Aromanians in the Republic of Macedonia

ethnic group
group= Aromanians of the Republic of Macedonia
poptime= 9,695 - 100,000 [http://assembly.coe.int/Documents/WorkingDocs/doc97/edoc7728.htm#Footnote11 Aromanians ] ]
popplace= Kruševo, Štip, Bitola, Sveti Nikole
langs= Aromanian, Macedonian
rels= Macedonian Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism
related-c= Aromanians

The Aromanians are an officially recognised minority group in the Republic of Macedonia. In 2002 they numbered 9,695, but Aromanian activists claim that the number is over 100,000. They are concentrated in Kruševo, Štip and Bitola. In the Municipality of Kruševo, the Aromanian language has official status, along with Macedonian.

History

The Aromanians have historically been called Vlachs and Macedo-Romanians. The Aromanians are a unique ethno-linguistic group having their own culture and language that have existed for over two thousand years in the Balkan peninsula. [name=pace>Parliamentary Assembly Council of Europe. RECOMMENDATION 1333. 1997. [http://assembly.coe.int/Main.asp?link=http%3A%2F%2Fassembly.coe.int%2FDocuments%2FAdoptedText%2Fta97%2FEREC1333.htm] . Retrieved on 4 Jul 2008] They were for centuries considered traditionally a mountain people and soon the word Vlach became synonymous with herdsmanship throughout the Balkans. [http://www.farsarotul.org/nl23_1.htm NL23_1: Aromanians of Macedonia ] ] . Although traditionally live-stock herders many began to emigrate to larger cities in the 16th and 17th centuries. Thousands of Aromanian fled the destrcution of Moscopole by Ali Pasha's troops in 1788 and also helped develop Krusevo"Crushuva" into a large prosperous town.. Shephards of the Pelister region near Bitola used to herd flocks of thousands of sheep from the summer pasture's near Baba Mountain to the winter lowlands near Salonica and Giannitsa. Typical Aromanian goods were cheese, meat, wool and wool garments, leather, rugs and carpets. Many Aromanians also entered the rug and carpet trade by selling "Kilimi" and "Flocati". Wealthier Aromanians established themselves in Bitola and Stip as inn-keepers, artisans, caravan traders and merchants. An Aromanian market ("Macedonian: Vlaška čaršija") was established in Bitola's Aromanian quarter. The Aromanian presence is still present in Bitola up to this day.

The Aromanian mountain villages of Magarevo, Gopeš, Trnovo and Nižopole were founded on the foot hills of Baba Mountain. By the 1860s many Aromanians had joined the agitation present in Macedonia. The Aromanians had traditionally identified with Romanians or Greeks. The first Romanian school was established in 1864 in the village of Trnovo and was followed by another 40 Romanian language schools. Many of these schools provided an education in both the Romanian and Aromanian languages. In the late 19th century a spit between the Grecophile and Romanophile Aromanians occurred. This struggle became violent with schools burnt down, cemeteries desecrated and people assaulted. The Aromanian people were a crucialFact|date=June 2008 force in the Ilinden Uprising and the establishment of the Krusevo Republic. The Krusevo Republic is hailed by Aromanians as the "Ten Day's of Freedom". One notable Aromanian who participated was the heroic Pitu Guli who was killed on the Mečkin Kamen (Bear's Rock).

After the First Balkan War most of the Romanian schools were closed down. Many of the Aromanian villages were destroyed during the First World War. But there were some benfits from the German Occupation, such as the installation of Electricity in the village, Gopeš. To escape the conflict many Aromanians fled to Serbia or Romania. Many Aromanians were interned by the Bulgarians for their pro-Greek ideals. Aromanians who lived in what is now known as the Republic of Macedonia were subject to strict Serbianization along with the rest of the population. After the outbreak of World War Two most Aromanians once again found themselves subject to Bulgarian control. Sources claim that fines were imposed on people for using the Aromanian language.Fact|date=June 2008 These repressive measures compelled many Aromanians to join the Communist Partisans. The Aromanian contribution to the Partisan cause in Macedonia was crucial.Fact|date=June 2008

After the War many Aromanians began to assert their ethnic identity. High levels of intermarriage with Macedonians and urbanization also began to affect the Community. In the 1970s new iniative's were started to create Aromanian social and cultural societies. The Society of Arts and Culture ( _ru. Sutsat di Culturi sh Arti) was established in 1979 and in 1981 another cultural society was established. In 1985 the first Aromanian song was recorded by Risto Pulevski-Kicha. A tape was made for Macedonian Television and this tape was used to support the request to create a cultural society. The Pitu Guli society of Skopje and the Manaki Brother's Society of Bitola were founded.

After the Declaration of Independence form Yugoslavia, Aromanians were officially recognised as a minority group. They receive full minority rights from the Macedonian government.

Minority Status

The Aromanians are an officially recognised minority group in the Republic of Macedonia. [http://www.coe.int/t/e/human_rights/minorities/2._FRAMEWORK_CONVENTION_(MONITORING)/2._Monitoring_mechanism/3._State_Reports_and_UNMIK_Kosovo_Report/2._Second_cycle/PDF_2nd_SR_FYROM_en.pdf] The Aromanian language is taught among Aromanian students and the language is co-official in the Krusevo municipality. Aromanian language media is available, and regular television and radio broadcasts in the Aromanian language help to ensure its survival.

Language

Aromanians have Traditionally spoken the Aromanian language. Use of this language has recently been in a period of decline. High rates of intermarriage with Macedonians and assimilation have reduced the number of speakers. The Krusevo Municipality is the only place in the world where the Aromanian language is a recognised minority language. The language has recently undergone a revival and is bieng taught to Aromanian students throughout the Republic.

Media

Many forms of Aromanian language media have been established since the 1990s. The Macedonian Government provides financial assistance to Aromanian language newspapers and radio stations. Aromanian language newspapers such as Pheonix ( _ru. Fenix) service the Aromanian community. The Aromanian television program Spark ( _ru. Scanteao, _mk. Искра) broadcasts on Macedonian Radio-Television.

Notable Aromanians from the Republic of Macedonia

*Pitu Guli - (1865-1903) "Heroic Ilinden Revoloutionary"
*Toše Proeski - (1891-2007) "Pop Singer and Super Star"
*Kaliopi Bukle - (1966- ) "Pop Singer"
*Petre Čašule - (1882-1924) "Revolutionary"
*Taki Fiti - (1950- ) "Former Minister of Finance 1996-1998"
*Milton Manakis - (1878-1954) "Cinemagraphic Pioneers and First people to film the Balkans"
*Yannakis Manakis - (1882-1964) "Cinemagraphic Pioneers and First people to film the Balkans"
*Constantin Belemace - (1848-1932) "Aromanian Writer"
*Niku Karanika - (1910-2002) "Aromanian Poet"
*Jani Makraduli - (1965- ) "Politician in the Republic of Macedonia"
*Apostol Margarit - (1832-1903) "Educator"
*Dimitri Atanasesky - (1836-1907) "Educator"
*Alexandros Svolos - (1892-1956) "Greek Politician"
*Constantin Iotzu - (1884 - 1962) "Architect"
*Taki Hrisik - (1920-1983) "Composer and Musician"
*Patriarch Joachim III of Constantinople - (1834 - 1912) "Patriach, Of Aromanian Parents"
*Atanasios Piteon - (1836 - 1913) "Revoloutionary"
*Janko Popovic - (1779 - 1833) "Serbian Revoloutionary"
*Leon Boga - (1886 - 1974) "Historian"
*Teodor Kapidan - (1879 - 1953) "Linguist and Academic"

References

External links


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