official_name = Kuala Lumpur
other_name = كوالا لومڤور
nickname = "KL"
motto = "Maju dan makmur" ( _en. Progress and Prosper)
website = http://www.kualalumpur.gov.my/
imagesize = 275px
pushpin_label_position = right
map_caption = Location in
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_name1 = Federal Territory
established_title = Establishment
established_date = 1857
established_title2 = Granted city status
established_date2 = 1972
established_title3 = Granted
established_date3 = 1974
leader_name = Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006
area_magnitude = 1 E8
area_total_sq_mi = 95.18
area_total_km2 = 243.65
population_as_of = 2007
population_footnotes =cite web |url=http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=1160302510&men=gcis&lng=en&des=gamelan&dat=32&srt=pnan&col=ohdq&pt=a&va=&geo=-152|title=Malaysia:Metropolitan areas|author=Helders, Stefan|work=World Gazetteer|accessdate=2007-12-04]
population_total = 1,887,674 (1st)
population_metro = 7.2 million
population_density_sq_mi = 18912
population_density_km2 = 7388
population_blank1 = KL-ite / Kuala Lumpurian
timezone = MST
utc_offset = +8
timezone_DST = Not observed
utc_offset_DST = +8
Mean solar time
blank_info = UTC + 06:46:48
elevation_m = 21.95
elevation_ft = 72
latd = 3
latm = 8
lats = 00
latNS = N
longd = 101
longm = 42
longs = 00
longEW = E
postal_code_type = Postal code
postal_code = 50xxx to 60xxx68xxx
blank1_name = National calling code
blank1_info = 03
blank2_name = License plate prefix
blank2_info = Wxx (for all vehicles except taxis)
HWx (for taxis only)
blank3_info = MY-14
website = [http://www.kualalumpur.gov.my/ Official Kuala Lumpur Website]
Kuala Lumpur (pronEng|ˈkwɑːləlʊmˈpʊər, [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/kuala%20lumpur Kuala Lumpur] . Dictionary.com. Retrieved November 2007.] Malay IPA|/kwɑlɑlʊmpʊ/ and locally IPA|/kwɑləlʊmpɔ/ or even IPA|/kɔlɔmpɔ/), [cite web|title=Introduction to Kuala Lumpur|url=http://www.frommers.com/destinations/kualalumpur/0156010001.html|publisher=Frommer's|accessdate=2007-12-11] or often abbreviated as K.L., is the capital and the largest city of
Malaysia. The city proper, making up an area of convert|244|km2|sqmi|abbr=on, has an estimated population of 1.6 million in 2006. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million.cite web|author=Helders, Stefan|title=World: metropolitan areas|url=http://world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&srt=npan&col=aohdq&pt=a&va=&srt=pnan|accessdate=2007-12-13|work=World Gazetteer] It is the fastest growing metropolitan region in the country, in terms of population as well as economy.cite news|url=http://biz.thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2007/8/13/business/18553100&sec=business|title=New growth corridors added|author=Ng, Angie|publisher=The Star Online|accessdate=2007-12-14]
Kuala Lumpur is the seat of the
Parliament of Malaysia, making it the country's legislative capital. [cite web|title=Article 154(1)|work=Constitution of Malaysia|accessdate=2007-12-11|url=http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Malaysia#Article_154] The city was once home to the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, but they have since moved to Putrajayastarting in 1999. [cite web|publisher=Government of Malaysia|title=Putrajaya – Administrative Capital of Malaysia|accessdate=2007-12-11|url=http://www.gov.my/MyGov/BI/Directory/Government/AboutMsianGov/PutrajayaFederalAdminCapital/] Some sections of the judiciary remain in the capital. The official residence of the Malaysian King, the Istana Negara, is also situated in Kuala Lumpur. The city is also the cultural and economic centre of Malaysia due to its position as the capital as well as being a primate city. [cite web|author=Josh, Krist|title=Kuala Lumpur: The Heart of Malaysia|url=http://www.corporatemeetings.com/displayarticle.asp?id=8172|work=Meetings AsiaPacific|publisher=Meetings Media|accessdate=2007-12-13] Kuala Lumpur is rated as a gamma world city, and is the only global city in Malaysia. [cite web|url=http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/citylist.html|title=Inventory of World Cities|work=GaWC|accessdate=2008-03-13|publisher=Loughborough University]
Kuala Lumpur is defined within the borders of the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and is one of three
Malaysian Federal Territories. It is an enclave within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. [cite web|url=http://www.statoids.com/umy.html|title=Territorial extent|work=States of Malaysia|accessdate=2007-12-11|publisher=statoids.com] Residents of the city are known as KLites. [cite news|url=http://www.nst.com.my/Current_News/NST/Friday/Features/20071101171139/Article |title=Far from the madding crowd|author=Aziz, Su|publisher=The New Straits Times Online|accessdate=2007-12-04|quote=...one of the many 30-something KLites seeking..]
Beginning in the 1990s, the city has played host to many international sporting, political and cultural events including the
1998 Commonwealth Gamesand the Formula OneWorld Championship. In addition, Kuala Lumpur is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Twin Towers. [cite web|url=http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A0909775.html|title=Petronas Towers|work=Pearson PLC|accessdate=2007-12-11|publisher=Infoplease]
Kuala Lumpur has its origins in the 1850s, when the Malay Chief of
Klang, Raja Abdullah, hired some Chinese labourers to open new and larger tinmines. They landed at the confluence of Sungai Gombakand Sungai Klang ( Klang River) to open mines at Ampang. Sungai Gombak was previously known as Sungai Lumpur, which means muddy river. The city thus derived the name Kuala Lumpur which literally means “muddy confluence” in Bahasa Melayu. Later, tin mines were opened at Pudu and Batu. Among the early notable pioneers are Hiu Siewand Liu Ngim Kong.
These mines became a trading post and was considered a
frontiertown with many problems including the Selangor Civil War; it was also plagued by diseases and constant fires and floods. Around the 1870s, the Chinese Kapitanof Kuala Lumpur, Yap Ah Loy, emerged as leader, and became responsible for the survival and subsequent systematic growth of this town. [cite web|title=Sejarah Malaysia|url=http://sejarahmalaysia.pnm.my/portalBI/detail.php?section=sm02&spesifik_id=15&ttl_id=3|accessdate=2007-12-15] In 1880, the state capital of Selangor was moved from Klang to the more strategically advantageous Kuala Lumpur.cite web|title=Kuala Lumpur|url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9046321/Kuala-Lumpur|work=Encyclopædia Britannica|accessdate=2007-12-06]
In 1881, a flood swept through the town following a fire which engulfed it earlier. These successive problems destroyed the town's structures of wood and "atap" (
thatching). As a response, Frank Swettenham, the British Resident of Selangor, required that buildings be constructed of brick and tile. Many of the new brick buildings mirrored that of shop houses in southern China, with " five foot ways" as well as skilled Chinese carpentry. This resulted in a distinct eclectic shop housearchitecture typical to this region. A railway line increased accessibility into this town. Development intensified in the 1890s, leading to the creation of a Sanitary Board. In 1896, Kuala Lumpur was chosen as the capital of the newly formed Federated Malay States. [cite web|work=Nation History|publisher=National Library of Malaysia|title=The Federated Malay States (1896)|url=http://sejarahmalaysia.pnm.my/portalBI/detail.php?section=sm01&spesifik_id=437&ttl_id=60|accessdate=2007-12-06]
A mixture of different communities settled in various sections of Kuala Lumpur. The Chinese mainly settled around the commercial centre of Market Square, east of Klang River, and towards Chinatown. The Malays, Indian Chettiars, and Indian Muslims resided along Java Street (now Jalan Tun Perak). The Padang, now known as Merdeka Square, was the center of the British administrative offices.cite web|publisher=Virtual Malaysia Magazine|accessdate=2007-12-18|title=Old-World Charm|url=http://magazine.virtualmalaysia.com/content.cfm/ID/17AD5478-79E7-4E6F-B76E41D642B3F579]
World War II, Kuala Lumpur was captured by the Japanese army on January 11, 1942. They remained in occupation until August 15, 1945, when the commander in chief of the Japanese Seventh Area Armyin Singapore and Malaya, Seishirō Itagaki, surrendered to the British administration following the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. [cite web|url=http://army.gov.au/news/armynews/special_elements/on_this_day/january.htm|publisher=The Australian Army|title=On This Day|accessdate=2007-12-17] Kuala Lumpur grew through the war, the rubberand tincommodity crashes and the Malayan Emergency, during which Malaya was preoccupied with the communist insurgency. In 1957, the Federation of Malaya gained its independence from British rule. [cite news|title=1957: Malaya celebrates independence|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/31/newsid_3534000/3534340.stm|work=On This Day: 31 August|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2007-12-06] Kuala Lumpur remained the capital through the formation of Malaysia on September 16, 1963.
On May 13, 1969, one of the worst race riots in Malaysia took place in Kuala Lumpur. The
May 13 Incidentwas a riot between the Malays and the Chinese who were dissatisfied with the socio-political situation at the time. The riot resulted in the deaths of 196 people,Official figure, cite news|publisher=International Herald Tribune|title=New book on 1969 race riots in Malaysia may be banned, officials warn|url=http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/05/16/asia/AS-GEN-Malaysia-Race-Riot-Book.php|accessdate=2007-12-08|date=2007-05-16] and led to a major reform in the country's economic policy.
Kuala Lumpur later achieved city status in 1972, [cite web|title=Destinations: Kuala Lumpur|url=http://travel.tourism.gov.my/consumer/destinations/history.asp?state=kl|publisher=Tourism Malaysia|accessdate=2007-12-16] becoming the first settlement in Malaysia to be granted the status after independence. Later, on February 1, 1974, Kuala Lumpur became a Federal Territory. [cite web|publisher=Columbia University Press|url=http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-KualaLum.html|title=Kuala Lumpur|work=Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2007|accessdate=2007-12-06] Kuala Lumpur ceased to be the capital of
Selangorin 1978 after the city of Shah Alamwas declared as the new state capital. [cite web|title=Sejarah Shah Alam|language=Malay|url=http://www.mbsa.gov.my/mbsa/shah%20alam/sejarah.htm|publisher=Shah Alam City Council|accessdate=2007-12-14]
In 1998, another political movement known as "Reformasi" took place mainly in this city. The movement was a result of the sacking of former Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister,
Anwar Ibrahim, and resulted in a chain of protests until 1999, where supporters of Anwar Ibrahim took to the streets to demand reforms in the government's administration, among others.cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/517644.stm|title=Analysis: The challenge for Malaysia's reformers|publisher=BBC News|date=1999-11-16|accessdate=2007-12-13|author=Harrison, Frances]
On February 1, 2001, Putrajaya was declared a Federal Territory, as well as the seat of the federal government. [cite web|url=http://www.malaysianbar.org.my/content/view/7524/2/|title=PJC turns focus on maintenance issues|publisher=The Malaysian Bar|author=Geetha Krishnan|accessdate=2007-12-14] The administrative and judicial functions of the government were shifted from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya. Kuala Lumpur however still retained its legislative function, [cite web|title=Attractions|url=http://www.issti.gov.my/attractions.htm|publisher=Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation|accessdate=2007-12-11] and remained the home of the
Yang di-Pertuan Agong(King). [cite web|publisher=National Library of Malaysia|url=http://www.malaysianmonarchy.org.my/portal_bi/rk7/rk7.php|title=National Palace|accessdate=2007-12-11]
In November 2007, two of the largest political rallies since 1998 took place in the city—the Bersih rally on November 10 and the HINDRAF rally on November 25. The Bersih rally was organised by a number of non-governmental organisations and opposition political parties to demand electoral reform in the country with about 50,000 people taking to the streets. [cite news|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/11/10/malaysia.protests/index.html|title=Teargas used on rare Malaysia demo|publisher=CNN|date=2007-11-10|accessdate=2007-12-08] The HINDRAF rally was organised by
HINDRAF(Hindu Rights Action Front) and was attended by at least 30,000 mainly ethnic Indian protesters demanding equal social and economic rights from the Bumiputras. [cite news|url=http://news.independent.co.uk/world/asia/article3196266.ece|publisher=The Independent|title=Ethnic Indian protesters clash with Malaysian police|accessdate=2007-12-08|date=2007-12-26]
The geography of Kuala Lumpur is characterized by a huge valley known as
Klang Valley. The valley is bordered by the Titiwangsa Mountainsin the east, several minor ranges in the north and the south and the Strait of Malaccain the west. Kuala Lumpur is a Malay term which translates to "muddy confluence" as it is located at the confluence of the Klang and Gombak rivers. [cite news|publisher=Asiaweek|work=Asia's Best Cities 2000|title=Kuala Lumpur: Growing Pains|url=http://www.asiaweek.com/asiaweek/asiacities/kualalumpur.html|accessdate=2007-12-04]
Located in the center of
Selangorstate, Kuala Lumpur was previously under the rule of Selangor State Government. In 1974, Kuala Lumpur was separated from Selangor to form the first Federal Territory governed directly by the Malaysian Federal Government. Its location on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, which has wider flat land than the east coast, has contributed to its faster development relative to other cities in Malaysia.Fact|date=February 2008
The municipality of the city covers an area of 243.65 km2 (94.07 sq mi), with an average elevation of 21.95 m (72 ft).
Protected by the
Titiwangsa Mountainsin the east and Indonesia's SumatraIsland in the west, Kuala Lumpur has a year-round equatorial climate which is warm and sunny, along with plentiful rainfall, especially during the southwest monsoon from September to April. Temperatures tend to remain constant. Maximums hover between 31 °C and 33 °C (88-92 °F) and have never exceeded 37 °C (99 °F), while minimums hover between 22 °C and 23.5 °C (71-74 °F) and have never fallen below 19 °C (66 °F). Kuala Lumpur typically receives convert|2266|mm|in|abbr=on of rain annually; June and July are relatively dry, but even then rainfall typically exceeds convert|125|mm|in|0|abbr=on per month. Flooding is a frequent occurrence in Kuala Lumpur whenever there is a heavy downpour, especially in the city centre and downstream areas.cite web|publisher=Kuala Lumpur City Hall|url=http://www.dbkl.gov.my/pskl2020/english/environment/index.htm|title=Kuala Lumpur Environment|accessdate=2007-12-12] Dust particles from forest fires from nearby Sumatrasometimes cast a hazeover the region. It is a major source of pollution in the city together with open burning, emission from motor vehicles and construction work. [cite news|title=Hazardous haze shrouds Kuala Lumpur|url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8908221/|publisher=MSNBC|date=2005-08-11|accessdate=2007-12-13]
Jan_Hi_°F = 89.4 |Jan_Hi_°C =31.9 |Jan_REC_Hi_°F =95 |Jan_REC_Lo_°F= 66.2
Feb_Hi_°F = 91.0 |Feb_Hi_°C =32.8 |Feb_REC_Hi_°F =96.8 |Feb_REC_Lo_°F =69.8
Mar_Hi_°F = 91.6 |Mar_Hi_°C =33.1 |Mar_REC_Hi_°F =98.6 |Mar_REC_Lo_°F = 68
Apr_Hi_°F = 91.4 |Apr_Hi_°C =33.0 |Apr_REC_Hi_°F =96.8 |Apr_REC_Lo_°F = 69.8
May_Hi_°F = 91.6 |May_Hi_°C =32.8 |May_REC_Hi_°F =95.0 |May_REC_Lo_°F =71.6
Jun_Hi_°F = 90.5 |Jun_Hi_°C =32.5 |Jun_REC_Hi_°F =96.8 |Jun_REC_Lo_°F =68
Jul_Hi_°F = 89.8 |Jul_Hi_°C =32.1 |Jul_REC_Hi_°F = 96.8 |Jul_REC_Lo_°F =66.2
Aug_Hi_°F = 90.0 |Aug_Hi_°C =32.2 |Aug_REC_Hi_°F =96.8 |Aug_REC_Lo_°F =66.2
Sep_Hi_°F = 89.4 |Sep_Hi_°C =31.9 |Sep_REC_Hi_°F =95.0 |Sep_REC_Lo_°F =68
Oct_Hi_°F = 89.2 |Oct_Hi_°C =31.8 |Oct_REC_Hi_°F =96.8 |Oct_REC_Lo_°F =69.8
Nov_Hi_°F = 88.5 |Nov_Hi_°C =31.4 |Nov_REC_Hi_°F =95.0 |Nov_REC_Lo_°F =69.8
Dec_Hi_°F = 88.7 |Dec_Hi_°C =31.5 |Dec_REC_Hi_°F =93.2 |Dec_REC_Lo_°F =66.2
Year_Hi_°F = 90.0 |Year_Hi_°C =32.3 |Year_REC_Hi_°F = |Year_REC_Lo_°F =
Jan_Lo_°F =71.8 |Jan_Lo_°C =22.1 |Jan_REC_Hi_°C =35 |Jan_REC_Lo_°C =19
Feb_Lo_°F =72.1 |Feb_Lo_°C =22.3 |Feb_REC_Hi_°C =36 |Feb_REC_Lo_°C =21
Mar_Lo_°F =73.0 |Mar_Lo_°C =22.8 |Mar_REC_Hi_°C =37 |Mar_REC_Lo_°C =20
Apr_Lo_°F =74.1 |Apr_Lo_°C =23.4 |Apr_REC_Hi_°C =36 |Apr_REC_Lo_°C =21
May_Lo_°F =73.6 |May_Lo_°C =23.1 |May_REC_Hi_°C =35 |May_REC_Lo_°C = 22
Jun_Lo_°F =71.8 |Jun_Lo_°C =22.1 |Jun_REC_Hi_°C =36 |Jun_REC_Lo_°C =20
Jul_Lo_°F =72.9 |Jul_Lo_°C =22.7 |Jul_REC_Hi_°C =36 |Jul_REC_Lo_°C =19
Aug_Lo_°F =72.9 |Aug_Lo_°C =22.7 |Aug_REC_Hi_°C =36 |Aug_REC_Lo_°C =19
Sep_Lo_°F =72.9 |Sep_Lo_°C =22.7 |Sep_REC_Hi_°C =35 |Sep_REC_Lo_°C =20
Oct_Lo_°F =73.2 |Oct_Lo_°C =22.9 |Oct_REC_Hi_°C =36 |Oct_REC_Lo_°C =21
Nov_Lo_°F =73.2 |Nov_Lo_°C =22.9 |Nov_REC_Hi_°C =35 |Nov_REC_Lo_°C =21
Dec_Lo_°F =72.5 |Dec_Lo_°C =22.5 |Dec_REC_Hi_°C =34 |Dec_REC_Lo_°C =19
Year_Lo_°F =72.8 |Year_Lo_°C =22.7 |Year_REC_Hi_°C = |Year_REC_Lo_°C =
Jan_Precip_inch = 6.4
Feb_Precip_inch = 5.7
Mar_Precip_inch = 8.6
Apr_Precip_inch = 11.2
May_Precip_inch = 7.2
Jan_Precip_cm = |Jan_Precip_mm = 162
Feb_Precip_cm = |Feb_Precip_mm = 145
Mar_Precip_cm = |Mar_Precip_mm = 218
Apr_Precip_cm = |Apr_Precip_mm = 285
May_Precip_cm = |May_Precip_mm = 184
Jun_Precip_cm = |Jun_Precip_mm = 127
Jul_Precip_cm = |Jul_Precip_mm = 129
Aug_Precip_cm = |Aug_Precip_mm = 146
Sep_Precip_cm = |Sep_Precip_mm = 192
Oct_Precip_cm = |Oct_Precip_mm = 272
Nov_Precip_cm = |Nov_Precip_mm = 275
Dec_Precip_cm = |Dec_Precip_mm = 230
Year_Precip_cm = |Year_Precip_mm = 2266
source =National Environment Agency, Singapore.cite web
url=http://app.nea.gov.sg/cms/htdocs/article.asp?pid=1106#klclimo |title=THE CLIMATE OF MALAYSIA | accessmonthday =Jan 12 |accessyear=2007
Bahasa Melayu-the national language, is the principal language of Kuala Lumpur (also form the bulk of the members of Parliament and dominate the political scene in Malaysia). Other major languages spoken in the city are Mandarin and Tamil. English has a strong presence, esp. in business and is a compulsary language in schools.
Kuala Lumpur also has a mix of different cultures which include
Malays, Chinese, Indians, Eurasians, as well as Kadazans, Ibans and other indigenous races from East Malaysiaand Peninsula Malaysia.cite web|url=http://www.kuala-lumpur.ws/culture-traditions/ |title=Kuala Lumpur Culture & Heritage|publisher=AsiaWebDirect|accessdate=2007-12-04] Kuala Lumpur's rapid development, triggered huge influx of foreign workers from Indonesia, Nepal, Burma, Thailand, Bangladesh, Vietnamand Chinainto Malaysia.cite news|title=Malaysia to reduce number of foreign workers to 1.5 mln|publisher=People's Daily Online|accessdate=2007-12-15|date=September 2, 2006|url=http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200609/02/eng20060902_298925.html] [cite news|title=A Growing Source of Fear for Migrants in Malaysia|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/10/world/asia/10malaysia.html?ref=world|date=December 10, 2007|publisher=International Herald Tribune|accessdate=2007-12-15]
In the late-18th century, when Europe underwent
Industrial Revolution, large groups of Chinese from Fujianand Guangdongin China were brought in to Malaya to work in the booming tin mining industry.cite web|publisher=Michigan State University, Asian Studies|title=Religion of Malaysia|work=Windows on Asia|url=http://asia.msu.edu/seasia/Malaysia/religion.html|accessdate=2007-12-18] The Chinese in Kuala Lumpur speak different dialects but the majority in Kuala Lumpur are of Cantonese descent, [cite web|publisher=Kuala Lumpur Hotels & Travel Guide|title=Kuala Lumpur Culture & Heritage: Traditions, Races, People|url=http://www.kuala-lumpur.ws/culture-traditions/|accessdate=2008-02-16] followed by the Hokkiens and the Hakkas. [cite news|publisher=International Herald Tribune|title=Broadcasting the Muslim call to prayer to Kuala Lumpur's diverse faithful|url=http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/12/03/news/web.1203cityforcustompage.php|date=2006-12-03|accessdate=2007-12-18] Indiansform 10% of the population in Kuala Lumpur (as on 2000), mostly practise Hinduismand speak Tamiland other Indian and Pakistani languages such as Hindi, Malayalam, Punjabi, Teluguand Pashtu. Historically, most of the Indians were brought in during the British colonisation of the Malaysia. Their popular festivals are Thaipusam, Deepavaliand Pongal. Islamis practised primarily by the Malays and the Indian Muslim communities. Other major religions are Hinduism(among Indians), Buddhism, Confucianismand Taoism(mainly among Chinese) and Christianity. [cite web|publisher=Adherents.com|title=Religion by Location: Malaysia|url=http://www.adherents.com/adhloc/Wh_193.html|accessdate=2007-12-15] The city has many places of worship catering to the multi-religious population.
The estimated population of Kuala Lumpur in 2006 was 1.58 million."Basic Population Characteristics by Administrative Districts", Department of Statistics, Malaysia (June 2006)] With a population density of convert|6502|PD/km2|/sqmi, it is the most densely populated administrative district in Malaysia. With an estimated metropolitan population of 6.9 million in 2007, it can be considered a
primate city. The continuing decline in the birth rate for Kuala Lumpur has resulted in the decline in the proportion of young people below 15 years old from 33% in 1980 to slightly less than 27% in 2000. On the other hand, the working age group of 15-59 increased from 63% in 1980 to 67% in 2000. The elderly age group, 60 years old and above has increased from 4% in 1980 and 1991 to 6% in 2000.
Based on the census of the Department of Statistics, the percentage of
Bumiputrapopulation was around 38% in 2000 while the Chinese population comprised 43% and Indians 10%. A notable phenomenon has been the increase in the presence of foreign residents in Kuala Lumpur, who now constitute about 9% of the city’s population.
Crime in Kuala Lumpur has been a concern of residents in recent years. Among the crimes showing increasing rates were snatch theft, drug addiction, gambling and vice.. [cite news|url=http://www.dailyexpress.com.my/news.cfm?NewsID=48929|title=Johari seeking explanation on KL's high crime rate|publisher=Daily Express|date=2007-04-08|accessdate=2007-12-12] These problems have been associated with the rising numbers of immigrants from Indonesia and Myanmar. Some of them are brought in with the promise of low to medium grade salary.
The local administration is carried out by the
Kuala Lumpur City Hall, an agency under the Federal Territories Ministry of Malaysia. [ [http://www.kwp.gov.my/2ndLevel.asp?catid=9&parentid=0&contentid=40 Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur] ] They are responsible for public health and sanitation, waste removal and management, town planning, environmental protection and building control, social and economic development and general maintenance functions of urban infrastructure. Executive power lies with the mayor in the city hall, who is appointed for three years by the Federal Territories Minister. This system of appointing the mayor has been in place ever since the local government elections were suspended in 1970. [cite news |title=Malaysia's towns and cities are governed by appointed mayors|url=http://www.citymayors.com/government/malaysia_government.html|year=2006|accessdate=2006-10-09|language=English]
Since Kuala Lumpur became a Federal Territory of Malaysia on February 1, 1974, the city has been led by eight mayors. [cite news |title=DBKL: Pengenalan|url=http://www.dbkl.gov.my/_profail/pengenalan.php|date=2007-12-13|accessdate=2007-12-15|language=Malay] The current mayor of Kuala Lumpur is Datuk
Abdul Hakim Borhan, who is in his first term of office. [ (2 December 2006) [http://www.dbkl.gov.my/_profail/pengenalan.php "Pengenalan"] ."Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur"] He was appointed in 2006.
Kuala Lumpur is home to the Parliament of Malaysia. The parliament is composed of a lower House of Representatives ("Dewan Rakyat") and an upper House of Senate ("Dewan Negara"). The city is represented in the lower House of Representatives by eleven Members of Parliament (MPs),cite web|url=http://www.parlimen.gov.my/eng-DewRakyat_AhliDewan_2.php|publisher=Parliament of Malaysia|title=House of Representatives|accessdate=2007-12-18] who are elected to five-year terms. Traditionally, political leanings in Kuala Lumpur have been dominated by
Barisan Nasional(BN), with seven representatives from BN and the other four from the Democratic Action Party(DAP) prior to the 2008 General Elections. After the 2008 elections BN was left with just one representative, Federal Territories Minister Zulhasnan Rafique, in the Setiawangsaseat. DAP took control of five seats, Parti Keadilan Rakyattaking four seats, and PAS one seat, marking the first time in which the majority of the Federal Territory's constituencies was dominated by opposition parties.
Kuala Lumpur and its surrounding urban areas form the most industrialized and economically the fastest growing region in Malaysia. Despite the relocation of federal government administration to
Putrajaya, certain government’s important machineries such Bank Negara Malaysia(Central Bank of Malaysia), Companies Commission of Malaysia and Securities Commission as well as most embassies and diplomatic missions have remained in the city. [cite web|url=http://www.embassiesabroad.com/embassies-in/Malaysia Embassies located in Malaysia|title=Foreign Embassies and Consulates Directory in Malaysia|accessdate=2007-12-19|publisher=GoAbroad.com|]
In short the city remains the economic and business center of the country. In fact the city is a center for finance, insurance, real estate, media and the arts in Malaysia. The infrastructure development in the surrounding areas such as the
Kuala Lumpur International Airportat Sepang, the creation of the Multimedia Super Corridorand the expansion of Port Klangfurther reinforce the economic significance of the city. Bursa Malaysiaor the Malaysia Exchange is based in the city and forms one of its core economic activities. As of 20 November, 2007, the market capitalisation stood at US$318.65 billion. [cite web|title=Key Economic Indicators|url=http://www.epu.gov.my/New%20Folder/kei/Con2007.pdf|publisher=Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister's Department, Malaysia|accessdate=2007-12-10|format=PDF]
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for Kuala Lumpur is estimated at RM25,968 million in 2000 with an average annual growth rate of 4.2 percent.cite web|publisher=Kuala Lumpur City Hall|url=http://www.dbkl.gov.my/pskl2020/english/economic_base_and_population/index.htm|title=Kuala Lumpur Economic Base|accessdate=2007-12-10] The per capita GDP for Kuala Lumpur in year 2000 is RM30,727, an average annual growth rate of 6.1 percent. The total employment in Kuala Lumpur is estimated at around 838,400. The service sector comprising finance, insurance, real estate, business services, wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotels, transport, storage and communication, utilities, personal services and government services form the largest component of employment representing about 83.0 percent of the total. The remaining 17 percent comes from manufacturing and construction.
The large service sector is evident in the number of local and foreign banks and insurance companies operating in the city. Kuala Lumpur is poised to become the global Islamic Financing hub [cite web|url=http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/2007/CAR0919A.htm|author=Sy, Amadou|accessdate=2007-12-12|date=2007-09-18|publisher=International Monetary Fund|work=Survey Magazine|title=Malaysia: An Islamic Capital Market Hub] with an increasing number of financial institutions providing Islamic Financing and the strong presence of Gulf's financial institutions such as the world's largest Islamic bank,
Al-Rajhi Bank[cite news|url=http://www.clickpress.com/releases/Detailed/9053005cp.shtml|title=World Largest Islamic Bank opens branch in Malaysia|publisher=ClickPress|date=2006-02-13|accessdate=2007-12-12] and Kuwait Finance House. Apart from that, the Dow Jones & Companyis keen to work with Bursa Malaysia to set up Islamic Exchange Trade Funds (ETFs), which would help raise Malaysia's profile in the Gulf. [cite news|url=http://biz.thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2007/4/10/business/17319333&sec=business|title=Malaysia needs to look beyond being hub for Islamic finance|date=2007-04-10|author=Tam, Susan|publisher=The Star Malaysia|accessdate=2007-12-12] The city has a large number of foreign corporations and is also host to many multi national companies’ regional offices or support centres, particularly for finance and accounting, and information technology functions. Most of the countries’ largest companies have their headquarters based here and as of December 2007 and excluding Petronas, there are 14 companies that are listed in Forbes 2000based in Kuala Lumpur. [ [http://www.forbes.com/lists/2007/18/biz_07forbes2000_The-Global-2000-Malaysia_10Rank.html Largest Company in Malaysia 2007] ]
Other important economic activities in the city are education and health services. Kuala Lumpur also has advantages stemming from the high concentration of educational institutions located within its boundaries, providing a wide range of courses. Such public institutions include the
University of Malaya, the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, International Medical Universityand the Medical Faculty of the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. There are also a large number of private colleges, including the Universiti Tun Abdul Razakand Tunku Abdul Rahman College, in and around Kuala Lumpur providing a wide range of courses which attract students from all over Malaysia as well as from other countries. There are numerous public and private medical specialist centres and hospitals in the city which offer general health services and a wide range of specialist surgery and treatment catering to locals and tourists.
There has been growing emphasis to expand the economic scope of the city into other service activities such as research and development which supports the rest of the economy of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur has been home for years to important research centers such as the Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, the
Forest Research Institute Malaysiaand the Institute of Medical Research [cite web|url=http://www.imr.gov.my/|title=Main page|publisher=Institute for Medical Research, Malaysia|accessdate=2007-12-12] and more research centers are expected to be established in the coming years.
The tourism sector also plays an important part in the city’s economy, providing income, employment and expanding business opportunities. As an extension of this, many large worldwide hotel chains have presence in the city. Kuala Lumpur has also developed into an international shopping destination with a wide variety of shopping centres and mega malls which carry well-known global and local brands. Conference tourism has also expanded in recent years and is becoming a very important component of the industry.
Major destinations include the House of Parliament,
Kuala Lumpur Tower, Putra World Trade Centre, Dataran Merdeka, Tugu Negara, Istana Negara, Istana Budaya, mosque such as the Masjid Negaraand the Federal Territory Mosque, Muzium Negara, and other tourist attractions including Aquaria KLCC, Makam Pahlawan, National Science Centre, Eye on Malaysia, Zoo Negara, Batu Caves, and events such as the Chinese cultural festivals at the Thean Hou Templeand the Thaipusamprocession at the Sri Mahamariamman Temple. The Golden Triangle, the commercial hub of the city, contains the Petronas Twin Towersand has a distinctive nightlife. Trendy nightclubs, bars and lounges, such as Hard Rock Cafe, Zouk, Thai Club, Beach Club (voted Best Bar in Asia), Luna Bar, Rum Jungle, Nuovo, Espanda and many others are located within and around Jalan P. Ramlee, Jalan Sultan Ismail and Jalan Ampang.
Hotels, from five-star to budget types, have cropped up everywhere to accommodate the influx of tourists each year. While there are many hotels near Kuala Lumpur's entertainment and business districts, some have chosen to veer away from the hustle and bustle.
Kuala Lumpur alone has 66 shopping malls and it is the retail and fashion hub for Malaysia. [cite news|title=Malaysia's vibrant retail scene|url=http://business.asiaone.com/Business/SME+Central/Dollars+%2526+Sense/Story/A1Story20071025-32117.html|publisher=The Business Times|date=2007-10-18|author=Chuang Peck Ming|accessdate=2007-12-04] Shopping in Malaysia contributes RM7.7 billion (USD 2.26 billion) or 20.8 percent of the RM31.9 billion tourism receipts in 2006. [cite web|publisher=New Straits Times, Travel News|accessdate=2007-12-18|title=Wooing Indonesian shoppers|url=http://www.nst.com.my/Weekly/Travel/article/TravelNews/20050809104309/Article/|author=Shanti Gunaratnam] and Kuala Lumpur, as Malaysia's retail hub, plays a big role in attracting consumers.
Suria KLCCis one of Malaysia's premier shopping destinations due to its location beneath the Petronas Twin Towers, the world's tallest twin towers and second and third-tallest singular towers. Apart from Suria KLCC, Bukit Bintang, which resembles Tokyo's Ginza, New York's Fifth Avenueand Singapore's Orchard Roadhas the highest concentration of shopping outlets in Kuala Lumpur. Bukit Bintangwhich is part of the Kuala Lumpur's Golden Triangle, spans over 3 roads which are Jalan Bukit Bintang, Jalan Imbi and Jalan Sultan Ismail. It houses various cafes, alfresco dining outlets and shopping complexes namely Berjaya Times Square, Bukit Bintang Plaza, Imbi Plaza, Kuala Lumpur Plaza, Low Yat Plaza, Starhill Gallery, Sungei Wang Plaza, Lot 10, and Pavilion KL. Besides, there's also one of the largest single department store - SOGOKuala Lumpur (also known as [http://www.klsogo.com.my KL SOGO] ) which is located at a landmark site on Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman, one of the best known shopping streets for locals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Furthermore, the Bangsardistrict also has a few shopping complexes. Mid Valley Megamall, The Gardens and Bangsar Village are a few to be named. Damansaraarea in the north-west of Kuala Lumpur is the home of IKEAoutlet, locally operated Ikano Power Centre, The Curve shopping mall, Cathay Multi Screen Cinemas and 1 Utama, another mega mall is situated less than one kilometre away.
Apart from shopping complexes, Kuala Lumpur has designated numerous zones in the city to market locally manufactured products such as
textiles, fabrics and handicrafts. The Chinatown of Kuala Lumpur, or commonly known as Petaling Street, is one of them. Chinatown features many pre-independence buildings with Straits Chinese and European traditions influence.Gurstien, P (1985) Malaysia Architecture Heritage Survey – A Handbook, Malaysia Heritage Trust. Page 65] [http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:aWN72AqmqwsJ:www.efka.utm.my/thesis/images/4MASTER/2005/2JSB-P/Part1/MUKRAMMA031077A05TT2.doc+pre+war+shophouses+in+kuala+lumpur&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1 Google cache of 'HISTORICAL BUILDINGS IN MALAYSIA'] ] The Kuala Lumpur's Central Market, which was once the city's wet market, offers an assortment of arts and craft merchandise, varying from antiques and paintings to souvenirs and clothing. It is also known as "Pasar Seni" in Malay.
Since 2000, the Ministry of Tourism of Malaysia has kick-started the mega sale event for all shopping in Malaysia. The mega sale event is held thrice in a year—in March, May and December—where all shopping malls are encouraged to participate to boost Kuala Lumpur as a leading shopping destination. [ [http://malaysiahotelnews.blogspot.com/2006/10/three-shopping-carnivals-for-vmy-2007.html Malaysia Hotels Blog] ]
The architecture of Kuala Lumpur is a blend of old colonial influences, Asian traditions, Malay Islamic inspirations, modern, and
postmodern architecturemix. [cite web|publisher=New York Times, Travel|accessdate=2007-12-18|date=1990-09-23|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE6DC143AF930A1575AC0A966958260|title=Landmarks of Kuala Lumpur] Being a relatively young city compared with other Southeast Asian capitals such as Bangkok, Jakartaand Manila, most of Kuala Lumpur's colonial buildings were built toward the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. These buildings have Moorish, Tudor, Neo-Gothic or Grecian-Spanish style or architecture. [cite book|title=British Colonial Architecture in Malaysia 1800-1930|last=Ahmad|first=A. Ghafar|publisher=Museums Association of Malaysia|location=Kuala Lumpur|year=1997 [http://www.hbp.usm.my/conservation/British/britishcolonial1.htm extract] ] Most of the styling has been modified to use local resources and acclimatised to the local climate, which is hot and humid all year around.
Prior to the
Second World War, many shophouses, usually two storeys with functional shops on the ground floor and separate residential spaces upstairs, were built around the old city centre. These shop-houses drew inspiration from Straits Chineseand European traditions. Some of these shophouses have made way for new developments but there are still many standing today around Medan Pasar (Old Market Square), Chinatown, Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Doraisamy, Bukit Bintangand Tengkat Tong Shin areas.
Independence coupled with the rapid economic growth from the 1970s to the 1990s and with Islam being the official religion in the country, has resulted in the construction of buildings with a more local and Islamic flavour arise around the city. Many of these buildings derive their design from traditional Malay items such as the
songkokand the keris. Some of these buildings have Islamic geometric motifs integrated with the designs of the building, signifying Islamic restriction on imitating nature through drawings.cite book|title=World Architecture: An Illustrated History|author=Copplestone, Trewin|pages=149|publisher=London, Hamlyn|year=1976|isbn=0-600-03954-4] Examples of these buildings are Menara Telekom, Menara Maybank, Dayabumi Complex, and the Islamic Center. [cite web|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=t0cqkU5RxwgC&pg=PA71&lpg=PA71&source=web&ots=RguW0o1Uzz&sig=bXbul-AWf0hqKIayYMOEwomYLOs|title=Malaysia, Modernity and the Multimedia Super Corridor: A Critical Geography, page 74|publisher=Google Books|accessdate=2007-12-14] Some buildings such as the Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia and National Planetarium have been built to masquerade as a place of worship, complete with domeand minaret, when in fact it is a place of science and knowledge. The convert|452|m|ft|adj=on tall Petronas Twin Towerswere designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art. [cite web|author=Henry, Brandi|title=Petronas Towers|url=http://illumin.usc.edu/article.php?articleID=54|publisher=USC Viterbi, School of Engineering|work=illumin|accessdate=2007-12-10]
Late modern and postmodern architecture began to appear in the late-1990s and early-2000s. Buildings with all glass shell appears around the city, with the most prominent example being the
Petronas Twin Towersand Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre. [ [http://www.leidenuniv.nl/fsw/nas/pub_megaurb.htm Mega-Urbanization in Southeast Asia] ]
Kuala Lumpur’s central business district today has shifted around the Kuala Lumpur city centre (KLCC) where many new and tall buildings with modern and postmodern architecture fill the skyline.
The Perdana Lake Gardens, a convert|92|ha|acre|adj=on|lk=on manicured garden near the Malaysian Parliament building, was once home to a British colonial official. The park includes a Butterfly Park, Deer Park, Orchid Garden, Hibiscus Garden and
Kuala Lumpur Bird Park, Southeast Asia's largest bird park. [cite web|publisher=The Age|title=Top five ways to enjoy Kuala Lumpur|url=http://www.theage.com.au/news/take-five/top-five-ways-to-enjoy-kuala-lumpur/2005/02/19/1108709483546.html|accessdate=2007-12-14] Other parks in the city include, the ASEAN Sculpture Garden, Kuala Lumpur City Centre Park (KLCC), Titiwangsa Lake Gardens, Metropolitan Lake Gardens in Kepong, Forest Research Institute Malaysia, [FRIM Photos http://www.theteh.com/html/malaysian_rainforest_jungle_tr.html] Taman Tasik Permaisuri (Queen’s Lake Gardens), Bukit KiaraBotanical Gardens, Equestrian Park and West Valley Park near TTDI, and Bukit Jalil International Park.
There are three forest reserves within the city namely the
Bukit NanasForest Reserve in the city centre, the oldest gazetted forest reserve in the country (convert|10.52|ha|acre|abbr=on|disp=s, Bukit Sungai Putih Forest Reserve (convert|7.41|ha|acre|disp=s|abbr=on) and Bukit Sungai Besi Forest Reserve (convert|42.11|ha|acre|disp=s|abbr=on). Bukit Nanas, in the heart of the city centre, is one of the oldest virgin forests in the world within a city. [cite web|url=http://www.targetwoman.com/articles/kuala-lumpur.html |title=Oldest Primary Forest within a City|accessdate=2007-12-04|publisher=TargetWoman Directory] These residual forest areas are home to a number of fauna species particularly monkeys, tree shrews, squirrels and birds.
Kuala Lumpur is a hub for cultural activities and events in Malaysia. Among the centres is the National Museum which is situated along the Mahameru Highway. Its collection comprises artifacts and paintings collected throughout the country. [cite web|url=http://www.museum.gov.my/?lang=en|title=Main Page|publisher=Muzium Negara Malaysia|accessdate=2007-12-11]
Kuala Lumpur also has an Islamic Arts Museum which houses more than seven thousands Islamic artefacts including rare exhibits from China as well as a library of Islamic art books. [cite web|title=Main|url=http://www.iamm.org.my/main.php|publisher=Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia|accessdate=2007-12-11] This museum features some impressively decorated
domes and large open exhibition spaces. It is located at Jalan Lembah Perdana next to the National Mosque.
The premier performing arts venue is the Petronas Philharmonic Hall. The resident orchestra is the
Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra(MPO), consisting of musicians from all over the world and features regular concerts, chamber concerts and traditional cultural performances. [cite web|title=Meet the MPO|publisher=Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra|url=http://www.malaysianphilharmonic.com/orc_members.php|accessdate=2007-12-11]
National Art Gallery of Malaysiais located on Jalan Temerloh, off Jalan Tun Razak on a convert|5.67|ha|acre|adj=on site neighbouring the National Theater ( Istana Budaya) and National Library. The architecture of the gallery incorporates elements of traditional Malay architecture, as well as contemporary modern architecture. The National Art Gallery serves as a centre of excellence and trustee of the national art heritage.
The Petronas Art Gallery, another centre for fine art, is situated in
Kuala Lumpur City Centre(KLCC). The Galeri Tangsi near Dataran Merdeka houses exhibitions of works by local and foreign artists.
The Kuala Lumpur Performing Arts Centre (KLPac) in Sentul West is one of the most established centres for the performing arts, notably theatre, music, and film screening, in the country. It has housed many local productions and has been a supporter of local and regional independent performance artists. [cite web|title=Main page|publisher=Kuala Lumpur Performing Arts Centre|accessdate=2007-12-18|url=http://www.klpac.com/Welcome.asp] One of the highlights in 2006 was the KL Sing Song 2006 music fest which featured Malaysian singer-songwriters of various cultural backgrounds, from both West and East Malaysia, through two days of performances and workshops. [cite news|url=http://klsingsong.blogspot.com/2006/07/kl-sing-song-2006-in-star.html |title=All About Song|author=Lohan, N. Rama|publisher=The Star Online|accessdate=2007-12-12|]
Kuala Lumpur holds the Malaysia International Gourmet Festival annually. [cite web|title=Main|url=http://www.migf.com/home.html|publisher=Malaysia International Gourmet Festival|accessdate=2007-12-13] Another event hosted annually by the city is the Kuala Lumpur Fashion Week, [cite web|title=Kuala Lumpur Fashion Week 2005|publisher=People's Daily Online|url=http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200505/04/eng20050504_183700.html|accessdate=2007-12-13] which includes international brands as well as local designers.
ports and recreation
Kuala Lumpur has numerous parks and open spaces for recreational purposes. Total open space for recreational and sport facilities land use in the city has increased significantly by 169.6 percent from convert|586|ha|acre in 1984 to convert|1580|ha|acre in 2000.cite web|url=http://www.dbkl.gov.my/pskl2020/english/community_facilities/index.htm#13_2_3|title=Community Facilities|work=Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020|publisher=Kuala Lumpur City Hall|accessdate=2007-12-12]
Kuala Lumpur is one of the host cities for the
Formula OneWorld Championship,cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/motorsport/formula_one/circuit_guide/4244253.stm|title=Circuit Guide: Sepang, Malaysia|publisher=BBC Sport|accessdate=2007-12-13] the open-wheel auto racing A1 Grand Prix[cite web|url=http://www.a1gp.com/(S(1i3rbrmttvedn03utuqdy155))/Circuit/circuitInfo.aspx|title=Season 2007/08|publisher=A1GP|accessdate=2007-12-13] and the Motorcycle Grand Prix[cite news|title=Rossi wins Sepang|publisher=MotorcycleUSA|accessdate=2007-12-13|date=2004-10-10|url=http://www.motorcycle-usa.com/Article_Page.aspx?ArticleID=1463] with races being held at Sepang International Circuitin the neighbouring state of Selangor, next to the Kuala Lumpur International Airport. The Formula One event contributes significantly to tourist arrivals and tourism income to Kuala Lumpur. This is evident during the Asian Financial Crisisin 1998. Despite cities around Asia suffering declining tourist arrivals, Kuala Lumpur tourist arrivals increased from 6,210,900 in 1997 to 10,221,600 in 2000, or 64.6% increase in tourist arrivals.cite web|url=http://www.dbkl.gov.my/pskl2020/english/tourism/index.htm|work=Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020|publisher=Kuala Lumpur City Hall|accessdate=2007-12-12|title=Tourism]
KL Grand Prix CSI 5*, [cite web|url=http://www.klgrandprix.com/main.php|publisher=Kuala Lumpur Grand Prix 2007|title=Main page|accessdate=2007-12-12] a five-star international showjumping equestrian event is held annually in the city. This annual event draws the world’s top riders and their prized horses to Malaysia.
Other annual sport events hosted by the city include the KL Tower Run, [cite web|url=http://www.kltowerjump.com/|title=KL Tower International BASE Jump 2007|accessdate=2007-12-12] the KL Tower International BASE Jump Merdeka Circuit and the Kuala Lumpur International Marathon. Kuala Lumpur is also one of the stages of the
Tour de Langkawicycling race. [cite web|url=http://www.tdl.com.my/|title=Tour de Langkawi|publisher=Ministry of Youth and Sports, Malaysia|accessdate=2007-12-12]
Malaysia OpenSuper Series badminton tournament is held in Kuala Lumpur.
Kuala Lumpur has a considerable array of sports facilities of international class after hosting the
1998 Commonwealth Games. Many of these facilities including the main stadium (with running track and a football field), hockey stadium and swimming pools are located in the National Sports Complex at Bukit Jalilwhile a velodrome and more swimming pools are located in Bandar Tun Razak, next to the Taman Tasik Permaisuri Lake Gardens. There are also soccer fields, local sports complexes, swimming pools and tennis courts scattered around the suburbs. Badminton and ‘takraw’ courts are usually included in community halls.
Kuala Lumpur has several golf courses including the Kuala Lumpur Golf and Country Club (KLGCC) and the Malaysia Civil Service Golf Club in Kiara and the Berjaya Golf Course at Bukit Jalil.
The city also has numerous large private fitness centers run by California Fitness,
Fitness First, Celebrity Gym, True Fitness and the major five star hotels.
There are several
newspapers, including daily newspapers, business newspapers and also a digital newspaper, based in Kuala Lumpur. Daily newspapers include Utusan Malaysia, Berita Harian, Harian Metro, The Star, New Straits Times, The Sun, Malay Mail, Kosmo!as well as other language newspapers. Kuala Lumpur is also the headquarters for Malaysia's state broadcaster RTM and commercial station TV3. Programmes are broadcast in Malay, English, Chinese and Tamil.
The city is also home to the country's main
pay-TVservice, Astro, a satellite televisionservice, which broadcasts local and global television channels such as CNN, BBC World, Star Worldand HBO. [ [http://www.astro.com.my/ Astro official website] ] Al-Jazeera, the Doha-based Arab news network has launched a new English-speaking channel called Al-Jazeera Englishto boost its international viewership with one of its broadcast centers based in Kuala Lumpur. [cite news|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2007-12-11|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/6149310.stm|title=Al-Jazeera English hits airwaves|date=2006-11-15] Phoenix TV, a Hong Kongbased television broadcaster has also announced plans to expand its regional business by partnership with local satellite TV provider, Astro. [ [http://www.astroplc.com/05/media/press_releases/view_pressrelease.asp?id=5 Astro launches Phoenix InfoNews Channel] ] [ [http://news.ifeng.com/phoenixtv/77412215665197056/20050117/487673.shtml InfoNews Channel launches its broadcast services in Malaysia via Astro] ] The Hong Kongoffice of Channel VInternational, an international music channel, relocated its programme production unit in Kuala Lumpur by appointing the local company Double Vision Sdn Bhd. [cite news|url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3270/is_200207/ai_n7969169|title= [V]International relocates production to Malaysia|date=July 2002|accessdate=2007-12-11|publisher=Asia Image] In March 2008, Time Out, the international listings and events magazine, launched in Kuala Lumpur as its 24th global city. Kuala Lumpur has been featured in all aspects of popular culture such as movies, television, music and books. Movies set in Kuala Lumpur includes "Entrapment", starring Sean Conneryand Catherine Zeta-Jones, and " Children of Men", (starring Clive Owen) where the Petronas Twin Towers were depicted in flames for a few seconds. [cite web|work=Campus Progress|title=Apocalypse Now|accessdate=2007-12-11|url=http://www.campusprogress.org/soundvision/1408/apocalypse-now] Books which were set in Kuala Lumpur include "KL 24/7" by Ida M Rahim, Shireen Zainudin and Rizal Zainudin [cite news|author=Gunaratnam, Shanti
url=http://www.nst.com.my/Current_News/TravelTimes/article/TravelNews/20070320125856/Article/index_html|title=KL pictorial handbook|date=March 20, 2007|accessdate=2007-12-14|publisher=New Straits Times online] and "Democracy" by Joan Didion. [cite web
url=http://www.answers.com/topic/democracy-novel-2|title=Democracy (Plot Summary)|accessdate=2007-12-14|publisher=Answers.com] Kuala Lumpur is also mentioned in many songs by local Malaysian artists such as "Keroncong Kuala Lumpur" by
P. Ramlee, [cite web|url=http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senarai_lagu-lagu_nyanyian_P._Ramlee_dan_Saloma#K|title=P. Ramlee and Saloma's discography|accessdate=2007-12-14|publisher=Malay Wikipedia|language=Malay] "Kuala Lumpur, Ibu Kota" by Saloma, "Chow Kit Road" by Sudirman Arshad, "Senyumlah Kuala Lumpur" by Alleycats, "Streets of Kuala Lumpur" by Murkyway, "K.L." by Vandal, "Kuala Lumpur" by Poetic Ammo, "Anak Dara" by Azmyl Yunorand "KL" by Too Phat. Kuala Lumpur was also one of the destinations in The Amazing Race Asiaand The Amazing Race. [cite web|url=http://www.cbs.com/primetime/amazing_race11/shows/ep08/|title=The Amazing Race Episode Recaps|accessdate=2007-12-11|publisher=CBS] Games have also been set in Kuala Lumpur. They include three levels of the game "" and two levels of the PlayStation 2 game " Burnout Dominator".
Unlike most other Asian cities, driving is the main mode of commuting in Kuala Lumpur. Hence, every part of the city is well connected by highways. As capital of
Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur has a comprehensive road network that leads to the rest of Peninsular Malaysia. [cite web|url=http://www.iexplore.com/cityguides/Malaysia/Kuala+Lumpur/Do's+and+Don'ts|title=Kuala Lumpur Travel Tips|publisher=iExplore|accessdate=2007-12-13] High speed roadways, or expressways are tolled roadways, and motorist using these expressways have an option of paying by cash, or by stored value cards such as Touch 'n Goand SmartTAG. [cite web|url=http://www.plus.com.my/tolleps.asp|title=Electronic Payment Systems (EPS)|publisher=PLUS Expressways Berhad|accessdate=2007-12-13]
In terms of air connectivity, Kuala Lumpur is served by two airports. The main airport,
Kuala Lumpur International Airport(KLIA), which is also the aviation hub of Malaysia, is located about convert|50|km south of city. The other airport is Subang Airport which used to be the main international airport serving the city until KLIA replaced it when it opened in 1998. The airport connects the city with direct flights to destinations in six continents around the world, [cite press release|publisher=National Geographic|url=http://www.ngcasia.com/press/megacities.aspx|title=Malaysia Airlines Takes Flight to MEGACITIES on National Geographic Channel|accessdate=2007-12-19] and is the main hub for the national carrier, Malaysia Airlines. KLIA can be reached using the KLIA Ekspreshigh-speed train service from KL Sentralwhich takes only twenty-eight minutes, [cite web|url=http://www.kliaekspres.com/index3_klia_ekspres.html|title=KLIA Ekspres|publisher=Express Rail Link Sdn Bhd|accessdate=2007-12-13] while travelling by car via highway will take about an hour. As of 2007, Subang Airport is only used for chartered and turboprops flights by airlines such as Firefly and Berjaya Air. [cite news|url=http://www.asianewsdesk.com/2007/11/27/subang-only-for-turbo-props/|title=Subang only for turbo-props|publisher=Asian News Desk|date=2007-11-27|accessdate=2007-12-13] Public transporton Kuala Lumpur and the rest of the Klang Valleycovers a variety of transport modessuch as bus, rail and taxi. Despite efforts to promote usage of public transportation, utilisation rates are low as only 16 percent of the population used public transportation in 2006.cite news|title=Prasarana to buy trains worth RM1.2bil|url=http://besonline.rtm.net.my/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=65671|publisher= The Star|date=2006-10-13|accessdate=2006-10-22] The rapid transitsystem in Kuala Lumpur consists of three separate rail systems which meet in the city and extends towards other parts of Klang Valley. The rail systems are RapidKL RAIL, KL Monorail, and KTM Komuter. These lines have either underground or elevated stations around the city. The main rapid transit hub is KL Sentralwhich facilitates as an interchange station for the rail systems. KL Sentral is also a hub for intercity railway operated by KTM Intercity. It provides rail services to as far as Singaporein the south, and Hat Yai, Thailand, in the north. [cite web|publisher=Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad|url=http://www.ktmb.com.my/article.asp?id=49|title=Intercity services|accessdate=2007-12-19]
The largest public transportation operator in Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley is
RapidKL. [cite speech|title=Launching of the Cyberjaya Dedicated Transportation System|author=Tan Sri Nor Mohamed Yakcop (Minister of Finance II)|url=http://www.treasury.gov.my/index.php?ch=36&pg=126&ac=2128|date=September 10, 2007|location=Cyberjaya|accessdate=2007-12-14] Since the take over from Intrakota Komposit Sdn Bhd, RapidKL has redrawn the entire bus network of Kuala Lumpur and Klang Valleymetropolitan area [ [http://www.cleanairnet.org/caiasia/1412/article-70087.html Rapid KL to revamp network] ] to increase ridership and improve Kuala Lumpur's public transportation system. The management of RapidKL has adopted the hub and spokesystem to provide greater connectivity, and cut down the need of more buses. [cite web|url=http://wikitravel.org/en/Petaling_Jaya#By_bus_2|title=Getting around Petaling Jaya|publisher=WikiTravel|accessdate=2007-12-14] RapidKLis also the operator of three rapid transit rail lines in Kuala Lumpur, namely Ampang Line, Sri Petaling Line and Kelana Jaya Line. [cite web|url=http://www.putralrt.com.my/about_us.htm|title=About Us|publisher=RapidKL|accessdate=2007-12-13]
Kuala Lumpur is served by
Port Klang, located about 64 km (40 mi) southwest of the city. The port is the largest and busiest in the country handling about TEU|6.3 million|first=yes of cargo in 2006. [cite web|publisher=SchedNet|url=http://www.thaishipper.com/Content/Content.asp?Archives=true&ID=19058|date=2007-05-24|title=Port Klang retains top ranking among Malaysia's ports|accessdate=2007-12-19]
According to government statistics, Kuala Lumpur has a
literacyrate of 97.5% in 2000, the highest rate in any state or territory in Malaysia. [cite press release|title=Education and Social Characteristics of the Population, Population and Housing Census 2000.|date=August 2002|accessdate=2007-12-10|publisher=Department of Statistics, Malaysia|url=http://www.statistics.gov.my/English/news/pressedu.htm] In Malaysia, Malay is the language of instruction for most subjects while English is a compulsory subject and is used as the language of instruction for mathematics and the natural sciences. There are also schools which provide Mandarin and Tamil as languages of instruction for certain subjects.
In Kuala Lumpur alone, there are 13 tertiary education institutions, 79 high schools, 155 elementary schools and 136 kindergartens. [cite web|url=http://www.dbkl.gov.my/pskl2020/english/community_facilities/index.htm#13_2_4|title=Existing situation of Educational facilities|work=Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020|publisher=Kuala Lumpur City Hall|accessdate=2007-12-12]
There are several notable institutions located in the city which have existed for more than 100 years, such as,
Victoria Institution(1893); Methodist Girls' School, Kuala Lumpur (1896); Methodist Boys' School (1897); Convent Bukit Nanas (1899) and St. John's Institution (1904);
Kuala Lumpur is home to the
University of Malaya. Established in 1962, it is the oldest university in Malaysia, and one of the oldest in the region. [cite pressrelease|title=Carnegie Mellon University's Heinz School to Offer Professional Master's Degree at University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur in New Collaboration|url=http://www.icarnegie.com/about/pr/pr_19jan06.html|publisher=Carnegie Mellon University|accessdate=2007-12-13] It is also the most prestigious tertiary institution in Malaysia, having been ranked first among the universities in Malaysia in the 2004 THESinternational rankings. [cite web |url=http://uniranks.unifiedself.com/2004top200.html |title=World University Rankings 2004 |accessdate=2007-12-07] In recent years, the number of international studentsat University of Malaya has risen, a result of increasing efforts made to attract more international students. [cite news|publisher=The Star Malaysia|date=2007-07-02|title=UM out to woo foreign students|url=http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2007/7/2/nation/18189116&sec=nation|accessdate=2007-12-18]
Other universities located in Kuala Lumpur include
International Medical University, Open University Malaysia, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Wawasan Open Universityand the branch campus of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysiaand Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Apart from these, universities located around Kuala Lumpur include Monash University Malaysia Campus, Taylor's University College, Limkokwing University Of Creative Technologyand others.
The National Defence University of Malaysia is located at
Sungai BesiArmy Base, at the southern part of central Kuala Lumpur. It was established to be a major centre for military and defence technology studies. This institution covers studies in the field of army, navy, and air force. [cite web|publisher=National Defence University of Malaysia|url=http://www.upnm.edu.my/media/v3/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=34&Itemid=28|title=Background|language=Malay|accessdate=2007-12-18]
Mashhad, Iran(October 2006) [cite news|title=Mashad-Kuala Lumpur Become Sister cities|date=2006-10-14|url=http://kuala-lumpur-news.newslib.com/story/453-3234431/ |publisher=FARS News Agency|accessdate=2007-12-04]
Esfahan, Iran[cite web|year=2005|url=http://www.council.isfahan.ir/EStatic/WFESisterhood.aspx |title=Sisterhoods|work=Isfahan Islamic Council|accessdate=2007-12-04]
Malaysia(April 15, 1989) [http://www.urc.or.jp/summit/summit/map/more_e.php?id=0605&apcs_mbr=715654f62317576a55d2271bbc82c814 Kuala Lumpur fact file] , "Asian-Pacific City Summit". Retrieved on November 3, 2007.]
Ankara, Turkey[cite news|author=Lam, Edwin Chong Wai|date=2006-06-24|url=http://www.chessbase.com/newsdetail.asp?newsid=3201|title=Kuala Lumpur: the Scent of a City|publisher=Chessbase News|accessdate=2007-12-04]
Delhi, India [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/15278423.cms Delhi to London, it’s a sister act] The Times of India. Retrieved on August 30, 2008]
* [http://www.taman-negara.com Malaysia Tourism]
2005 Malaysian haze
Kuala Lumpur FA
2020 Summer Olympics
* [http://www.kualalumpur.gov.my/ Official Kuala Lumpur Website]
* [http://www.dbkl.gov.my/ Kuala Lumpur City Hall]
* [http://www.itis.com.my/ ITIS Kuala Lumpur]
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