Laws of war
The law of war (also law of armed conflict, LOAC) is
lawconcerning acceptable practices relating to war. In cases other than civil wars, it is considered an aspect of public international law(the law of nations). The laws of war are divided into two categories:
Jus in bello, law concerning acceptable conduct in war.
Jus ad bellum, law concerning acceptable justifications to use armed force.
Sources of the laws of war
Attempts to define and regulate the conduct of individuals, nations, and other
agents in war and to mitigate the worst effects of war have a long history. In medieval Europe the Roman Catholic Churchpromulgated teachings on just war, reflected to some extent in movements such as the Peace and Truce of God. The impulse to restrict the extent of warfare, and especially protect the lives and property of non-combatants continued with Hugo Grotiusand his attempts to write laws of war.
international humanitarian lawconsists of treaties (international agreements) which directly affect the laws of war by binding consenting nations and achieving widespread consent, including:
* The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907
United Nations Charter(1945)
Geneva Conventionsand subsequent protocols, including
First Geneva Convention"for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field" (first adopted in 1864, last revision in 1949)
Second Geneva Convention"for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea" (first adopted in 1949, successor of the 1907 Hague Convention X)
Third Geneva Convention"relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War" (first adopted in 1929, last revision in 1949)
Fourth Geneva Convention"relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War" (first adopted in 1949, based on parts of the 1907 Hague Convention IV)
Protocol I(relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts) and Protocol II(relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts) (1977)
The opposite of positive laws of war is customary laws of war, many of which were explored at the
Nuremberg War Trials. These laws define both the "permissive" rights of states as well as "prohibitions" on their conduct when dealing with irregular forces and non-signatories.
In addition, the Nuremberg War Trial judgment on "The Law Relating to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity" [ [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/imt/proc/judlawre.htm Judgement : The Law Relating to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity] contained in the
Avalon Projectarchive at Yale Law School.] held, under the guidelines Nuremberg Principles, that treaties like the Hague Convention of 1907, having been widely accepted by "all civilised nations" for about half a century, whereby then part of the customary laws of war and binding on all parties whether the party was a signatory to the specific treaty or not.
Interpretations of international humanitarian law change over time and this also affects the laws of war. For example
Carla Del Ponte, the chief prosecutor for the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslaviapointed out in 2001 that although there is no specific treaty ban on the use of depleted uraniumprojectiles, there is a developing scientific debate and concern expressed regarding the impact of the use of such projectiles and it is possible that, in future, there will be a consensus view in international legal circles that use of such projectiles violate general principles of the law applicable to use of weapons in armed conflict. [ [http://www.un.org/icty/pressreal/nato061300.htm#IVA2 The Final Report to the Prosecutor by the Committee Established to Review the NATO Bombing Campaign Against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: Use of Depleted Uranium Projectiles] ] This is because in future it may be the consensus view that depleted uranium projectiles breaches one or more of the following treaties: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the Charter of the United Nations; the Genocide Convention; the United Nations Convention Against Torture; the Geneva Conventionsincluding Protocol I; the Convention on Conventional Weaponsof 1980; the Chemical Weapons Convention; and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. [ [http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/(Symbol)/E.CN.4.Sub.2.2002.38.En?Opendocument E/CN.4/Sub.2/2002/38 Human rights and weapons of mass destruction, or with indiscriminate effect, or of a nature to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering] ( [http://www.unhchr.ch/huridocda/huridoca.nsf/AllSymbols/22481F4157DE6274C1256C00004C29BB/$File/G0214167.pdf?OpenElement backup] )]
Purposes of the laws
It has often been commented that creating laws for something as inherently crimeful and lawless as war seems like a lesson in absurdity. However, based on the adherence to what amounted to customary international law by warring parties through the ages, it was felt that codifying laws of war would be beneficial.
Some of the central principles underlying laws of war are:
* Wars should be limited to achieving the political goals that started the war (e.g., territorial control) and should not include unnecessary destruction;
* Wars should be brought to an end as quickly as possible;
* People and property that do not contribute to the war effort should be protected against unnecessary destruction and hardship;
To this end, laws of war are intended to mitigate the
evils of war by:
* Protecting both
combatants and noncombatants from unnecessary suffering;
* Safeguarding certain fundamental
human rightsof persons who fall into the hands of the enemy, particularly prisoners of war, the wounded and sick, and civilians;
* Facilitating the restoration of
Conduct of warfare
Among other issues, the laws of war address
declaration of war, acceptance of surrender and the treatment of prisoners of war; military necessityalong with "distinction" and "proportionality"; and the prohibition of certain inhumane weaponswhich cause unnecessary suffering.
It is a violation of the laws of war to engage in combat without meeting certain requirements, among them the wearing of a distinctive
uniformor other distinctive signs visible at a distance, and the carrying of weapons openly. Impersonating soldiers of the other side by wearing the enemy's uniform is allowed, though fighting in that uniform, like fighting under a white flag, is perfidywhich is forbidden, as is the taking of hostages.
The Law of Land Warfare is that part of the Laws of War applicable to the conduct of
warfare on land (territory) and to relationships between belligerents and neutral states. This article, derived from public domain government sources, generally describes the lawas internationally understood. The conduct of armed hostilitieson land is regulated by the law of land warfare which is both written and unwritten.
The law of war places limits on the exercise of a belligerent’s power mentioned under "Purposes" and requires that belligerents refrain from employing any kind or degree of
violencewhich is not actually necessary for military purposes and that they conduct hostilities with regard for the principles of
Binding both on states and individuals
The law of war is binding not only upon States as such but also upon individuals and, in particular, the members of their
Sources of the law
The law of war is derived from two principal sources:
* "Lawmaking Treaties" (or "Conventions"), such as the Hague and
* "Custom". Not all the law of war derives from or has been incorporated in such treaties, which can refer to the continuing importance of customary law. (see
Martens Clause). Such customary international lawis established by the general practice of nations together with their acceptance that such practice is required by law.
Declaration of war
Some treaties, notably the UN charter (1945) Article 2, and some other articles in the charter, seek to curtail the right of member states to declare war; as does the older
Kellogg-Briand Pactof 1928 for those nations who ratified it. The Kellogg-Briand Pact was used against those charged at the Nuremberg War Trials in Germany post-WW2 for waging an aggressive war.
Violations and applicability
Parties are bound by the laws of war to the extent that such compliance does not interfere with achieving legitimate military goals. For example, they are obliged to make every effort to avoid damaging people and property not involved in combat, but they are not guilty of a war crime if a bomb mistakenly hits a residential area.
By the same token, combatants that use protected people or property as shields or camouflage are guilty of violations of laws of war and are responsible for damage to those that should be protected.Fact|date=July 2007
Well-known examples of such laws include the prohibition on attacking doctors or
ambulances displaying a Red Cross, a Red Crescent or other emblem related to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement(this sometimes leads to confusion when the British military is involved, where certain regiments use the English flag, which is also a red cross).Fact|date=March 2008 It is also prohibited to fire at a person or vehicle bearing a white flag, since that indicates an intent to surrender or a desire to communicate. In either case, the persons protected by the Red Cross or white flag are expected to maintain neutrality, and may not engage in warlike acts; in fact, engaging in war activities under a white flag or red cross is itself a violation of the laws of war known as perfidy.
Remedies for violations
punishmentfor violating the laws of war may consist of a specific, deliberate and limited violation of the laws of war in reprisal. Soldiers who break specific provisions of the laws of war lose the protections and status afforded as prisoners of warbut only after facing a "competent tribunal" (GC III Art 5). At that point they become an unlawful combatantbut they must still be "treated with humanity and, in case of trial, shall not be deprived of the rights of fair and regular trial", because they are still covered by GC IV Art 5. For example in 1976 foreign soldiers fighting for FNLAwere captured by the MPLAin the civil war that broke out when Angolagained independence from Portugalin 1975. After "a regularly constituted court" found them guilty of being mercenaries, three Britons and an American were shot by a firing squadon July 10, 1976. Nine others were imprisoned for terms of 16 to 30 years.
Spies and terrorists may be subject to civilian law or military tribunal for their acts and in practice have been subjected to
tortureand/or execution. The laws of war neither approve nor condemn such acts, which fall outside their scope. However, nations that have signed the " UN Convention Against Torture" have committed themselves not to use torture on anyone for any reason. Citizens and soldiers of nations which have not signed the Fourth Geneva Convention are also not protected by it (Article 4: "Nationals of a State which is not bound by the Convention are not protected by it".), whether they are spies or terrorists. Also, citizens and soldiers of nations which have not signed and do not abide by the Third and Fourth Geneva Conventions are not protected by them. (Article 2, of both Conventions: " [The High Contracting Parties] shall furthermore be bound by the Convention in relation to [a Power which is not a contracting party] , if the latter accepts and applies the provisions thereof". note: emphasis added)
If someone is (or is suspected to be) a citizen or soldier of a nation which has signed or abides by the Fourth Geneva Convention (see Art. 2 and Art. 4 citations above), or is (or is suspected to be) a "
prisoner of war" (POW) per the definitions of such "protected persons" in the Third Geneva Convention (see Art. 4 and Art. 5), the following applies: A POW who breaks specific provisions of the laws of war may be penalized, but not penalized worse than the tribunal would penalize its own soldiers for the same offense (and usually a disciplinary, not judicial, punishment if its own soldiers normally wouldn't be brought to trial for a particular offense) and POW's may not be penalized based on rank or gender, nor with corporal punishment, collective punishments for individual acts, lack of daylight, or torture/cruelty (GC IV, Art. 82 through Art. 88).
After a conflict has ended, persons who have committed or ordered any breach of the laws of war, especially atrocities, may be held individually accountable for
war crimesthrough process of law. Also, nations which signed the Geneva Conventions are required to search for, then try and punish, anyone who has committed or ordered certain "grave breaches" of the laws of war. (see GC III, Art. 129 and Art. 130)
History has shown that the laws of war are traditionally more strictly applied to those defeated, as the victorious faction are placed in the role of policing themselves.Fact|date=July 2008 While it can be argued that the victors may be less strict on their own forces, it can also be argued that the signing of the treaties involved in the laws of war implies a good-faith promise to adhere to them equally. As with many facets of war, the aftermath and subsequent legal proceedings depend heavily on circumstance, and are different for each conflict.
There is an emerging trend in the US to hold private corporations civilly liable for aiding and abetting in war crimes, by knowingly providing substantial assistance in the commission of the crimes. Under international law, the
mens reaelement is knowledge, not intent that the crimes be carried out. This opens the door not only to hold private security contractors liable, but also other kinds of corporations which employ violent mercenary or terrorist groups as private security forces. Although conflict zones often lack functioning legal systems, and government may even have passed laws immunizing private mercenaries from criminal liability, aiding and abetting a war crime can still be the basis for civil liability in a foreign court with jurisdiction over the defendant corporation.
International treaties on the laws of war
: "see also
List of international declarations"List of declarations, conventions, treaties and judgements and on the laws of war: [Roberts and Guelff References] [ ICRC[http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/INTRO?OpenView Treaties & Documents by date] ] [Joan T. Phillips. " [http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/loac/loac.htm List of documents and web links relating to the law of armed conflict in air and space operations] ", May 2006. Bibliographer, Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center Maxwell (United States) Air Force Base, Alabama.]
Paris Declaration Respecting Maritime Lawabolished privateering
First Geneva Convention"for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field"
* 1868 St. Petersburg Declaration Renouncing the Use, in Time of War, of Explosive projectiles Under 400 grams Weight
* 1874 Project of an International Declaration concerning the Laws and Customs of War (
Brussels Declaration). [ [http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/135?OpenDocument Project of an International Declaration concerning the Laws and Customs of War. Brussels] , 27 August1874] Signed in Brussels 27 August. This agreement never entered into force, but formed part of the basis for the codification of the laws of war at the 1899 Hague Peace Conference. [ [http://www.sipri.org/contents/cbwarfare/cbw_research_doc/cbw_historical/cbw_historical/cbw-lawswar.html Brussels Conference of 1874 - International Declaration Concerning Laws and Customs of War] Stockholm International Peace Research InstituteProject on Chemical and Biological Warfare] [http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/INTRO/135?OpenDocument Brussels Conference of 1874] ICRCcites D.Schindler and J.Toman, The Laws of Armed Conflicts, Martinus Nihjoff Publisher, 1988, pp.22-34.]
* 1880 Manual of the Laws and Customs of War at
Oxford. At its session in Geneva in 1874 the Institute of International Lawappointed a committee to study the "Brussels Declaration" of the same year and to submit to the Institute its opinion and supplementary proposals on the subject. The work of the Institute led to the adoption of the Manual in 1880 and it went on to form part of the basis for the codification of the laws of war at the 1899 Hague Peace Conference.
* 1899 Hague Conventions consisted of four main sections and three additional declarations (the final main section is for some reason identical to the first additional declaration):
** I - Pacific Settlement of International Disputes
** II - Laws and Customs of War on Land
** III - Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of Principles of Geneva Convention of 1864
** IV - Prohibiting Launching of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons
** Declaration I - On the Launching of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons
** Declaration II - On the Use of Projectiles the Object of Which is the Diffusion of Asphyxiating or Deleterious Gases
** Declaration III - On the Use of Bullets Which Expand or Flatten Easily in the Human Body
* 1907 Hague Conventions had thirteen sections, of which twelve were ratified and entered into force and two declarations
** I - The Pacific Settlement of International Disputes
** II - The Limitation of Employment of Force for Recovery of Contract Debts
** III - The Opening of Hostilities
** IV - The Laws and Customs of War on Land
** V - The Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of War on Land
** VI - The Status of Enemy Merchant Ships at the Outbreak of Hostilities
** VII - The Conversion of Merchant Ships into War-Ships
** VIII - The Laying of Automatic Submarine Contact Mines
** IX - Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War
** X - Adaptation to Maritime War of the Principles of the Geneva Convention
** XI - Certain Restrictions with Regard to the Exercise of the Right of Capture in Naval War
** XII - The Creation of an International Prize Court [Not Ratified] *
** XIII - The Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War
** Declaration I - extending Declaration II from the 1899 Conference to other types of aircraft
** Declaration II - on the obligatory arbitration
London Declaration concerning the Laws of Naval Warlargely reiterated existing law, although it showed greater regard to the rights of neutral entities. Never went into effect.
* 1922 The
Washington Naval Treaty, also known as the "Five-Power Treaty" ( 6 February)
* 1923 Hague Draft Rules of Aerial Warfare [ [http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1918p/hagair.html The Hague Rules of Air Warfare] , 1922-12 to 1923-02, "this convention was never adopted"' ( [http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/interwar/hagair.htm backup site] )]
* 1925 Geneva protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare [ [http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/280?OpenDocument Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare] . Geneva,
Greco-German arbitration tribunal
Kellogg-Briand Pact(also known as the "Pact of Paris")
League of Nationsdeclaration for the "Protection of Civilian Populations Against Bombing From the Air in Case of War" [ [http://www.dannen.com/decision/int-law.html#D Protection of Civilian Populations Against Bombing From the Air in Case of War] , Unanimous resolution of the League of Nations Assembly, 30 September1938]
* 1928 Amsterdam Draft Convention for the Protection of Civilian Populations Against New Engines of War. [ [http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/0/910f79361f226492c125641e004057ed?OpenDocument Draft Convention for the Protection of Civilian Populations Against New Engines of War. Amsterdam] , 1938]
* 1929 Geneva Convention, Relative to the treatment of prisoners of war
* 1930 Treaty for the Limitation and Reduction of Naval Armament (
London Naval Treaty 22 April)
Second London Naval Treaty( 25 March)
United Nations Charter(entered into force on October 24, 1945)
* 1946 Judgment of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg
Nuremberg Principles. formulated under UN General Assembly Resolution 17721 November 1947
United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
* 1949 Geneva Convention I for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field
* 1949 Geneva Convention II for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea
* 1949 Geneva Convention III Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War
* 1949 Geneva Convention IV Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War
Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict
* 1971 Zagreb Resolution of the Institute of International Law on Conditions of Application of Humanitarian Rules of Armed Conflict to Hostilities in which the United Nations Forces May be Engaged
* 1977 United Nations
Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques
Geneva Protocol IAdditional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts
Geneva Protocol IIAdditional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts
* 1978 Red Cross Fundamental Rules of International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts
* 1980 United Nations Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects (CCW)
** 1980 Protocol I on Non-Detectable Fragments
** 1980 Protocol II on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices
** 1980 Protocol III on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Incendiary Weapons
** 1995 Protocol IV on Blinding Laser Weapons
** 1996 Amended Protocol II on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices
** Protocol on Explosive Remnants of War (Protocol V to the 1980 Convention), 28 November 2003, entered into force on
12 November2006 [ [http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/section_ihl_explosive_remnants_of_war#Key%20document Explosive remnants of war and international humanitarian law] on the website of the International Committee of the Red Cross]
* 1994 San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea. [by Louise Doswald-Beck " [http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/57JMST San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflict at Sea] "
31 December1995 International Review of the Red Crossno 309, p.583-594 ]
* 1994 ICRC/UNGA Guidelines for Military Manuals and Instructions on the Protection of the Environment in Time of Armed Conflict [ [http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/57JN38 Guidelines for Military Manuals and Instructions on the Protection of the Environment in Times of Armed Conflict]
30 April1996 International Review of the Red Crossno 311, p.230-237 ]
* 1994 UN Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel [ [http://www.un.org/law/cod/safety.htm Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel] ]
* 1996 The
International Court of Justice advisory opinionon the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons
Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction(Ottawa Treaty)
Rome Statuteof the International Criminal Court
International Humanitarian Law
Islamic military jurisprudence
Law of Armed Conflict
Law of occupation
Law of the Sea
List of military scandals
Right of conquest
* Roberts, Adam and Guelff, Richard (Editors); "Documents on the Laws of War"; Third Edition; Oxford University press; ISBN 0-19-876390-5
* [http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/CONVPRES?OpenView Texts and commentaries of 1949 Geneva Conventions & Additional Protocols]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/28/newsid_2520000/2520575.stm 1976: Death sentence for mercenaries] (source BBC).
* [http://www.globalissuesgroup.com/geneva/history.html A Brief History Of The Laws Of War] .
* [http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/genocide/trials.htm Crimes, Trials and Laws] .
* [http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/forumy/2006/02/for-sake-of-warriors-accepting-limits.php For the Sake of Warriors: Accepting the Limits of the Law of War] .
* [http://www.wihl.nl/ The Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law and free access to a Documentation Database of primary source materials.] .
* [http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/WCC/skorzeny.htm Trial of Otto Skorzeny and Others, General Military Government Court of the U.S. Zone of Germany, 18th August to 9th September, 1947] .
* [http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/forumy/2005/11/when-law-of-war-becomes-over-lawyered.php When the Law of War Becomes Over-lawyered] ,
* " [http://www.dannen.com/decision/int-law.html International Law on the Bombing of Civilians] " (Gene Dannen).
* [http://www.burneylawfirm.com/international_law_primer.htm A Brief Primer on International Law] , 2007. With cases and commentary. (Nathaniel Burney).
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/1420133.stm What is a war crime?] BBC online
31 July2003 (Tarik Kafala).
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/israel/comment/0,10551,650603,00.html Sharon cannot be tried in Belgium, says court]
The Guardian 15 February, 2002 (Andrew Osborn).
* [http://www.democratiya.com/review.asp?reviews_id=108 reviews of Michael Byers, "War Law", and David Kennedy, "Of War and Law"] , "
Democratiya", Autumn 2007 (Irfan Khawaja).
* [http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/ UN Charter]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
laws of war — The laws that govern the actions nations may take when they are at war. See also Geneva Conventions, jus in bello The Essential Law Dictionary. Sphinx Publishing, An imprint of Sourcebooks, Inc. Amy Hackney Blackwell. 2008 … Law dictionary
laws of war — noun Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions … Wiktionary
laws of war — systems of rules concerning the behavior of two enemy sides during war … English contemporary dictionary
laws of war — plural n. international rules and conventions that limit belligerents action … Useful english dictionary
War rape — describes rape committed by soldiers, other combatants or civilians during armed conflict or war. Rape in the course of war dates back to antiquity, ancient enough to have been mentioned in the Bible. During war and armed conflict rape is… … Wikipedia
War crime — War crimes are violations of the laws or customs of war , including but not limited to murder, the ill treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied territory to slave labor camps , the murder or ill treatment of prisoners of war … Wikipedia
war crime — war criminal. Usually, war crimes. crimes committed against an enemy, prisoners of war, or subjects in wartime that violate international agreements or, as in the case of genocide, are offenses against humanity. [1940 45] * * * Any violation of… … Universalium
War and environmental law — War can heavily damage the environment, and warring countries often place victory ahead of environmental concerns for the duration of the war. Some international law is designed to limit this environmental harm.Environmental impact of warWar and… … Wikipedia
war crime — n: an act committed usu. during an international war for which individual criminal liability will be imposed by a domestic or international tribunal; specif: a violation of the laws or customs of war as embodied or recognized by international… … Law dictionary
war crime — war ,crime noun count the crime of killing or harming people during a war for reasons that are not allowed by international laws about war ╾ war ,criminal noun count … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English