Illyrian deciduous forests
The Illyrian deciduous forests form a terrestrial
ecoregionof Europeaccording to both the WWF and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency. It belongs to the biomeof Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub, and to the Palearctic ecozone.
The Illyrian deciduous forests stretch along the eastern coast of the Ionian and
Adriatic Seas (including the islands) and occupy 40,600 km² (15,700 sq. mi) in Northern Greece, Albania, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Sloveniaand Northern Italynear Trieste.
The ecoregion is surrounded by the
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests(in Greece), Pindus Mountains mixed forests(in Greece and Albania), Dinaric Mountains mixed forests(in Albania, Montenegro, Bosnia nad Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia and Italy) and Po Basin mixed forests(in Italy).
Due to the wide altitudinal range of this ecoregion the highest elevations (above 1,000 m) are covered with conifer forests, with a mixed broadleaf vegetation and
maquis shrublandoccurring lower. The conifer zone is dominated by the Norway Spruce, Silver Firand European Black Pinewith the admixture of the European Beech. The dominant species of the lower zones include various deciduous oaks (" Quercus frainetto", "Q. pubescens", "Q. cerris"), " Carpinus orientalis", " Fraxinus ornus" with " Cotinus coggygria", " Paliurus spina-christi", " Cercis siliquastrum". Evergreen trees and maquis shrubs (" Quercus ilex", " Pinus halepensis", " Pistacia terebinthus", "P. lentiscus", " Juniperus oxycedrus", "J. macrocarpa", " Arbutus unedo", "A. andrachne", " Nerium oleander") become predominant near the coast.
Phytogeographically, the ecoregion is shared between the Adriatic and East Mediterranean provinces of the
Mediterranean Regionwithin the Holarctic Kingdom(according to Armen Takhtajan's delineation).
* [http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/pa/pa1210_full.html Illyrian deciduous forests (PA1210)] , World Wildlife Fund, 2001.
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