- Comparison of China and United States governments
Chinais one of the countries with the longest history and the largest population in the world. The communist partyis the dominating political party. Lead by President Hu Jin Tao, China has developed to be one of the world powers in economic, military and political stages. As one of the remaining communistcontrolled nations, China plays a significant role in international relations. The American government, in a lot of ways, differs from Chinese government.
Constitution of the PRC vs. U.S. Constitution
The currently used Constitution of the
People's Republic of China(PRC) was adopted on December 4, 1982, and passed by the Fifth National People's Congress. The U.S. Constitution was adopted September 17, 1787, and then ratified in each state. The Constitution of the PRC contains approximately 14,000 words and the U.S. Constitution only contains 4543 words. The Constitution of the PRC is more detailed than the U.S. Constitution in language. The Constitution is the supreme lawin both nations. The Constitution of the PRCcontains four amendments which describes, or revises, the context of the original Constitution. For instance, the fourth paragraph of the Amendment Two reads, "At the end of the tenth paragraph of the Preamble, add 'The system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation led by the Communist Party of China will exist and develop in China for a long time to come'." [The Constitution of People's Republic of China. People's Daily Online, December 4, 1982, http://english.people.com.cn/constitution/constitution.html] The United States Bill of Rightand the additional amendments of the U.S. Constitution was proved and presented as a part of the law.
Socialist system vs. capitalist system
The People's Republic of China was established on a
socialistplatform on October 1st, 1949. The Constitution of the PRC reads, "The People's Republic of China is a socialist state under the people's democratic dictatorshipled by the working classand based on the alliance of workers and peasants. The socialist system is the basic system of the People's Republic of China. Sabotage of the socialist system by any organization or individual is prohibited." [The Constitution of People's Republic of China. People's Daily Online, December 4, 1982, http://english.people.com.cn/constitution/constitution.html] On the other hand, the U.S. Constitution does not mention its own social system, but leaves freedom to the people. After World War Iand World War II, the United States became the economic world leader.
Socialist public ownership vs. Private ownership
All the lands in China are
stateowned while the U.S. Constitution protects people's ownership of their lands. The Constitution of the PRC mentions, "Article 10. Land in the cities is owned by the state." [The Constitution of People's Republic of China. People's Daily Online, December 4, 1982, http://english.people.com.cn/constitution/constitution.html] In addition, the nation's resources are controlled by the central governmentand are reflected in the Constitution of the PRC, saying, "Article 9. Mineral resources, waters, forests, mountains, grassland, unreclaimed land, beaches and other natural resources are owned by the state." [The Constitution of People's Republic of China. People's Daily Online, December 4, 1982, http://english.people.com.cn/constitution/constitution.html] All people in the PRC are considered the owners of the nation's property. Great industries, such as communication, transportation or electric power supply, are controlled and run by the central government. The U.S. government, on the other hand, encourages efficient privatizationof industries. The capitalismsystem allows private business to contribute to national industries.
The governments of China and the United States possess different structures due to the distinct situations and regimes of the two countries. In the United States, the powers of the government are clearly distributed among its
three branches of government: the president exercises his executive power, the United States Congressexercises its legislature power and the Supreme Court of the United Statesexercises its judicial power. Each branch remains a check to the other two branches. No one branch possesses superior power over the other two. On the other hand, in China, the legislature, executive and the judicial powers overlap within the People's Congress, the State Counciland the president. Moreover, the People's Congress is said to have the superior power in the government and remain a check to the other two branches of the government.
In the United States, all the lawmaking powers of the
federal governmentare reserved to Congress. Although the president always has the power to issue executive orders, and the executive agenciesare able to pass administrative rules, based on the Constitution of the United States, Congress is said to have the sole legislative power within the federal government. The reason for not granting the legislative power to the president is the framers' fear of monarchy.
In China, on the other hand, the National People's Congress and the State Council of the P.R.C share the power of making laws. The National People's Congress has the highest state power, and its permanent body is the
Standing Committeeof the National People's Congress. There are roughly three thousand members in the National People's Congress. The National People's Congress is represented by provinces, municipalities, armies, Macaoand Hong Kong special administrative region, and Taiwan Province. The numbers of members in the National People's Congress are proportional to the population in the regions. The Chinese government is represented by the wish of the whole body of Chinese people, and the populous National People's Congress, therefore, has the superior power of the state. However, because of the inconvenience of gathering several thousand members frequently, the Standing Committee exercises most of the powers of the National People's Congress. The National People's Congress has some reserved powers, such as choosing the president and the vice president of the People's Republic of China.
Moreover, China's large population makes it necessary to create the State Council to be the "executive body of the highest organ of state power and the highest organ of state administration." [The P.R.C. Constitution, A Professional Translation Website, 24th Feb 2006, http://www.zftrans.com/favorite/template/2006-2/24/1239062241239583740456.html] The State Council is given the power to pass administrative laws and to submit proposals to the National People's Congress.
In the United States, the president is the
Chief Executive, Commander in Chief, Chief of State, Chief Diplomat and Chief Legislator. The president of the United States is one of the most powerful individuals in the world. The president is responsible for enforcing the laws to exercise his executive power. Especially during a time of national crisis, no member of the other two branches of government could show the personal strength of the president. In China, the executive powers of the government are shared by the president and the State Council. Therefore, the one-man power of the president of the PRC is much weaker than that possessed by the president of the United States. China has gone through two thousand years of feudalsociety, and that is one of the reasons for not granting extreme executive power to the president.
The State Council of the People's Republic of China is led by the
Prime Minister. The State Council has the superior powers in administration and giving direction to the lower divisions, including but not limiting the power "to draw up and implement the plan for national economic and social development and the state budget, to direct and administer economic affairs and urban and rural development, to direct and administer the affairs of education, science, culture, public health, physical culture and family planning, to direct and administer civil affairs, public security, judicial administration, supervision and other related matters." [The P.R.C. Constitution. A Professional Translation Website, 24th Feb 2006, http://www.zftrans.com/favorite/template/2006-2/24/1239062241239583740456.html]
In the United States, the Supreme Court has the sole power to interpret the Constitution and decide the
constitutionalityof the laws passed by other branches of the federal government and the actions of the president. The ruling of the Supreme Court becomes law. The other two branches of the government exercise their powers under the check of the " judicial review" of the Supreme Court.
The court system is distinct in China. China has a
civil lawsystem. "In a civil law system, the primary source of law is a statutory code, and case precedents are not judicially binding, as they normally are in a common law system", [Sidlow Edward, Henschen Beth. American at Odds.] which is used in the United States. The Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China is much less powerful than the Supreme Court of the United States, simply because the Court in China is only able to decide cases based on the laws passed by the legislative branch without having the power to overturn any statutory code. Moreover, in China, the power of "judicial review" is given to the National People's Congress instead of the Supreme Court. The National People's Congress has the power to interpret the Constitution and to supervise the work of the State Council, the Central Military Commission, the Supreme People's Court and the Supreme People's Procuratorate.
Political behavior differences
Communist Party vs. two-party system
Communist Partyis the dominating political party in China. Most governors are members of the Chinese Communist Party(CCP). Joining the CCP is considered an honor and is frequently used to identify a person's political background. The CCP is the only party that runs the government. Therefore, a CCP member may enjoy more benefits in job selections and salaries. The United States has a two-party system. The two major parties are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. Every four years, the two parties, including third-party, compete for presidential elections. The election of 2008 is in progress with Democratic candidate Barack Obamaand Republican candidate John McCainrunning the floor. The two-party system allows changes and competitions in the government.
Centralized power vs. federalism
China's political power is centralized in
Beijing, the capital of the PRC. The National People's Congress is the most powerful institution in China directed by the communist party. There are 23 provinces, or states, in China. Individual provinces shall follow the orders of the central government. Federalismis one of the fundamental political platforms of U.S. government. The national power is shared by states and the federal government. Although the power of the national government is increasing, each state remains its own police power. Federalism is a unique political system in the world.
Weak vs. strong interest groups
Political power of China is dominated by the communist party. There are rarely members who belong to a different party holding a high position in government. Joining the Communist Party is a required step for a person seeking political success. There is no other party that can compete with the CCP. Therefore,
interest groupsare only focusing on persuading the Communist Party to change political decisions.
Although there are fifty-six
ethnicitiesin China, above ninety percent of the population belongs to " Han." Every ethnicity enjoys equal protection under the Constitution of the PRC. However, the voices of smaller interest groups are weak because of the proportion of their population.
In contrast, the United States has a two-party system. Interest groups play a significant role in supporting party candidates,
lobbyingmembers of Congress or educating the public. The interest group is a party of the iron trianglein U.S. government. Strong interest groups contribute to the nation's democracy and help the government address people's will.
Civil liberties and rights differences
Civil liberties and rights under the Law
Civil libertiesand rights in the U.S. are protected by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. People enjoy the freedom of speech, religion or peaceful assembly. The U.S. government protects citizens' rights via law enforcement. For example, the right to bear arms is protected by the Second Amendment in the Constitution. Chinese citizens are prohibited from having guns. Violation of owning weapons may lead to criminal punishment. Civil liberties and rights in China are usually a controversial topic on the international stage. China has one of the fastest growing economies in the world. However, the working conditions, labors' rights and public welfareremain at a low level.
The organs of self-government of national autonomous areas
The organs of self-government of national autonomous areas are unique portions of the national policy in China. China is a large country with 56 different ethnicities. National autonomous areas, such as
Tibet, are created to allow each ethnicity to practice their own culture or religious beliefs. Although each national autonomous area has the right to exercise its own political power, limits are imposed by the central government. For example, political institutions, such as the people's congress or the people's court, are installed in every autonomous area.
Improvement of China's civil liberties and rights
Civil liberties and rights have improved significantly in China during recent years. The government of China has become more open to the public. The freedom of speech, press and assembly are exercised more freely by citizens.
China has opened up the
free marketfor economic development; at the same time, the government keeps a significant control over the economy of the country. In contrast, under capitalism in the United States, characterized by "the separation of economy and state, ' anti-socialism', the government encourages free markets, free trade, relatively light taxation, and a minimum of government interference in commerce." [Baccala, Brent. Capitalism and Christianity. Freesoft. October, 2000, revised June, 2001]
High tech vs. work force
China stepped from its feudal society directly to socialism, because at that time, China did not possess the conditions to have an
industrial revolution. However, the leaders of China soon recognized the importance of economic reformin order to accelerate the economic growth of the country. Policies such as the "open door" [Suettinger, Robert L. New Politics, Old Problems. Beyond Tiananmen-the Politics of U.S.-China Relations, 2004. ] policy has made China now become one of the fastest-growing countries in the world. The Chinese governmentsets out unique principals to accelerate economic reform. The government encourages private properties that are important in a socialist economyand recognizes that market force should be the major force that leads the economic development in a healthy direction. Moreover, the government believes that "material incentives, including higher wages, personal profit, and the accumulation of wealth, should be the main way to boost productivity and efficiency." [Hauss, Charles. The Crisis of Communism. Comparative Politics-Domestic Responses to Global Challenges, Sixth Edition.]
Because of the high speed of economic growth, the Chinese government now faces the challenge of keeping the growth in a healthy direction. The government now "encourages continued direct investment in technology, promotes the reform of an unprofitable state sector, and continues to draw foreign investment into China". [Author Unknown. China Domestic Policy. World Leaders 2003. Encyclopedia. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/World-Leaders-2003/China-DOMESTIC-POLICY.html]
China has an abundant, cheap labor force to provide for its industries; however it lacks high technologies to support the country's industries. Therefore, China is now working hard to develop its highly technical industries and has many policies to encourage able people who are able to manipulate
high-tech. On the other hand, the United States is looking for more cheap work forces.
Privatization vs. state-owned
The U.S. government has much less involvement in its economy than the Chinese government does. China has many more state-owned companies than the United States does. Because
privatizationis able to make the economy more dynamic and fast-growing, China faces the problem of restructuring state enterprise operations, which have become a severe budgetary burden. "In the late 1990s and early years of the twenty-first century, the Chinese government began a major privatization campaign." [Hauss, Charles. The Crisis of Communism. Comparative Politics-Domestic Responses to Global Challenges, Sixth Edition.] The bureaucracyof the United States also faces reform of privatization to become an active part in the market competition.
China and the United States face different situations. Although both countries have plenty of natural resources, China has a much larger population. China needs to satisfy its 1.3 billion people with its limited resources. Therefore, China faces many serious environmental problems. In order to alleviate the environmental problems, the Chinese government has been working hard towards a series of environmental reforms.
China has a large population of farmers. The poverty of farmers in the country causes many concerns to the government. The government has issued many policies to alleviate the burden of farmers and introduced new technologies to agriculture. The government has spent a large amount of money in bringing up the economy in the poor sectors of the country. In the United States, agriculture is a much less significant factor in the development of the country. Moreover, the government gets less involved in
agricultural reform. The powers are reserved for the individual states, except when the commerce involves the problems of more than two states.
Chinese foreign policies have gone through critical changes that bring China more closely to the international stage. China has changed from isolation from all the capitalist powers to active involvement in worldwide affairs. The United States always remains an active role in the international affairs. The United States is always concerned and remains skeptical about the human rights, economic reforms, and environmental problems of China and other countries.
Olympics and human rights
China faces difficulties in hosting the
2008 Olympic Games. The issue associated with the Dalai Lamaand Tibet has become serious and has caused many concern around the world. The Chinese government faces an accusation of not treating the Tibetansequally. China needs immediate full attention to deal with the problems in response to the questioning from the western world about the human rights in Tibet. The question about the sovereignty and independence of Tibet still remains in dispute. In a unitary system, such as that of China, "the central government has the power to grant, and to take away local autonomy". [Sidlow Edward, Henschen Beth. American at Odds.] The United States has a different situation compared to China. In the United States, the individual states have more reserved power because of the federalism of the nation.
China is the second largest petroleum-consumer country; however, China lacks special laws to regulate the large amount of exploitation of petroleum. Therefore, it is hard for China to adjust to the unstable international oil price. "Less visible but potentially more important for China has been its reluctance to endorse United Nations involvement in Darfur, since it plans to develop and purchase much needed oil from Sudan." [Hauss, Charles. The Crisis of Communism. Comparative Politics-Domestic Responses to Global Challenges, Sixth Edition.] China is now struggling to find abundant resources to support its large oil demands.
Compared to China, although the United States has even greater oil demands than China does, the United States imports its petroleum from all over the world. The United States has much larger and stable sources to satisfy its enormous oil demands.
In recent years, China has carried out peaceful diplomatic policies. "China was a major participant in the
six party talksthat convinced the North Koreans to abandon their nuclear weapons and power program in 2007." [Hauss, Charles. The Crisis of Communism. Comparative Politics-Domestic Responses to Global Challenges, Sixth Edition.]
The different cultural and historical origins make the Chinese government and the U.S. government distinct in their constitutions, civil liberties and rights, political behavior, institutions, domestic policies and foreign policies.
* [http://find.galegroup.com/itx/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T003&prodId=ITOF&docId=A99730556&source=gale&srcprod=ITOF&userGroupName=beth70457&version=1.0. A qualified vote: China2008]
* [http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/World-Leaders-2003/China-DOMESTIC-POLICY.html China Domestic Policy. World Leaders 2003. Encyclopedia]
* [http://npc.people.com.cn/GB/28320/116286/116599/6991723.html Jiechu Yang's Response to Journalists about China's Foreign Policy and Relation. People's Daily Newspaper, 13th March, 2008]
* [http://find.galegroup.com/itx/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T003&prodId=ITOF&docId=A154163817&source=gale&srcprod=ITOF&userGroupName=beth70457&version=1.0 No Contest; Elections in China. The Economist, 2006. Infotrack, Gould Academy, 2008.]
* [http://find.galegroup.com/itx/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T003&prodId=ITOF&docId=A176976965&source=gale&srcprod=ITOF&userGroupName=beth70457&version=1.0. Through a glass brightly. The Journal of Commerce, 2008. Infotrack, Gould Academy, 2008]
* [http://find.galegroup.com/itx/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T003&prodId=ITOF&docId=A172146507&source=gale&srcprod=ITOF&userGroupName=beth70457&version=1.0 Union of the State; China's new Labor Law. Economist Newspaper, 2007. Infotrack, Gould Academy, 2008.]
* [http://english.people.com.cn/constitution/constitution.html Constitution of People's Republic of China. People's Daily Online, December 4, 1982]
* [http://news.xinhuanet.com/ziliao/2003-01/18/content_695288.htm Li, Wenjie. The Establishment and Amendment of the China's Constitution. Xinhua Newspaper, 2003.]
* [http://www.zftrans.com/favorite/template/2006-2/24/1239062241239583740456.html P.R.C. Constitution. A Professional Translation Website, 24th Feb 2006]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
United States — This article is about the United States of America. For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation). United States of America … Wikipedia
Comparison of United States presidential candidates, 2008 — This article compares the presidential candidates in the United States 2008 presidential election. It does not cover previous elections. Because of ballot access restrictions in the United States, not all candidates appeared on the ballots in all … Wikipedia
United States Constitution — P … Wikipedia
Comparison of Canadian and American economies — The economies of Canada and the United States are extremely similar because they are both developed countries and are each other s largest trading partners. However, key differences in population makeup, geography, government policies and… … Wikipedia
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA — UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, country in N. America. This article is arranged according to the following outline: introduction Colonial Era, 1654–1776 Early National Period, 1776–1820 German Jewish Period, 1820–1880 East European Jewish Period,… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
United States — a republic in the N Western Hemisphere comprising 48 conterminous states, the District of Columbia, and Alaska in North America, and Hawaii in the N Pacific. 267,954,767; conterminous United States, 3,022,387 sq. mi. (7,827,982 sq. km); with… … Universalium
United States public debt — Part of a series of articles on Unit … Wikipedia
United States — <p></p> <p></p> Introduction ::United States <p></p> Background: <p></p> Britain s American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States… … The World Factbook
United States Treasury security — A United States Treasury security is government debt issued by the United States Department of the Treasury through the Bureau of the Public Debt. Treasury securities are the debt financing instruments of the United States federal government, and … Wikipedia
Comparison of Dewey and Library of Congress subject classification — This is a comparison chart showing how the Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress Classification systems organize resources by concept, in part for the purpose of assigning call numbers. These two systems account for over 95% of the classification … Wikipedia