- Remote keyless system
A remote keyless system is a system designed to remotely permit or deny access to premises or
automobiles. There are several RKE systems on the market, including but not limited to KeeLoqby Microchip, HITAG by Philips, and AVR411 by Atmel.
In the case of automobiles an RKS performs the functions of a standard car key without physical contact;
power door lockscan be locked or unlocked from several feet away or even from inside a building. (In this regard, the term "keyless" is a misnomer since the fob acts as an electronic key. Locking it in the car is just as much of a problem as doing the same with a mechanical key.
A remote keyless system can include both a remote keyless entry system (RKE) and a remote keyless ignition system (RKI).
Remote keyless systems first began appearing as an option on several
American Motorsvehicles in 1983, including the Renault Alliance. The feature gained its first widespread availability on General Motors' W-platform vehicles (the Buick Regal, Oldsmobile Cutlass Supremeand Pontiac Grand Prix) in 1989.
Remote keyless systems operate by broadcasting radio waves on a particular frequency. Most RKEs work on 315MHz in North America and Japan, and 433.92MHz in Europe. Modern systems implement
encryptionto prevent car thieves from intercepting and spoofing the signal.
The system signals that it has either locked or unlocked the car usually through some fairly discreet combination of flashing vehicle lamps, a distinctive sound other than the horn, or some usage of the horn itself.
The functions of a remote keyless entry system are contained on a
key fobor built into the ignition key handle itself. Buttons are dedicated to locking or unlocking the doors and opening the trunk (or, on sport utility vehicles and station wagons, unlock/open the rear tailgate). Some cars will also close any open windows and roof when remotely locking the car. Some remote keyless fobs also feature a red panic buttonwhich activates the car alarmas a standard feature.
Some cars' engines with remote keyless ignition systems can be started by the push of a button on key fob.
For offices, or residences, the system can also be coupled with the security system, garage door opener or remotely activated lighting devices.
The operating range of keyless remotes varies widely between manufacturers. E.g., Ford use 20 m for Europe and North America and 5m for Japan and other markets where the transmitted power restrictions are much greater. The range is either measured from the skin of the car or from a nominal central point. Fact|date=October 2007 The range around the vehicle is not linear as corner pillars and small window apertures attenuate the signal, hence reduces its range.
Remote keyless entry fobs emit a radio frequency with a designated, distinct digital identity code. Inasmuch as "programming" fobs is a proprietary technical process, it is typically performed by the automobile dealership. (In point of fact it is a computer in the car which is programmed in the process, not the fob itself.) In general, the procedure is to put the car computer in 'programming mode'. This usually entails engaging the power in the car several times while holding a button or lever. It may also include opening doors, or removing fuses. The procedure varies amongst various makes, models, and years. Once in 'programming mode' one or more of the fob buttons is depressed to send the digital identity code to the car's onboard computer. The computer saves the code and the car is then taken out of 'programming mode'.
As RKS fobs have become more prevalent in the automobile industry a secondary market of unprogrammed devices on sites like Keylessride have sprung up. Some web sites sell steps to program fobs for individual models of cars as well as accessory kits to remotely activate other car devices.
On cars where the trunk release is electronically operated, it can be triggered to open by a button on the remote. Conventionally, the trunk springs open with the help of hydraulic struts or
torsion springs, and thereafter must be lowered manually. Premium models (like SUVs with tailgates which are possibly out-of-reach for some) may have a motorized assist that can both open and close the tailgate for easy access and remote operation.
Some cars have a
proximitysystem that is triggered if a keylike transducer( Advanced Key) is within a certain distance of the car. It is sometimes called hands-free. It is commonly found on European and Japanese luxury vehicles, such as Mercedes-Benz, Audi, Subaru, Toyota, Lexus, Volvo, and Nissan. The vehicle can be unlocked without the driver needing to physically push a button on the key fob to lock or unlock the and is also able to start or stop the ignition without physically having to insert the key and turning the ignition. Instead, as you approach the vehicle, the vehicle senses that the key (located in your pocket, purse,...) is approaching the vehicle. When you are in the car's required distance there are two methods typically used by auto manufacturers to unlock the doors. In method one, Once you are in the car's "bubble" (the required distance you have to be from the vehicle for the key to be recognized) the car will automatically unlock the drivers door. In method two, once you are in the car's "bubble" the car doesn't unlock the door unless you touch one of the sensors located behind the door handles. As others attempt to get in, it senses that the driver is within the "bubble" and as they touch the sensors behind their door handles, the car will unlock their door. In certain vehicles, there are also various functions built into the transmitter to perform various tasks. For example, in many import vehicles, if you press the unlock button twice and hold the button on the second push, the vehicle will roll down the front two, all four, and/or sunroof windows to ventilate the interior. If you follow the same procedure with the Lock button or insert your key and twist the lock twice, holding on the second turn, the car will roll the windows and/or sunroof up. In the 4Runner there is a button to roll down the rear window. Some can activate the cars headlights/reverse/tail lights remotely. Some can activate various electronics you install via your dealer (Aftermarket Neon Kits, AUX Lights,...)
Near Field Communication– possible uses and applications
* [http://auto.howstuffworks.com/remote-entry.htm Article about how keyless entry remote systems on automobiles work]
* [http://www.maxim-ic.com/appnotes.cfm/appnote_number/3395/CMP/WP-19 Requirements of Remote Keyless Entry (RKE) Systems]
* [http://www.slickcar.com/keyless-entry.asp Self Install Keyless Entry ]
* [http://www.snopes.com/autos/techno/lockcode.asp False warning about RKE code thiefs at Snopes.com]
* [http://www.cheapfobs.com/blog/ A Blog dedicated to keyless entry remotes]
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