Cell-free protein synthesis
Cell-free protein synthesis (also called
in-vitro protein synthesis), is the production of protein without the use of living cells.
The first elucidation of a
codonwas done by Marshall Nirenbergand Heinrich J. Matthaeiin 1961 at the National Institutes of Health. They used a cell-free system to translate a poly-uracil RNA sequence (or UUUUU... in biochemical terms) and discovered that the polypeptide they had synthesized consisted of only the amino acid phenylalanine. They thereby deduced from this poly-phenylalanine that the codon UUU specified the amino-acid phenylalanine [neur] . Extending this work, Nirenberg and his coworkers were able to determine the nucleotide makeup of each codon
Cell-free systems in common use.
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