Tabi‘in

The Tābi‘īn (ArB|التابعين "Followers") are the generation of Muslims who were born after the death of Muhammad but who were contemporary of the Sahaba "Companions". As such they played an important part in the development of Islamic thought and philosophy, and in the political development of the early Caliphate. In particular, they played a vital role in the split in the Islamic community between Sunni and Shia Muslims. To this day, interpretations of their behaviour and characters are highly controversial.

Sunni view

The Sunnis define a "Tabi‘i" as a Muslim who:
# Saw at least one of the Companions of Muhammad.
# Was rightly guided (according to the Sunni, one who adheres to the beliefs and actions of the Ahlus Sunnah wal-Jama'ah).
# One who died in that state. A good example to explain would be the Khawarij. They saw many of Muhammed's companions but still were not called "Tabi‘in" as they were not rightly guided (held by both Shias and Sunnis).

The Sunnis consider the Tabi‘in as the best generation after the Sahaba. According to the Sunnis, Muhammad said: "The best people are those living in my generation, then those coming after them, and then those coming after (the second generation)" [http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/bukhari/048.sbt.html#003.048.819] .

Some examples of Tabi‘in:

* Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man

Shia view

This list gives their approximate status in the general Shia view:

Strong positive status

*Ali Akbar ibn Husayn was killed at the Battle of Karbala.
*Atiyya bin Saad was a student of Abdullah ibn Abbas.

Positive status

*Umm Kulthum bint Abu Bakr was the daughter of Abu Bakr and Asma bint Umays. She moved into Ali's household with his mother.
*Sa'id ibn Jubayr was a student of Abdullah ibn Abbas and a staunch defender of Ali ibn Husayn.
*Uwais al-Qarni was admired for his love of the Prophet Muhammad and sought out by Ali ibn Abi Talib, who personally requested Uwais' blessings on himself and the Muslim "ummah". Uwais was killed fighting on the side of Ali during the Battle of Siffin.

Neutral status

*Abd Allah ibn Zubayr fought Yazid.
*Abd-Allah ibn Amr¨

Negative status

*Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan

Strong negative status

*Yazid ibn Muawiya is often referred to by Shias with "La‘an" (curse) after his name. He is viewed by the Shi‘a as one of the most despicable creatures that ever livedFact|date=April 2007.
*Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf was for Shi‘as even worse than Yazid ibn Muawiya.
*‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Khalid ibn Walid fought against Ali as a general under Muawiya at the Battle of Siffin.
*Umar ibn Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqqas — he is cursed by all Shia Muslims for killing Husayn ibn AliFact|date=April 2007.

Unclassified

*Mujahid ibn Jabr
*Ibn Jurayj
*Abu Muslim al-Khawlani
*Alqama ibn Qays al-Nakha'i
*Busr ibn Mihjan
*Abd al-Rahman ibn Abd-Allah (ibn ibn Umar)
*Abd Allah ibn Zubayr
*Muhammad ibn Ja'far
*Abd-Allah ibn Amr
*Masruq ibn al-Ajda'
*Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab (d 93 AH) [http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/law/alalwani_usulalfiqh/ch3.html USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts ] ]
*Urwah ibn al-Zubayr (d 94 AH)
*Salim
*Ata' ibn Yasar (d 106 AH)
*Masruq ibn al-Ajda' (d 103 AH)
*Qasim ibn Muhammad (d 103 AH)
*Ubayd-Allah ibn Abd-Allah (d 99 AH)
*al-Zuhri (d 124 AH)
*Yahya ibn Sa'd (d 143 AH)'
*Zayd ibn Aslam (d 136 AH)
*Rabi'at al-Ra'i (d 136 AH)
*Abu Zur'ah [http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/scienceofhadith/aape.html#G14 USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts ] ]
*Abu Hatim

See also

* Salaf
*Sahaba
*Taba al-Tabi‘in

References


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