Higher education in Saskatchewan

Historically, Saskatchewan's higher education system has been "significantly shaped" by demographics [Muir, William R. (1997). Higher Education in Saskatchewan. In G.A. Jones (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada". (pp. 93-114). New York: Garland.] In 1901, six years prior to the 1907 founding of a university in Saskatchewan, the urban population in Saskatchewan was 14,266 (16%) while the rural population was 77,013 (84%). One hundred years later, the proportions had changed significantly: urban population in 2001 was 629,036 (64%) while the rural population was 349,897 (36%). [Statistics Canada. (2005). "Population urban and rural, by province and territory (Saskatchewan )". Retrieved May 7, 2008, from http://www40.statcan.ca/l01/cst01/demo62i.htm] Over time the province's higher education system has changed significantly in response both to this demographic shift and to provincial politics.

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Saskatchewan Higher Education: Quick Facts

* May 21, 2008: Provincial government launches a $12 million [http://www.gov.sk.ca/news?newsId=674d82e0-7c8c-4b65-b2a4-40cc0e79dbdd Graduate Retention Program] to provide rebates of up to $20,000 for post-secondary graduates from Saskatchewan who stay in the province for seven years after graduation [Saskatchewan Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment and Labour. (2008). "Graduate retention program". Retrieved May 20, 2008, from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/grp]

* 91.4% of post-secondary graduates were “satisfied” or “very satisfied” with the overall quality of their educational experience, as reported in the 2004-2005 [http://www.usask.ca/ia/pub_repts/grad_outcomes/Sask_Adv_Edu_and_Employment_Report-FINAL.pdf Graduate Outcomes] review. [Insitrix Research Inc. (2007). "Saskatchewan Advanced Education and Employment: Graduate outcomes of 2004-2005 class." [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 20, 2008, from http://www.usask.ca/ia/pub_repts/grad_outcomes/Sask_Adv_Edu_and_Employment_Report-FINAL.pdf]

* Saskatchewan had the highest per-FTE post-secondary funding of any province in 2004-05. [Canadian Association of University Teachers. (2007). "CAUT almanac of post-secondary education 2007". [Electronic version] . Ottawa: Author. Retrieved May 26, 2008 from http://www.caut.ca/uploads/2007_CAUT_Almanac.PDF]

* The Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment and Labour’s total [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=746cb4a8-2aec-4ee8-b826-106c5a768e78&l=English budget] for 2008-09 is $761 million. [Saskatchewan Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment and Labour. (2008). "Budget 2008-09". [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 7, 2008, from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=746cb4a8-2aec-4ee8-b826-106c5a768e78&l=English]

History

Saskatchewan became a province on September 1, 1905. [Library and Archives Canada. (2008). "Canadian confederation: Alberta and Saskatchewan". Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/confederation/023001-2215-e.html] In 1907, the University Act created the [http://www.usask.ca/uofs/history/ University of Saskatchewan] in Saskatoon [University of Saskatchewan. (2008). "Campus History". Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://www.usask.ca/uofs/history/] . The Methodist Church established Regina College in 1911; fifteen Bible colleges were also established in Saskatchewan between 1928 and 1945. In 1944, following the election of Tommy Douglas and the CCF party, Teachers' colleges were moved into the University, and Regina College became a second campus of the University. [Muir, William R. (1997). Higher Education in Saskatchewan. In G.A. Jones (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada". (pp. 93-114). New York: Garland.]

In 1958, the Moose Jaw Normal School was converted into the [http://www.siast.sk.ca/palliser/aboutpalliser/palliserhistory.htm Saskatchewan Technical Institute] . [Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology. (2008). "History (Palliser campus)". Retrieved May 22, 2008 from http://www.siast.sk.ca/palliser/aboutpalliser/palliserhistory.htm] The Central Saskatchewan Technical Institute opened in Saskatchewan in 1963, followed by the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Arts and Science in 1972. [Higher Education Timeline. (2006). In "The encyclopedia of Saskatchewan". Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/education_in_saskatchewan_timeline.html] During this period, in 1964, the Liberals returned to power in Saskatchewan; between 1964 and 1961 they oversaw a program of "expansion and centralization of higher education". [Muir, William R. (1997). Higher Education in Saskatchewan. In G.A. Jones (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada". (pp. 93-114). New York: Garland.] In 1972 the NDP (formerly the CCF) were re-elected, and in 1973 the community colleges act was passed. By 1981, there were sixteen regional colleges. [Muir, William R. (1997). Higher Education in Saskatchewan. In G.A. Jones (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada". (pp. 93-114). New York: Garland.]

In 1974, the [http://www.uregina.ca/urprofile.shtml University of Regina] became independent. [University of Regina. (2004). "University of Regina profile". Retrieved May 12, 2008 from http://www.uregina.ca/urprofile.shtml]

In 1976 the Saskatchewan Indian Institution of Technologies (SIIT) was established in academic partnership with the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST). [Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technologies. (2008). "Our history". Retrieved May 26, 2008 from http://www.siit.sk.ca/OurHistory.html] In 1980 the Métis Nation of Saskatchewan created the [http://www.gdins.org/AboutGDI.shtml#missionstatement Gabriel Dumont Institute of Native Studies] . [Gabriel Dumont Institute. (2008). "About GDI". Retrieved May 12, 2008 from http://www.gdins.org/AboutGDI.shtml#missionstatement] Over the next several years Aboriginal-controlled Institutions would expand to include the [http://www.firstnationsuniversity.ca/ First Nations University of Canada] , the [http://www.gdins.org/DTI.shtml Dumont Technical Institute] , the Northern Teacher Education Program, and the Northern Professional Access College ( [http://www.nortep-norpac.sk.ca NORTEP/NORPAC] ).

In 1982 the Progressive Conservative Party returned to power, abolishing the Universities Commission (established in 1974 by the NDP to coordinate the two Saskatchewan Universities) and establishing the Advanced Technology Training Centre in 1984. [Muir, William R. (1997). Higher Education in Saskatchewan. In G.A. Jones (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada". (pp. 93-114). New York: Garland.] In January 1988, The "Institute Act" and the "Regional Colleges Act" amalgamated Saskatchewan's technical institutes, urban community colleges and the Advanced Technology Training Centre to form the [http://www.siast.sk.ca/siast/aboutsiast/quickoverview.htm#history Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology] [Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology. (2008). "Quick overview: History". Retrieved May 12, 2008 from http://www.siast.sk.ca/siast/aboutsiast/quickoverview.htm#history]

In response to the needs of rural residents, a Distance Education Program Review Committee was created in 1987 [Muir, William R. (1997). Higher Education in Saskatchewan. In G.A. Jones (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada". (pp. 93-114). New York: Garland.] by 1989 the [http://www.scn.ca/about.php Saskatchewan Communications Network] had been created to deliver "cultural, informational and educational programming and [act] as an enabler for the regional film and television industry". [Saskatchewan Communications Network. (2008). "About SCN". Retrieved May 20, 2008 from http://www.scn.ca/about.php] Distance education was further expanded with the 2002 creation of [http://campussask.ca/ Campus Saskatchewan] in response to "identified common interests in expanding the use of technology enhanced learning". [Campus Saskatchewan. (2002). "Memorandum of understanding on campus Saskatchewan." [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 28, 2008 from http://www.campussask.ca/wp-content/uploads/2007/06/CS_MOU.pdf]

From 1992 - 2007, the NDP were again in power in Saskatchewan. Their major policy paper on post-secondary education, [http://www.publications.gov.sk.ca/details.cfm?p=23992 "Post-Secondary Education Accessibility and Affordability Review"] ,(generally known as the "McCall Report" was published October 9, 2007. [McCall, Warren. (2007)." Post-secondary education accessibility and affordability review". [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=2b200875-f67f-4b32-b770-c6a4974f6b67] Less than a month later, the NDP were defeated by the Saskatchewan Party. [CBC News. (2007). "Saskatchewan Party wins majority government." Retrieved May 28, 2008 from http://www.cbc.ca/canada/saskvotes2007/story/2007/11/07/sask-main-election.html] The new Minister, the Honourable Rob Norris, has the following mandate, according to the [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=01c93cbc-d11f-4074-974f-dd7db10c3334 SAEE website] :

[The Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment, and Labour] focuses on three strategic areas to meet its mandate of creating a vital, educated and skilled workforce that meets the labour demands of Saskatchewan employers. The approach is to retain educated and skilled workers in the province, develop a skilled workforce by providing education and training programs, and attract educated and skilled workers and their families from outside of the province and the country by promoting Saskatchewan’s opportunities. [Saskatchewan Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment and Labour. (2008). "Mandate". Retrieved May 12, 2008 from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=01c93cbc-d11f-4074-974f-dd7db10c3334]

Among the first of the new government’s actions was to introduce the $12 million [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/grp Graduate Retention Program] intended to address the mandated goal of retaining “educated and skilled workers” in Saskatchewan. It remains to be seen which, if any, of the recommendations of the McCall report will be implemented by the new government.

Equity and access

First Nations and Métis students

Even a cursory reading of Saskatchewan’s post-secondary education history reveals the number and variety of institutions and programs specifically for Aboriginal students. According to Bouvier and Karlenzig,

Compared to other provinces, a relatively high proportion of Saskatchewan’s population is Aboriginal (13.5% according to the 2001 census). This proportion is growing, although recently the trend has been slowing down somewhat (Saskatchewan Learning, 2004b: 6-7). In addition the median age (20.1 years) of Aboriginal persons in Saskatchewan is younger than in any other province. Approximately 20% of the province’s school-aged population is Aboriginal (Saskatchewan Learning, 2004b: 109). While a high proportion (82%) of First nations students living on-reserve attend First nations schools, most First Nations students living off-reserve as well as Métis students in Saskatchewan are enrolled in the provincial system. [Bouvier, Rita and Karlenzig, Bruce. (2006). Accountability and Aboriginal education: Dilemmas, promises and challenges. In "Our schools/our selves special issue spring 2006"., 16. As cited in Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. (2007). "Saskatchewan notes". [Electronic version] . Ottawa, Banks, Brian. Retrieved May 28, 2008 from http://www.policyalternatives.ca/documents/Saskatchewan_Pubs/2007/Sasknotes_Access_to_PSE.pdf]

While the interim version of the "Post-Secondary Education Accessibility and Affordability Review" points out that Saskatchewan was spending “$572 per capita” on post-secondary education, [McCall, Warren. (2007). "Post-secondary education accessibility and affordability review: Interim report". [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 28, 2008 from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=5120698c-af86-4fd1-be22-199baeae0fe2] Banks (2007) argues that " [i] f the province were to fund post-secondary education institutions on a per capita basis, then First Nations and Métis institutions, who serve 13.5% of the population should receive approximately $75 million per annum. Instead they receive in the neighbourhood of $7 million per annum from the province." [Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. (2007). "Saskatchewan notes". [Electronic version] . Ottawa, Banks, Brian. Retrieved May 28, 2008 from http://www.policyalternatives.ca/documents/Saskatchewan_Pubs/2007/Sasknotes_Access_to_PSE.pdf]

While some of this discrepancy is addressed in the 2008-09 Budget (see Finance, below), it remains to be seen how well Saskatchewan’s new government will do in terms of increasing access to post-secondary for First Nations and Métis students.

Rural students

For students outside urban centres, Saskatchewan offers online education through Campus Saskatchewan. According to their website, [http://campussask.ca/about/ Campus Saskatchewan] is a partnership, directed and managed by its members, to support them in developing and advancing inter-institutional initiatives to achieve shared goals and priorities for the use of technology enhanced learning.

That is, online and distance education in Saskatchewan is, at least in part, coordinated by Campus Saskatchewan.

To enhance student mobility, the Saskatchewan Council for Admissions and Transfer ( [http://www.saskcat.ca/ SaskCAT] )offers an online transfer credit guide. According to the SaskCAT website, "SaskCAT is a partnership of institutions and organizations from Saskatchewan's education system. It is committed to enhancing student mobility by maximizing the portability of educational credits and facilitating access to post-secondary programs and institutions. SaskCAT operates as a committee of Campus Saskatchewan." [Saskatchewan Council for Admissions and Transfer. (2008). "Homepage". Retrieved May 30, 2008 from http://www.saskcat.ca/]

Structure

The higher education system in Saskatchewan includes two universities, [http://www.usask.ca/ the University of Saskatchewan] (in Saskatoon) and the [http://www.uregina.ca/ University of Regina] and their federated and affiliated colleges; the three campuses of the [http://www.firstnationsuniversity.ca/ First Nations University of Canada] ; the four campuses of the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology ( [http://www.siast.sk.ca/ SIAST] ); the eight regional colleges; private vocational schools or training institutions; and Aboriginal-run institutions and programs (including the [http://www.gdins.org/ Gabriel Dumont Institute] and the [http://www.siit.sk.ca/Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technologies] ). [McCall, Warren. (2007). "Post-secondary education accessibility and affordability review." [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=2b200875-f67f-4b32-b770-c6a4974f6b67]

The four federated colleges-- [http://www.campioncollege.ca/ Campion College] , [http://www.luthercollege.edu/ Luther College] , [http://www.stmcollege.ca/ St. Thomas More College] and the [http://www.firstnationsuniversity.ca/ First Nations University of Canada] —are each academically integrated with a university, and each offers undergraduate degree programs and pre-professional studies. [Saskatchewan Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment and Labour. (2008). "Post-secondary educational institutions." Retrieved May 12, 2008 from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=c61f7b35-f641-4bbf-9d1d-55116fda1019]

Affiliated colleges are similar to federated colleges but are not academically merged with a university. These institutions— [http://www.stpeterscollege.ca/ St. Peter’s College] , [http://www.briercrest.ca/ Briercrest College and Seminary] , the [http://www.usask.ca/stu/emmanuel/ College of Emmanuel and St. Chad] , [http://www.horizon.edu/ Horizon College and Seminary] the [http://www.usask.ca/stu/luther/index2.htm Lutheran Theological Seminary] , and [http://www.sac.on.ca/St. Andrew’s College] -- offer courses to fill the first and second year Arts and Science requirements for students’ chosen degree programs or to meet the entrance requirements for one of the professional colleges. Most of the Affiliated Colleges are theological colleges. [Saskatchewan Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment and Labour. (2008). "Post-secondary educational institutions." Retrieved May 12, 2008 from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=c61f7b35-f641-4bbf-9d1d-55116fda1019] The [http://www.gdins.org/ Gabriel Dumont Institute] and the [http://www.nortep-norpac.sk.ca/Northern Teachers’ Education Program] also have partnerships with the universities that allow them to offer accredited courses to Aboriginal students and students in the north of the province. [Saskatchewan Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment and Labour. (2008). "Post-secondary educational institutions." Retrieved May 12, 2008 from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=c61f7b35-f641-4bbf-9d1d-55116fda1019]

Saskatchewan’s eight [http://www.ctrc.sk.ca/links/regionalcolleges.html regional colleges] allow students from rural Saskatchewan to access post-secondary education and training from the University of Saskatchewan the University of Regina and SIAST. Students are also able to access televised and other materials through the [http://www.scn.ca/about.php Saskatchewan Communications Network] (SCN). [Saskatchewan Communications Network. (2008). "About SCN". Retrieved May 20, 2008 from http://www.scn.ca/about.php] Some of the regional colleges offer university-transfer programs while others are primarily focused on adult basic education and trades/ technical training. [Carlton Trail Regional College. (2008). "Regional colleges". Retrieved May 22, 2008 from http://www.ctrc.sk.ca/links/regionalcolleges.html]

Governance

The post-secondary sector in Saskatchewan includes public institutions, Aboriginal-controlled institutions and programming, private vocational schools, apprenticeship programs, and Campus Saskatchewan.

Public Institutions and Aboriginal-controlled Institutions and Programming

The University of Regina and the University of Saskatchewan were established by provincial statute and are regulated by their respective acts: [http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Statutes/Statutes/U5.pdf "The University of Regina Act"] and the [http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Statutes/Statutes/U6-1.pdf "University of Saskatchewan Act"] . [Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials. (2008). "Quality assurance practices for postsecondary education in Saskatchewan: Relevant legislation". Retrieved May 30, 2008 from http://www.cicic.ca/en/page.aspx?sortcode=2.20.24.27.28.28#sk10]

The Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology ( [http://www.siast.sk.ca/ SIAST] ) was established through [http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Statutes/Statutes/S25-2.pdf "The Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology Act, 1986 (amended 1996)"] . [Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials. (2008). "Quality assurance practices for postsecondary education in Saskatchewan: Relevant legislation". Retrieved May 30, 2008 from http://www.cicic.ca/en/page.aspx?sortcode=2.20.24.27.28.28#sk10] The [http://www.gdins.org/DTI.shtml Dumont Technical Institute] is federated with SIAST and is the adult upgrading and technical training arm of the Gabriel Dumont Institute of Native Studies and Applied Research , created and operated by the Métis Nation of Saskatchewan. [Gabriel Dumont Institute. (2008). "Dumont Technical Institute (DTI)". Retrieved May 27, 2008 from http://www.gdins.org/DTI.shtml]

[http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Statutes/Statutes/R8-1.pdf "The Regional Colleges Act"] created the regional colleges to provide adult basic education and skills training to people in areas of the province without easy access to post-secondary education. [McCall, Warren. (2007). "Post-secondary education accessibility and affordability review." [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=2b200875-f67f-4b32-b770-c6a4974f6b67]

[http://www.firstnationsuniversity.ca/ The First Nations University of Canada] is technically a federated college (its degrees are conferred by the University of Regina); “it is the only First Nations-controlled post-secondary institution in Canada that operates in partnership with a university”. [McCall, Warren. (2007). "Post-secondary education accessibility and affordability review." [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=2b200875-f67f-4b32-b770-c6a4974f6b67] According to their website,

the Saskatchewan Indian Federated College Act of the Legislative Assembly of the Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations (FSIN) established the Saskatchewan Indian Federated College (SIFC) (now the First Nations University of Canada) as an institution that is administratively and financially autonomous, but academically integrated with the University of Regina. The SIFC Act specifies the composition and responsibilities of the board of governors. Two members of the board are appointed directly by the Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations (FSIN). Other members are appointed by the senate, Agency/Tribal Councils of Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan universities, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Saskatchewan Learning, First Nations University of Canada faculty and the First Nations University of Canada Students' Association. [First Nations University of Canada. (2008). "About our board of governors". Retrieved May 27, 2008 from http://www.firstnationsuniversity.ca/default.aspx?page=77 ]

In November, 2005, the All-Chiefs’ Task Force on the Future of the First Nations University of Canada released a [http://www.firstnationsuniversity.ca/images/docs/Task_Force_Final_Report.pdf report] outlining their findings and recommendations following a forensic audit of the First Nations University of Canada. The report identifies “institutional governance [as] the most important of its recommendations.” [First Nations University of Canada. (2005). "All Chiefs’ task force on the future of the First Nations university of Canada". [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 27, 2008 from http://www.firstnationsuniversity.ca/images/docs/Task_Force_Final_Report.pdf] . The 2007 FNUC Board of Governors has 27 members, including Chiefs, Grand Chiefs, students, and both federal and provincial representatives ["About our board of governors". Retrieved May 27, 2008 from http://www.firstnationsuniversity.ca/default.aspx?page=77] As recently as May 6, 2008, the Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) was contemplating censuring FNUC (or “FNUniv” as CAUT and others call the institution) “unless the university agrees to remedy gross violations of basic university governance principles, address concerns about academic freedom and respect collective agreements it has negotiated”. [Canadian Association of University Teachers. (2008). "First Nations University facing CAUT censure". [Online bulletin] . Ottawa: Author. Retrieved May 27, 2008 from http://cautbulletin.ca/en_article.asp?SectionID=823&SectionName=News&VolID=212&VolumeName=No%205&VolumeStartDate=5/16/2008&EditionID=9&EditionName=Vol%2055&EditionStartDate=1/17/2008&ArticleID=2148] As of June 24, 2008, CAUT was reporting some progress in discussions with FNUniv. [Canadian Association of University Teachers. (2008). "Progress Cited in Talks between CAUT and FNUniv". [Online bulletin] . Ottawa: Author. Retrieved July 3, 2008 from http://www.caut.ca/pages.asp?page=673]

The [http://www.siit.sk.ca/ Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technologies] (SIIT) is administered under [http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Statutes/Statutes/S25-11.pdf "The Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technologies Act, 2000"] . It is governed by a board composed of senators, Saskatchewan Tribal Council appointees, and a Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations executive member. [Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials. (2008). "Quality assurance practices for postsecondary education in Saskatchewan: Relevant legislation". Retrieved May 30, 2008 from http://www.cicic.ca/en/page.aspx?sortcode=2.20.24.27.28.28#sk10]

The [http://www.gdins.org/ Gabriel Dumont Institute of Native Studies and Applied Research] (GDI)is the educational institution created and operated by the Métis Nation of Saskatchewan. It is “the only wholly Métis owned and controlled education institution of its kind in Canada” according to the Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials. [Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials. (2008). "Quality assurance practices for postsecondary education in Saskatchewan: Legislation". Retrieved May 30, 2008 from http://www.cicic.ca/en/page.aspx?sortcode=2.20.24.27.28.28#sk10]

The Northern Teacher Education Program ( [http://www.nortep-norpac.sk.ca/ NORTEP] ) is accredited by the University of Saskatchewan, the University of Regina, and the First Nations University of Canada. [NORTEP/NORPAC. (2006). "FAQ’s". Retrieved May 28, 2008 from http://www.nortep-norpac.sk.ca/] The Saskatchewan Urban Native Teacher Education Program ( [http://www.gdins.org/GDIProgramsandServices.shtml SUNTEP] ) “is a four-year, fully accredited Bachelor of Education program, offered by the Gabriel Dumont Institute in cooperation with Saskatchewan Learning, the University of Regina and the University of Saskatchewan. The program is offered in three urban centres--Prince Albert, Saskatoon, and Regina”. [Gabriel Dumont Institute. (2008). "Programs and services." Retrieved May 28, 2008 from http://www.gdins.org/GDIProgramsandServices.shtml]

Private Vocational Schools

Private Vocational Schools are regulated by the [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=43f32fed-285e-4e3b-9605-46b1912decb1 Saskatchewan Advanced Education and Employment, Training Institutions Branch] under the authority of the [http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Statutes/Statutes/P26-2.pdf "Private Vocational Schools Regulation Act, 1995"] and the [http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Regulations/Regulations/P26-2R1.pdf "Private Vocational Schools Regulations, 1995"] . [McCall, Warren. (2007). "Post-secondary education accessibility and affordability review." [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=2b200875-f67f-4b32-b770-c6a4974f6b67] According to the Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials:

The legislation requires that institutions, programs, and instructors be registered with the ministry. The ministry does not directly evaluate private vocational school programs for quality. However, registration and monitoring of program, curricula, including a review of labour market research to support new programs, has an impact on quality. The Canadian Education and Training Accreditation Commission (CETAC) is a national association that accredits Canadian private vocational schools at the institutional level. Accreditation is voluntary. [Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials. (2008). "Quality assurance practices for postsecondary education in Saskatchewan: Private training institutions: Internal and external review." Retrieved May 30, 2008 from http://www.cicic.ca/en/page.aspx?sortcode=2.20.24.27.28.28#sk10]

Apprenticeship programs

The Saskatchewan Apprenticeship and Trade Certification Commission (SATCC) oversees apprenticeship programs in Saskatchewan. According to their website,

[http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Statutes/Statutes/A22-2.pdf Saskatchewan's Apprenticeship and Trade Certification Act 1999] establishes the Commission as a Corporation and Agent of the Crown. A Board of twenty or fewer members is appointed by the Provincial Government. The majority of the members of the Board are selected by industry, equally representing employers and employees. The Commission Board also has representation from SIAST, the Provincial Government and equity groups. The Commission reports to a Minister of the Provincial Government who is responsible for the administration of the Act, usually the Minister of Advanced Education and Employment.

The Apprenticeship and Trade Certification Act 1999 authorizes the Commission to manage the Apprenticeship and Trade Certification system. [Saskatchewan Apprenticeship and Trade Certification Commission. (2008). "Commission board". Retrieved May 30, 2008 from http://www.saskapprenticeship.ca/COMMISSION_BOARD/]

Campus Saskatchewan

As a partnership of provincial post-secondary institutions and the government, Campus Saskatchewan was established in 2002 “to use technology-based learning to increase access to post-secondary studies in the province”. [McCall, Warren. (2007). "Post-secondary education accessibility and affordability review." [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=2b200875-f67f-4b32-b770-c6a4974f6b67] Partners in Campus Saskatchewan are the following: Gabriel Dumont Institute/Dumont Technical Institute, First Nations University of Canada, Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technologies (SIIT), Saskatchewan Advanced Education and Employment (ex officio), Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST), Saskatchewan Regional Colleges, University of Regina, and University of Saskatchewan. [Campus Saskatchewan. (2008). "About us." Retrieved May 20, 2008 from http://campussask.ca/about/]

Funding

According to the 2008-09 [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=746cb4a8-2aec-4ee8-b826-106c5a768e78&l=English Budget] , the Saskatchewan Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment, and Labour has a total budget of $761 million. Spending plans include the following:


* $12 million for the new Graduate Retention Program, which will provide tuition rebates of up to $20,000 for post-secondary graduates from Saskatchewan who stay in the province for seven years after graduation.
* $10.5 million to fund a 120 seat expansion for nursing education.

* $3.2 million to train more doctors, by expanding medical student training to 100 and residency training to 120 by 2010-11.

* $0.9 million to SIAST for 12 medical diagnostic technician seats and 42 new trades training seats.

* $4.1 million for Regional Colleges, including support for a 200 seat expansion of on-reserve Adult Basic Education.

* $33 million to enhance affordability for post-secondary learners, including supporting the tuition freeze for university students for a final year, and additional funding for SIAST.

* $5 million for community-based organizations, including immigrant training programs.

* $1 million to the Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technologies (SIIT) for on-reserve adult basic education and skills training.

* $45.8 million for post-secondary institution capital, including $6.8 million for health professional training capital.

* $2.2 million increase for the International Vaccine Centre.

* $2.4 million for settlement and training supports for new immigrants, and to quicken processing time for potential immigrants to Saskatchewan. [Saskatchewan Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment and Labour. (2008). "Budget 2008-09." [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 7, 2008, from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=746cb4a8-2aec-4ee8-b826-106c5a768e78&l=English ]

According to CAUT, over the period 1993-1994 to 2004-2005, only British Columbia (2%) and Saskatchewan (24%) increased provincial funding to post-secondary education. In 2005, tuition represented 29% of University Operating Revenue in Saskatchewan, with 60.6% of operating revenue coming from (presumably both provincial and federal) government. [Canadian Association of University Teachers. (2007). "CAUT almanac of post-secondary education 2007". [Electronic version] . Ottawa: Author. Retrieved May 26, 2008 from http://www.caut.ca/uploads/2007_CAUT_Almanac.PDF]



Budget breakdown [Saskatchewan Ministry of Finance. (2008). "Provincial budget estimates". Retrieved May 27, 2008 from http://www.finance.gov.sk.ca/adx/aspx/adxGetMedia.aspx?DocID=3231,3204,2000,1974,1973,204,Documents&MediaID=2388&Filename=2008-09Estimates.pdf]

According to the 2008-09 Budget estimates for the Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment and Labour, the following amounts are estimated in the 2008-09 fiscal year. (Note: a partial breakdown is provided for student support services and post-secondary education:

Student Funding

The Saskatchewan Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment and Labour oversees a number of [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/programs-services/ programs] to assist current and potential students. A selection is listed below. [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/abe Adult Basic Education] (ABE)

Adult Basic Education (ABE) is an umbrella term that refers to a wide range of services, credit, and non-credit programs designed to help adult learners achieve their goals. [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=8e6f75fe-1c6e-41e5-9bbb-bf378bf7754a Credit Transfer] (CT)

Credit Transfer (CT) is defined as the process by which credit is granted towards a credential by one institution for programs or courses previously completed at a recognized institution. [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/eapd Employability Assistance for People with Disabilities] (EAPD)

The EAPD Program provides funding to assist adults with disabilities to prepare for, secure and maintain employment. [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/employment-programs Employment Programs] (including SaskJobs and SaskNetWork)

These programs can help individuals transition into and within the workforce.

[http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/ged General Educational Development] (GED)

The GED Tests measure the academic skills and knowledge expected of high school graduates. Recognized throughout North America, the GED Testing Program has served as a bridge to education and employment. The GED Tests provide a reliable vehicle through which adults can certify that they possess the major and lasting outcomes of a traditional high school education [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/grp Graduate Retention Program]

The Graduate Retention Program (GRP) is a refundable income tax credit to rebate up to $20,000 of tuition fees paid by eligible graduates. This initiative replaces the previous Graduate Tax Exemption beginning January 1, 2008. [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/graduatetaxbenefit Graduate Tax Benefit Programs]

From 2000-2007, the Government of Saskatchewan had two previous graduate tax benefit programs for graduates from post-secondary programs. [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=b4111a8c-a5a8-453d-ae5b-d49e12d02a17 Innovation and Science Fund]

The Innovation and Science Fund (ISF) will provide funding to Saskatchewan universities, colleges and research institutes to support projects. [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/jsfs/iqrt Institutional Quick Response Training] (Quick Skills)

JobStart/Future Skills Program - Quick Skills option provides funds to public training institutions to train the unemployed to meet industry requirements for skilled workers. Training should lead to ongoing permanent employment. The program also provides access to credit training in rural and northern Saskatchewan. [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/jsfs JobStart/Future Skills]

JobStart/Future Skills links training to employment. The program provides a range of skills training solutions for Saskatchewan people. [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=539482c3-ce1a-453e-b67b-16ba309de339 Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition] (PLAR)

Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) is a systematic process that assesses and recognizes an individual’s knowledge and skills regardless of where or how the learning was acquired. [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/pta/ Provincial Training Allowance] (PTA)

The Provincial Training Allowance (PTA) is grant funding to assist with the costs of living for low income adult students enrolled in basic education and bridging programs. In addition, the PTA provides assistance for Quick Skills Training of four to eleven weeks for programs not funded by student loans. [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=a0b22548-beda-4427-a351-cf59db109e54 Qualification Recognition] (QR)

Qualification Recognition (QR) practices involve the fair, credible, and standardized assessment of credentials to assist employers, educational institutions and professional regulatory bodies in making informed decisions. [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/rpl/ Recognizing Prior Learning] (RPL)

Recognizing Prior Learning (RPL) is a broad umbrella concept which values all learning that people have gained in their lives. [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/stb/ Skills Training Benefit] (STB)

The objective of the Skills Training Benefit program is to assist clients who are EI eligible to return to the labour market as quickly as possible and to improve their employability. [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/see Student Employment Experience]

The Student Employment Experience (SEE) program is a year-round funding program for Saskatchewan employers to hire students. [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/student-loans Student Loans]

The Canada-Saskatchewan Integrated Student Loans Program offers a needs based supplement to your existing resources to help you fund your education. [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/student-participant-placement-injury/ Student/Participant Placement Injury]

Procedures in the event of a Student/Participant Injury on a Work-based Learning Placement or Work Placement. [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/tiow Targeted Initiative for Older Workers] (TIOW)

The Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment and Labour is working in partnership with the Federal government to deliver a two year initiative to help older workers be reintegrated into the workforce. [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=6d386e64-caca-4212-bdf2-460b1311dec0 Technology Enhanced Learning] (TEL)

Saskatchewan post-secondary institutions and the ministry work together through the provincial TEL Action Plan to extend access to education and skills training and enrich learning by adapting technology-based tools, teaching methods and resources to meet the diverse needs of learners, both on- and off-campus. [Saskatchewan Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment and Labour. (2008). "Programs and services". Retrieved May 12, 2008 from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/programs-services/]

Future Directions and Challenges

Given Saskatchewan's booming economy [Globe & Mail. (2007). "Sizzling economy creating a Saskaboom." [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 30, 2008 from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20070917.wsaskaboom17/BNStory/National/home] and recent change of government [CBC News. (2007). "Saskatchewan Party wins majority government". Retrieved May 28, 2008 from http://www.cbc.ca/canada/saskvotes2007/story/2007/11/07/sask-main-election.html] , the shape of higher education in the province may be changing.

In an address to the Canadian Society for the Study of Higher Education on June 3, 2008, [http://www.parklandcollege.sk.ca/ Parkland Regional College] now Parkland College CEO Dr. Fay Myers observed that the goals of Saskatchewan's Regional Colleges need to change in response to the booming economy. She argues that the Regional Colleges need to take a "collaborative systems approach" to providing education in Saskatchewan and must be aware "of global forces" while developing "innovative industry partnerships" and "provid [ing] niche training." [Myers, Fay. (2008, June). "Globalization impacts regional colleges: A call to action."Paper delivered at the Canadian Society for the Study of Higher Education Conference, Vancouver, Canada.]

According to the Saskatchewan Party's platform document, [http://www.saskparty.com/assets/pdf/New%20Ideas/SecuringTheFuturePlatform.pdf "Securing the Future"] , the new government is committed to "keeping post-secondary tuition affordable, by increasing post-secondary funding by 28%." [Saskatchewan Party. (2007). "Securing the Future". [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 26, 2008 from http://www.saskparty.com/assets/pdf/New%20Ideas/SecuringTheFuturePlatform.pdf] However, as Myers (2008) notes, funding for skills training increased by just 1%. [Myers, Fay. (2008, June). "Globalization impacts regional colleges: A call to action." Paper delivered at the Canadian Society for the Study of Higher Education Conference, Vancouver, Canada.]

The swift introduction of the promised [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/grp Graduate Retention Program] suggests that the Saskatchewan Party is making some headway towards fulfilling the promises made in their platform document. What impact they will have on the higher education system in Saskatchewan remains to be seen.

Associations

The following organizations may be of interest to people who want to know more about issues in post-secondary education in Saskatchewan and Canada. Each is described by a snippet quoted from the association’s “about us” page.

[http://www.accc.ca/index.htm Association of Canadian Community Colleges]

The Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) is the national, voluntary membership organization created in 1972 to represent colleges and institutes to government, business and industry, both in Canada and internationally.

[http://www.aucc.ca/ Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada]

The Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada is the voice of Canada's universities. We represent 92 Canadian public and private not-for-profit universities and university-degree level colleges.

[http://www.caut.ca/Canadian Association of University Teachers]

Founded in 1951, CAUT is the national voice for academic staff. Today, representing 55,000 teachers, librarians, researchers and other academic professionals and general staff, CAUT is an outspoken defender of academic freedom and works actively in the public interest to improve the quality and accessibility of post-secondary education in Canada.

[http://www.cfs-fcee.ca/html/english/home/index.php Canadian Federation of Students]

The Canadian Federation of Students and the Canadian Federation of Students-Services were formed in 1981 to provide students with an effective and united voice, provincially and nationally.

[http://www.sasknetwork.gov.sk.ca/ SaskNetWork]

The SaskNetWork web site is about helping the people of Saskatchewan connect to the resources they need in the areas of jobs, work, education and training, career planning, self-employment, labour market information, financial help and the workplace.

[http://www.usaskfaculty.ca/ University of Saskatchewan Faculty Association]

The Faculty Association was founded in 1952 to negotiate salaries and other benefits with the Board of Governors of the University of Saskatchewan. On January 26, 1977, the USFA was certified under the Trade Union Act.

[http://www.urfa.uregina.ca/ University of Regina Faculty Association]

The University of Regina Faculty Association (URFA) is a professional organization for members of various bargaining units on the University of Regina campus. We are a member of the Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT), and the Saskatchewan Association of University Teachers (SAUT). URFA serves as the collective bargaining agent for approximately 1200 full and part time members.

Chronology

1905 The [http://www.solon.org/Constitutions/Canada/English/sa_1905.html Saskatchewan Act] is passed and the province of Saskatchewan is formed. [ Higher Education Timeline. (2006). In "The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan". Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/education_in_saskatchewan_timeline.html] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saskatchewan_Liberal_Party The Liberal Party] forms the first government.

1907 The [http://www.usask.ca/uofs/history/ Act] establishing the University of Saskatchewan is passed.

1911 The Methodist Church registers the first students in Regina College, which becomes a second campus of the University of Saskatchewan in 1925, then becomes the [http://www.uregina.ca/urprofile.shtml University of Regina] in 1974.

1930 The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_Conservative_Party_of_Saskatchewan Progressive Conservative Party] is elected.

1934 The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saskatchewan_Liberal_Party Liberal Party] is returned to power.

1941 Saskatchewan's population is 67% rural 33% urban. [Statistics Canada. (2005). "Population urban and rural, by province and territory (Saskatchewan )". Retrieved May 7, 2008, from http://www40.statcan.ca/l01/cst01/demo62i.htm]

1944 Tommy Douglas ( [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooperative_Commonwealth_Federation CCF] ) is elected Premier of Saskatchewan . The province passes the first Saskatchewan Apprenticeship Act, which provides a system for the training and certification of apprentices and the trades. [ Higher Education Timeline. (2006). In "The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan". Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/education_in_saskatchewan_timeline.html]

1952 The first National Conference on Apprenticeship in Trades and Industries provides a stimulus for the development of the [http://www.red-seal.ca/ Red Seal program] . [ Higher Education Timeline. (2006). In "The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan". Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/education_in_saskatchewan_timeline.html]

1959 Saskatchewan’s first technical school, the [http://www.siast.sk.ca/palliser/aboutpalliser/palliserhistory.htm Saskatchewan Technical Institute] , opens in Moose Jaw. The University of Saskatchewan offers for the first time an Arts and Science degree at Regina College. [ Higher Education Timeline. (2006). In "The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan". Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/education_in_saskatchewan_timeline.html]

1961 July 1, Regina College is renamed the University of Saskatchewan, Regina Campus. [ Higher Education Timeline. (2006). In "The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan". Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/education_in_saskatchewan_timeline.html]

1963 A second technical institute, The Central Saskatchewan Technical Institute, opens in Saskatoon. [ Higher Education Timeline. (2006). In "The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan". Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/education_in_saskatchewan_timeline.html]

1964 The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saskatchewan_Liberal_Party Liberal Party] is elected.

1971 The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saskatchewan_New_Democratic_Party NDP] (formerly the CCF) is elected.

1971 Parkland Regional College is established (1971-2008). (Later renamed Parkland College (2008).

1972 Chaired by Ron Faris, the Minister’s Advisory Committee on Community Colleges is established to develop a plan for community colleges in the province. The Department of Continuing Education is established to coordinate post-secondary education in Saskatchewan. The Faris Report recommends the establishment of community colleges in Saskatchewan. The [http://www.siast.sk.ca/wascana/aboutwascana/wascanahistory.htm Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Arts and Sciences] is established in Regina. [ Higher Education Timeline. (2006). In "The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan". Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/education_in_saskatchewan_timeline.html]

1973 The Community Colleges Act is passed, establishing the community college system in Saskatchewan. The [http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/hall_commission.html Hall Commission] ,consisting of [http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/hall_emmett_1898-1996.html Emmett Hall] , Stewart Nicks and Gordon Sout, is established to examine the need for a university in Regina. [ Higher Education Timeline. (2006). In "The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan". Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/education_in_saskatchewan_timeline.html]

1974 The [http://www.uregina.ca/urprofile.shtml University of Regina] is established (U of R, 2004). [University of Regina. (2004). "University of Regina profile". Retrieved May 12, 2008 from http://www.uregina.ca/urprofile.shtml]

1976 The [http://www.sicc.sk.ca/saskindian/a79feb24.htm Saskatchewan Indian Community College] is established. The [http://www.firstnationsuniversity.ca/default.aspx?page=53 Saskatchewan Indian Federated College] is established at the University of Regina. [ Higher Education Timeline. (2006). In "The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan". Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/education_in_saskatchewan_timeline.html]

1980 The [http://www.gdins.org/ Gabriel Dumont Institute] of Native Studies and Applied Research is established. [Gabriel Dumont Institute. (2008). "About GDI". Retrieved May 12, 2008 from http://www.gdins.org/AboutGDI.shtml#missionstatement]

1982 The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_Conservative_Party_of_Saskatchewan Progressive Conservative Party] is elected. [Progressive Conservative Party of Saskatchewan. (2008). In "Wikipedia". Retrieved May 20, 2008 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_Conservative_Party_of_Saskatchewan]

1985 Saskatchewan Indian Community College is renamed the [http://www.siit.sk.ca/OurHistory.html Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technology] . [Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technologies. (2008). "Our history". Retrieved May 26, 2008 from http://www.siit.sk.ca/OurHistory.html]

1986 Prince Albert’s [http://www.siast.sk.ca/woodland/aboutwoodland/woodlandhistory.htm Northern Institute of Technology] opens. [ Higher Education Timeline. (2006). In "The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan". Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/education_in_saskatchewan_timeline.html]

1988 Saskatchewan passes the [http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Statutes/Statutes/R8-1.pdf "Regional Colleges Act"] , renaming the community colleges regional colleges, reducing their number, and restructuring them as the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology. [Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology. (2008). "Quick overview: History." Retrieved May 12, 2008 from http://www.siast.sk.ca/siast/aboutsiast/quickoverview.htm#history]

1992 The NDP is elected. The [http://www.gdins.org/DTI.shtml Dumont Technical Institute] [Gabriel Dumont Institute. (2008). "Dumont Technical Institute (DTI)". Retrieved May 27, 2008 from http://www.gdins.org/DTI.shtml] is established to serve the educational and technical needs of Saskatchewan’s Métis, as the adult upgrading and technical training arm of the Gabriel Dumont Institute of Native Studies and Applied Research. [ Higher Education Timeline. (2006). In "The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan". Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/education_in_saskatchewan_timeline.html]

2000 The [http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Statutes/Statutes/S25-11.pdf Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technologies Act] is passed to establish the [http://www.siit.sk.ca/ Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technologies] , which provides adult basic education, post-secondary training programs, and related educational programs. [ Higher Education Timeline. (2006). In "The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan". Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/education_in_saskatchewan_timeline.html]

2002 [http://www.campussaskatchewan.ca/ Campus Saskatchewan] is established. [Campus Saskatchewan. (2008). "About us". Retrieved May 20, 2008 from http://campussask.ca/about/]

2003 On June 21, National Aboriginal Day, the Saskatchewan Indian Federated College is renamed The [http://www.firstnationsuniversity.ca/ First Nations University of Canada] . [ Higher Education Timeline. (2006). In "The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan". Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/education_in_saskatchewan_timeline.html]

2006 NDP Premier Lorne Calvert commissions Advanced Education, Employment, and Labour Minister Warren McCall to produce an extensive review of the post-secondary sector. [McCall, Warren. (2007). "Post-secondary education accessibility and affordability review." [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=2b200875-f67f-4b32-b770-c6a4974f6b67]

2007 October 9: the NDP's [http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=2b200875-f67f-4b32-b770-c6a4974f6b67 "Post-Secondary Education Accessibilty and Affordability Review"] is published . November 7: The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saskatchewan_Party Saskatchewan Party] is elected.

2008 Parkland Regional College is renamed Parkland College

Notes

References

Bouvier, Rita and Karlenzig, Bruce. (2006). Accountability and Aboriginal education: Dilemmas, promises and challenges. In "OurSchools/Our Selves Special Issue Spring 2006"., 16. As cited in Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. (2007). "Saskatchewan notes". [Electronic version] . Ottawa, Banks, Brian. Retrieved May 28, 2008 from http://www.policyalternatives.ca/documents/Saskatchewan_Pubs/2007/Sasknotes_Access_to_PSE.pdf

Campus Saskatchewan. (2008). "About us". Retrieved May 20, 2008 from http://campussask.ca/about/

Campus Saskatchewan. (2002). "Memorandum of understanding on Campus Saskatchewan". [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 28, 2008 from http://www.campussask.ca/wp-content/uploads/2007/06/CS_MOU.pdf

Campus Saskatchewan. (2008). "Partners". Retrieved May 27, 2008 from http://campussask.ca/about/partners/

Canadian Association of University Teachers. (2007). "CAUT almanac of post-secondary education 2007". [Electronic version] . Ottawa: Author. Retrieved May 26, 2008 from http://www.caut.ca/uploads/2007_CAUT_Almanac.PDF Canadian Association of University Teachers. (2008). "First Nations University facing CAUT censure". [Online bulletin] . Ottawa: Author. Retrieved May 27, 2008 from http://cautbulletin.ca/en_article.asp?SectionID=823&SectionName=News&VolID=212&VolumeName=No%205&VolumeStartDate=5/16/2008&EditionID=9&EditionName=Vol%2055&EditionStartDate=1/17/2008&ArticleID=2148

Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. (2007). "Saskatchewan notes". [Electronic version] . Ottawa, Banks, Brian. Retrieved May 28, 2008 from http://www.policyalternatives.ca/documents/Saskatchewan_Pubs/2007/Sasknotes_Access_to_PSE.pdf

Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials. (2008). "Quality assurance practices for postsecondary education in Saskatchewan: Legislation". Retrieved May 30, 2008 from http://www.cicic.ca/en/page.aspx?sortcode=2.20.24.27.28.28#sk10

Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials. (2008). "Quality assurance practices for postsecondary education in Saskatchewan: Relevant legislation". Retrieved May 30, 2008 from http://www.cicic.ca/en/page.aspx?sortcode=2.20.24.27.28.28#sk10

Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials. (2008). "Quality assurance practices for postsecondary education in Saskatchewan: Private training institutions: Internal and external review". Retrieved May 30, 2008 from http://www.cicic.ca/en/page.aspx?sortcode=2.20.24.27.28.28#sk10Carlton Trail Regional College. (2008). Regional colleges. Retrieved May 22, 2008 from http://www.ctrc.sk.ca/links/regionalcolleges.html

CBC News. (2007). "Saskatchewan Party wins majority government". Retrieved May 28, 2008 from http://www.cbc.ca/canada/saskvotes2007/story/2007/11/07/sask-main-election.html

Cooperative Commonwealth Federation. (2008). In "Wikipedia". Retrieved May 20, 2008 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooperative_Commonwealth_Federation

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First Nations University of Canada. (2005). "All Chiefs’ task force on the future of the First Nations University of Canada". [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 27, 2008 from http://www.firstnationsuniversity.ca/images/docs/Task_Force_Final_Report.pdf

Gabriel Dumont Institute. (2008). "About GDI". Retrieved May 12, 2008 from http://www.gdins.org/AboutGDI.shtml#missionstatement

Gabriel Dumont Institute. (2008). "Dumont Technical Institute (DTI)". Retrieved May 27, 2008 from http://www.gdins.org/DTI.shtml

Gabriel Dumont Institute. (2008). "Programs and services". Retrieved May 28, 2008 from http://www.gdins.org/GDIProgramsandServices.shtml

Globe & Mail. (2007). "Sizzling economy creating a Saskaboom." [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 30, 2008 from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20070917.wsaskaboom17/BNStory/National/home

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Library and Archives Canada. (2008). "Canadian confederation: Alberta and Saskatchewan." Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/confederation/023001-2215-e.html

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McCall, Warren. (2007). "Post-secondary education accessibility and affordability review". [Electronic version] . Retrieved May 7, 2008 from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=2b200875-f67f-4b32-b770-c6a4974f6b67

Muir, William R. (1997). Higher education in Saskatchewan. In G.A. Jones (Ed.), "Higher education in Canada". (pp. 93-114). New York: Garland.

Myers, Fay. (2008, June). "Globalization impacts regional colleges: A call to action." Paper delivered at the Canadian Society for the Study of Higher Education Conference, Vancouver, Canada.

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Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology. (2008). "History (Palliser campus)". Retrieved May 22, 2008 from http://www.siast.sk.ca/palliser/aboutpalliser/palliserhistory.htm

Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology. (2008). "Quick overview: History". Retrieved May 12, 2008 from http://www.siast.sk.ca/siast/aboutsiast/quickoverview.htm#history

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Saskatchewan Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment and Labour. (2008). "Graduate retention program". Retrieved May 20, 2008, from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/grp

Saskatchewan Ministry of Advanced Education, Employment and Labour. (2008). "Mandate". Retrieved May 12, 2008 from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=01c93cbc-d11f-4074-974f-dd7db10c3334

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  • Education in Saskatchewan — teaches a curriculum of learning set out by the Government of Saskatchewan department, the Ministry of Learning. The curriculum sets out to develop skills, knowledge, understanding to improve the quality of life. June 22, 1915, Hon. Walter Scott …   Wikipedia

  • Higher education in Yukon — is shaped by the territory s small population (30,375 people as of May 2006) [ [http://www.bcstats.gov.bc.ca/data/cen06/profiles/detail b/60000000.pdf BC Stats. (2007). 2006 Census Profile:Yukon Territory Retrieved July 15, 2008] ] in a… …   Wikipedia

  • Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario — Infobox University name = Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario motto = established = 2005Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario (n.d.). About us . Retrieved July 1, 2008, from http://www.heqco.ca/inside.php? ID=1] president = James… …   Wikipedia

  • Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology — Infobox University name = Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) native name = latin name = motto = SIAST offers choice established = 1959 Saskatchewan Technical Institute; Central Saskatchewan Technical Institute… …   Wikipedia

  • Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technologies — Infobox University name = Saskatchewan Indian Institute of Technologies motto = The institute of choice free label = Tag line free = established = 1976 as the Saskatchewan Indian Community College, type = Public comprehensive commmunity college… …   Wikipedia

  • Education in Canada — is provided, funded and overseen by federal, provincial, and local governments.Fact|date=September 2008 Education is within provincial jurisdiction and the curriculum is overseen by the province. [Citation | first2 = author2 link = writen by… …   Wikipedia

  • education — /ej oo kay sheuhn/, n. 1. the act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life. 2. the act or process of… …   Universalium

  • Education in Alberta — As with any Canadian province, the Alberta Legislature has (almost) exclusive authority to make laws respecting education. Since 1905 the Legislature has used this capacity to continue the model of locally elected public and separate school… …   Wikipedia

  • Saskatchewan and Alberta — • The twin provinces of the Canadian West, so called because they were formed on the same day Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Saskatchewan and Alberta     Saskatchewan and Alberta …   Catholic encyclopedia


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