Hiking


Hiking
A hiking trail in Oregon

Hiking is an outdoor activity which consists of walking in natural environments, often in mountainous or other scenic terrain. People often hike on hiking trails. It is such a popular activity that there are numerous hiking organizations worldwide. The health benefits of different types of hiking have been confirmed in studies.[1] The word hiking is understood in all English-speaking countries, but there are differences in usage.

Contents

Related terms

The Appalachian Trail provides the opportunity for a 3,500-kilometre (2,200 mi)-long hike.[2]

In the United States and United Kingdom, hiking refers to walking outdoors on a trail for recreational purposes.[3] A day hike refers to a hike that can be completed in a single day, but not requiring an overnight camp. Multi-day hikes with camping is referred to as backpacking.[3] In the United Kingdom hiking is usually called rambling, which resulted in the hiking organization named Ramblers. Bushwhacking specifically refers to difficult walking through dense forest, undergrowth, or bushes, where forward progress requires pushing vegetation aside. In extreme cases of bushwhacking where the vegetation is so dense that human passage is impeded, a machete is used to clear a pathway. Australians use the term bushwalking for both on- and off-trail hiking. New Zealanders use tramping (particularly for overnight and longer trips), walking or bushwalking. Multi-day hiking in the mountainous regions of India, Nepal, North America, South America, and in the highlands of East Africa is also called trekking; the Dutch refer to trekking also. Hiking a long-distance trail from end-to-end is also referred to as trekking and as thru-hiking in some places.[4] Examples of long-distance trails include the Appalachian Trail (AT) and Long Trail (LT).

Equipment

A simple dry magnetic pocket compass

The equipment required for hiking depends on the length of the hike, and according to the source. Hikers generally carry water, food, and a map in a backpack.[3] Hikers often wear hiking boots to protect their feet from rough terrain.[3] Some outdoor organizations, such as The Mountaineers strongly advocate a list of equipment for hiking, such as the Ten Essentials. This list includes items such as a compass, sunglasses, sunscreen, clothes, flashlight, first aid kit, fire starter, and knife.[5] Other sources suggest additional items such as insect repellent and an emergency blanket.[6] Nowadays a GPS navigation device is a great help especially in weather conditions with low visibility or when hiking in unknown territories.

Proponents of ultralight backpacking claim that long lists of required items for multi-day hikes increases pack weight, and hence fatigue and chance of injury.[7] Instead, they recommend a goal of reducing pack weight in order to hike long distances easier. Even the use of hiking boots on long-distances hikes is controversial among ultralight hikers, due to their weight.[7]

Environmental impact

Parts of many hiking trails around Lake Mohonk include stairway trails

Hikers often seek beautiful natural environments in which to hike.[3] These environments are often fragile: hikers may accidentally destroy the environment that they enjoy. While the action of an individual may not strongly affect the environment, the mass effect of a large number of hikers can degrade the environment. For example, gathering wood in an alpine area to start a fire may be harmless if done once (except for wildfire risk). Years of gathering wood, however, can strip an alpine area of valuable nutrients.[8] Generally, protected areas such as parks have regulations in place to protect the environment. If hikers follow such regulations, their impact can be minimized.[8] Such regulations include forbidding wood fires, restricting camping to established camp sites, disposing or packing out faecal matter, imposing a quota on the number of hikers per mile.

Many hikers espouse the philosophy of Leave No Trace: hiking in a way such that future hikers cannot detect the presence of previous hikers. Practitioners of this philosophy obey its strictures, even in the absence of area regulations. Followers of this practice follow strict practices on dealing with food waste, food packaging, and alterations to the surrounding environment.[9]

A cathole

Human waste is often a major source of environmental impact from hiking.[8] These wastes can contaminate the watershed and make other hikers ill. Bacterial contamination can be avoided by digging 'catholes' 10 to 25 cm (4 to 10 inches) deep, depending on local soil composition and covering after use. If these catholes are dug at least 60 m (200 feet) away from water sources and trails, the risk of contamination is minimized.

Sometimes hikers enjoy viewing rare or endangered species. However, some species (such as martens or bighorn sheep) are very sensitive to the presence of humans, especially around mating season. To prevent adverse impact, hikers should learn the habits and habitats of endangered species.

There is one situation where an individual hiker can make a large impact on an ecosystem: inadvertently starting a wildfire. For example, in 2005, a Czech backpacker burned 7% of Torres del Paine National Park in Chile by knocking over an illegal gas portable stove.[10] Obeying area regulations and setting up cooking devices on designated areas (or if necessary on bare ground) will reduce the risk of wildfire.

Etiquette of hiking

Hiking in a group increases safety, but hikers may wish to hike at different rates.

Because hiking is a recreational experience, hikers expect it to be pleasant. Sometimes hikers can interfere with each others' enjoyment, or that of other users of the land. Hiking etiquette has developed to minimize such interference. For example:

  • When two groups of hikers meet on a steep trail, there may be contention for use of the trail. To avoid conflict, a custom has developed in some areas whereby the group moving uphill has the right-of-way.[11]
  • Being forced to hike much faster or slower than one's natural pace can be annoying, and difficult to maintain consistently. More seriously, walking unnaturally fast dramatically increases fatigue and exhaustion, and may cause injury. If a group splits between fast and slow hikers, the slow hikers may be left behind or become lost. A common custom is to encourage the slowest hiker to hike in the lead and have everyone match that speed. Another custom is to have experienced hiker(s) sweep up the rear on a rota, to ensure that everyone in the group is safe and nobody straggles.
  • Hikers generally enjoy the peace of their natural surroundings. Loud sounds such as shouting or loud conversation, or the use of mobile phones, disrupt this enjoyment.[11]

Hazards

A Canadian hiking trail marker

Hiking may produce threats to personal safety. These threats can be dangerous circumstances while hiking and/or specific accidents or ailments. Diarrhea has been found to be one of the most common illness afflicting long-distance hikers in the United States.[12] (See Wilderness acquired diarrhea.)

Symbols used in trail blazing

Noxious plants that cause rashes can be particularly bothersome to hikers. Such plants include poison oak, poison ivy, poison sumac, milkweed, and stinging nettles.

Dangerous hiking circumstances include losing the way, inclement weather, hazardous terrain, or exacerbation of pre-existing medical conditions. Specific accidents include metabolic imbalances (such as dehydration or hypothermia), topical injuries (such as frostbite or sunburn), attacks by animals, or internal injuries (such as ankle sprain).[13]

Attacks by humans are also a reality. There are organizations that promote prevention, self defense and escape.[which?] The cell phone and GPS devices are used in some organizations.

In various countries, borders may be poorly marked. It is good practice to know where international borders are. For example, in 2009, Iran seized three American hikers for crossing over the Iran-Iraq border while hiking.[14] Many nations, such as Finland, have specific rules governing hiking across borders.[15]

See also

Types

  • Backpacking – also known as trekking, a multi-day, often arduous hike especially in mountainous regions
  • Dog hiking – hiking with dogs
  • Freehiking – hiking while unclothed, also hiking off-trail
  • Hillwalking – a British term for hiking in hills or mountains
  • Nordic Walking – fitness walking with poles
  • Llama hiking
  • Scrambling – "non-technical" rock climbing or mountaineering OR "technical" hiking
  • Thru-hiking – hiking a trail from end to end in one continuous hike (people may end to end a trail, but in section hikes)
  • Ultralight backpacking
  • Waterfalling – aka waterfall hunting and waterfall hiking is hiking with the purpose of finding and enjoying waterfalls
  • Dayhiking
  • Heli Hiking – using helicopters to access remote areas otherwise inaccessible
  • Bushwhacking – a North American term for hikers and cross-country skiers who make their own trails

Trails

Related activities

  • Cross-country skiing – often the equivalent of hiking in snowy lands during wintertime
  • Fell running – an English and Welsh sport of running over rough mountainous ground, often off-trail. Known as Hill running in Scotland and Ireland. Similarities exist with Mountain running popular overseas, but also many differences.
  • Geocaching – outdoor treasure-hunting game
  • Orienteering – running sport involving navigation with a map and compass
  • River trekking
  • Rogaining – sport of long distance cross-country navigation
  • Trail blazing

References

  1. ^ McKinney, John (2009-03-22). "For Good Health: Take a Hike!". Miller-McCune. http://www.miller-mccune.com/health/for-good-health-take-a-hike-3862/. 
  2. ^ Gailey, Chris (2006). "Appalachian Trail FAQs". Outdoors.org. http://www.outdoors.org/conservation/trails/at/at-faq.cfm. Retrieved 2010-01-19. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Keller, Kristin T. (2007). Hiking. Capstone Press. ISBN 0736809163. 
  4. ^ Mueser, Roland (1997). Long-Distance Hiking: Lessons from the Appalachian Trail. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0070444587. 
  5. ^ Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills (6th ed.). The Mountaineers. 1997. pp. 35–40. ISBN 0-89886-427-5. 
  6. ^ "Ten Essential Groups Article". Texas Sierra Club. http://texas.sierraclub.org/dallas/page.asp?10essentialgroups. Retrieved 2011-01-19. 
  7. ^ a b Jardine, Ray (2000). "Beyond Backpacking: Ray Jardine's Guide to Lightweight Hiking". AdventureLore Press. 
  8. ^ a b c Cole, David. Impacts of Hiking and Camping on Soils and Vegetation: A Review. http://leopold.wilderness.net/research/fprojects/docs12/Ecotourism.pdf. 
  9. ^ "Principles". Leave No Trace. http://www.lnt.org/programs/principles.php. Retrieved 2011-01-19. 
  10. ^ "Chilean park recovering from fire". Daily Mail. 2005-05-25. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/article-593108/Chilean-park-recovering-fire.html. 
  11. ^ a b Devaughn, Melissa (April 1997). "Trail Etiquette". Backpacker Magazine. Active Interest Media, Inc.. p. 40. ISSN 0277867X. http://books.google.com/books?id=cd4DAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA40. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  12. ^ Boulware, D.R.; et al. (2003). "Medical Risks of Wilderness Hiking". American Journal of Medicine 114 (4): 288–93. doi:10.1016/S0002-9343(02)01494-8. PMID 12681456. 
  13. ^ Goldenberg, Marni; Martin, Bruce (2007). Hiking and Backpacking. Wilderness Education Association. p. 104. ISBN 0736068015. 
  14. ^ Gordon, Michael R.; Lehren, Andrew W. (2010-10-23). "Iran Seized U.S. Hikers in Iraq, U.S. Report Asserts". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/23/world/middleeast/23hikers.html?_r=1. 
  15. ^ "International Borders". Hiking in Finland. Metsähallitus. http://www.outdoors.fi/page.asp?Section=5801. Retrieved 2011-01-19. 

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • hiking — ➡ long distance paths and national trails * * * Walking, often among hills or mountains, as recreational sport. It represents an activity in its own right and also figures in backpacking, camping, hunting, mountaineering, and orienteering. Hiking …   Universalium

  • hiking — hik|ing [ˈhaıkıŋ] n [U] the activity of taking long walks in the mountains or country →↑walking ▪ We re going to do some hiking this summer. ▪ Utah is a great place to go hiking …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Hiking — Hike Hike, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Hiked}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Hiking}.] [Cf. {Hitch}.] 1. To move with a swing, toss, throw, jerk, or the like. [Dial. or Colloq.] [Webster 1913 Suppl.] 2. To raise with a quick movement. [PJC] 3. To raise (a price)… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • hiking — noun Hiking is used before these nouns: ↑boot, ↑gear, ↑trail …   Collocations dictionary

  • hiking — žygeivių turizmas statusas T sritis Kūno kultūra ir sportas apibrėžtis Seniausia ir populiariausia turizmo rūšis – keliavimas pėsčiomis iš anksto parengtu maršrutu. Jei žygeivių turizmo tikslai yra sportiniai (fizinių ypatybių ugdymas),… …   Sporto terminų žodynas

  • hiking — noun walking in the countryside for pleasure or sport …   Wiktionary

  • hiking — Synonyms and related words: addition, adjunct, aggrandizement, ambling, ambulation, ampliation, amplification, augmentation, backpacking, broadening, crescendo, deployment, dispersion, enlargement, expansion, extension, fanning out, flare,… …   Moby Thesaurus

  • hiking — (Roget s IV) modif. Syn. tramping, hitchhiking, backpacking, rambling, wandering, exploring; see also marching , walking …   English dictionary for students

  • hiking — hik|ing [ haıkıŋ ] noun uncount the activity of walking for long distances in the countryside. Someone who does this is called a hiker …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • hiking — n. walking, trekking, journeying on foot; making higher, increasing (i.e. prices) haɪk n. long walk, march, trip; increase, raise (as in wages) v. make a long journey by foot, walk or march over long distances, trek, backpack; make higher,… …   English contemporary dictionary


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