (1835)

  • MOMENTANÉ, ÉE — adj. Qui ne dure qu’un moment. Un effort momentané. Une absence momentanée …   Dictionnaire de l'Academie Francaise, 8eme edition (1935)

  • momentané — См. momentàneo …   Пятиязычный словарь лингвистических терминов

  • momentane — noun A verb aspect indicating that an occurrence is sudden and short lived …   Wiktionary

  • Momentane Änderungsrate — Änderungsraten einer zeitabhängigen Messgröße G beschreiben in Anwendungen der Mathematik wie der Experimentalphysik das Ausmaß der Veränderung von G in einem bestimmten Zeitraum im Verhältnis zur Dauer des Zeitraums. Man unterscheidet die… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • momentane Deformation — akimirkinė deformacija statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. instantaneous deformation; instantaneous strain vok. momentane Deformation, f; momentane Verformung, f rus. мгновенная деформация, f pranc. déformation instantanée, f …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • momentane Verformung — akimirkinė deformacija statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. instantaneous deformation; instantaneous strain vok. momentane Deformation, f; momentane Verformung, f rus. мгновенная деформация, f pranc. déformation instantanée, f …   Fizikos terminų žodynas


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