Ibogaine


Ibogaine

drugbox
IUPAC_name = 12-Methoxyibogamine






width = 180
CAS_number = 83-74-9
PubChem = 363272
C=20 | H=26 | N=2 | O=1
molecular_weight = 310.433 g/mol
smiles = CCC1CC2CC3C1N(C2)CCC4=C3NC5=C4C=C(C=C5)OC
melting_point = 152
melting_high = 153
bioavailability =
protein_bound =
metabolism =
elimination_half-life = 2 hours
excretion =
pregnancy_AU =
pregnancy_US =
pregnancy_category =
legal_AU =
legal_CA =
legal_UK =
legal_US = Schedule I
routes_of_administration = oral

Ibogaine is a naturally-occurring psychoactive compound found in a number of plants, principally in a member of the dogbane family known as iboga ("Tabernanthe iboga"). Ibogaine-containing preparations are used in medicinal and ritual purposes by African spiritual traditions of the Bwiti who claim to have learned it from the Pygmy. In recent times it has been identified as having anti-addictive properties. Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid which is obtained either by extraction from the iboga plant or by semi-synthesis from the precursor compound voacangine, another plant alkaloid. A full organic synthesis of ibogaine has been achieved, but is too expensive and challenging to produce any commercially significant yield.

In the early 1960s, ibogaine was accidentally discovered to cause sudden and complete interruption of heroin addiction without withdrawal in a matter of hours. Since that time it has been the subject of scientific investigation into its abilities to interrupt addictions to heroin, alcohol, and cocaine. Anecdotal reports also suggest that ibogaine may have potential to drive introspection that helps elucidate the psychological issues and behavior patterns that drive addiction or other problems. However, ibogaine therapy for drug addiction is the subject of some controversy. Due to its hallucinogenic properties it has been placed in the strictest drug prohibition schedules in the United States and a handful of other countries. Canada and Mexico both allow ibogaine treatment clinics to operate and openly contribute to further understanding of the addictive process.

While ibogaine's prohibition has slowed scientific research into its anti-addictive properties, the use of ibogaine for drug treatment has grown in the form of a large worldwide medical subculture. [cite journal | author = K.R. Alper, H.S. Lotsof, C.D. Kaplan | year = 2008 | title = The Ibogaine Medical Subculture | journal = J. Ethnopharmacology | volume = 115 | pages = 9–24 | url = http://www.ibogaine.org/subculture.html | accessdate = 2008-02-22 | doi = 10.1016/j.jep.2007.08.034] Ibogaine is now used by treatment clinics in 12 countries on 6 continents to treat addictions to heroin, alcohol, powder cocaine, crack cocaine, and methamphetamine as well as to facilitate psychological introspection and spiritual exploration.

Psychoactive effects

At doses of around 3-5 mg/kg of body weight, ibogaine has a mild stimulant effect. The high-dose ibogaine experience of 10 mg/kg or greater most commonly occurs as two distinct phases: the visual phase, and the introspective phase.

The visual phase is characterized by open-eye visuals, closed-eye visuals, and dreamlike sequences. Objects may be seen as distorted, projecting tracers, or having moving colors or textures. With the eyes closed, extremely detailed and vivid geometric and fractal visions may be seen. Subjective reports often include a movie-like recollection of earlier life experiences as well as dreamlike sequences with symbolism of one's present or anticipated future. Other effects in the visionary phase may include laughing, sensations of euphoria or fear, and temporary short-term memory impairment. The visionary phase usually ends after 1-4 hours, after which the introspective phase begins.

The introspective phase is typically reported to bring elevated mood, a sense of calm and euphoria, and a distinct intellectual and emotional clarity. Subjects often report being able to accomplish deep emotional and intellectual introspection into psychological and emotional concerns. It is also during this period that opioid addicts first notice the absence of withdrawal cravings. The duration of the introspective phase is highly variable, usually lasting hours but sometimes lasting days.

Side effects and safety

One of the first noticeable effects of large-dose ibogaine ingestion is ataxia, a difficulty in coordinating muscle motion which makes standing and walking virtually impossible without assistance. Xerostomia (dry mouth), nausea, and vomiting may follow. These symptoms are long in duration, ranging from 4 to 24 hours in some cases. Ibogaine is sometimes administered by enema to help the subject avoid vomiting up the dose. Psychiatric medications are strongly contraindicated in ibogaine therapy due to adverse interactions. Some studies also suggest the possibility of adverse interaction with heart conditions. In one study of canine subjects, ibogaine was observed to increase sinus arrhythmia (the normal change in heart rate during respiration). [http://www.puzzlepiece.org/ibogaine/literature/gershon1962.pdf] Ventricular ectopy has been observed in a minority of patients during ibogaine therapy. [ [http://www.doraweiner.org/aatod_hrc.html Dora Weiner Foundation Conferences: 2004, Reports and Exhibits - AATOD and HRC ] ] It has been proposed that there is a theoretical risk of QT-interval prolongation following ibogaine administration. [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16698188&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_docsum Fatalities after taking ibogaine in addiction trea... [Med Hypotheses. 2006 - PubMed Result ] ]

There are 12 documented fatalities that have been loosely associated with ibogaine ingestion. [ [http://myeboga.com/fatalities.html Ibogaine & Eboga (Related) Recorded Fatalities ] ] Exact determinations of the cause of death have proven elusive due to the quasi-legal status of ibogaine and the unfamiliarity of medical professionals with this relatively rare substance. No autopsy to date has implicated ibogaine as the sole cause of death. Causes given range from significant pre-existing medical problems to the surreptitious consumption of other drugs in conjunction with ibogaine. Most legal and illegal psychoactive drugs are strongly contraindicated during or immediately after ibogaine treatment, which presents a risk in undersupervised or self-treating subjects.

Therapeutic uses

Treatment for opiate addiction

The most studied long-term therapeutic effect is that ibogaine seems to catalyze partial or complete interruption of addiction to opioids. An integral effect is the alleviation of symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Research also suggests that ibogaine may be useful in treating dependence to other substances such as alcohol, methamphetamine, and nicotine, and may affect compulsive behavioral patterns not involving substance abuse or chemical dependence.

Proponents of ibogaine treatment for drug addiction have established formal and informal clinics or self-help groups in Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, France, Slovenia, the Netherlands, Brazil, South Africa, the United Kingdom and New Zealand where ibogaine is administered as an experimental drug. There also exist clandestine drug treatment facilities in the countries where it is illegal. Although the full nature of Ibogaine is still emerging, it appears that the most effective treatment paradigm involves visionary doses of ibogaine of 10 to 20 mg/kg, producing an interruption of opiate withdrawal and craving. Many users of ibogaine report experiencing visual phenomena during a waking dream state, such as instructive replays of life events that led to their addiction, while others report therapeutic shamanic visions that help them conquer the fears and negative emotions that might drive their addiction. It is proposed that intensive counseling and therapy during the interruption period following treatment is of significant value. Some patients require a second or third treatment session with ibogaine over the course of the next 12 to 18 months as it will provide a greater efficacy in extinguishing the opiate addiction or other drug dependence syndrome. A minority of patients relapse completely into opiate addiction within days or weeks. A comprehensive article (Lotsof 1995) on the subject of ibogaine therapy, detailing the procedure, effects and aftereffects is found in, "Ibogaine in the Treatment of Chemical Dependence Disorders: Clinical Perspectives". [H.S. Lotsof (1995). [http://ibogaine.desk.nl/clin-perspectives.html Ibogaine in the Treatment of Chemical Dependence Disorders: Clinical Perspectives] (Originally published in MAPS Bulletin (1995) V(3):19-26)] Ibogaine has also been reported in multiple small study-cohorts to reduce cravings for methamphetamine. [ AJ Giannini.Drugs of Abuse--Second Edition. Los Angeles, Practice Management Information Corp.,1997.]

Chronic pain management

In 1957, Jurg Schneider, a pharmacologist at CIBA, found that ibogaine potentiates morphine analgesia. [ Jurg Schneider (assignee: Ciba Pharmaceuticals), Tabernanthine, Ibogaine Containing Analgesic Compositions. [http://ibogaine.desk.nl/2817623.pdf US Patent No. 2,817,623 (1957)] (pdf)] Further research was abandoned and no additional data was ever published by Ciba researchers on ibogaine/opioid interactions. Almost 50 years later Patrick Kroupa and Hattie Wells released the first treatment protocol for concomitant administration of ibogaine with opioids in human subjects indicating ibogaine reduced tolerance to opioid drugs. [Patrick K. Kroupa, Hattie Wells (2005): [http://ibogaine.mindvox.com/Articles/MAPS-Ibogaine2.pdf Ibogaine in the 21st Century. Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies. Volume XV, Number 1: 21-25] (pdf)] Kroupa, "et al.", published their research in the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) Journal demonstrating that administration of low "maintenance" doses of ibogaine HCl with opioids decreases tolerance.

Psychotherapy

Ibogaine has been used as an adjunct to psychotherapy by Claudio Naranjo, documented in his book "The Healing Journey". [C. Naranjo. The Healing Journey. [http://www.ibogaine.desk.nl/naranjo.html Chapter V, Ibogaine: Fantasy and Reality, 197-231, Pantheon Books, Div. Random House,ISBN 0394488261, New York (1973)] ]

Recreational use

Casual use of ibogaine in a social or entertainment context is nearly unknown due to its high cost, constrained availability, long duration of effects, and uncomfortable short-term side effects. In the clandestine markets, ibogaine is typically sought as a drug addiction treatment, for ritual spiritual purposes, or psychological introspection.

History

It is uncertain exactly how long iboga has been used in African spiritual practice, but its activity was first observed by French and Belgian explorers in the 19th century. The first botanical description of the "T. iboga" plant was made in 1889. Ibogaine was first isolated from "Tabernanthe iboga" in 1901 by Dybowski and Landrin [cite journal | author = J. Dybowski, E. Landrin | year = 1901 | title = PLANT CHEMISTRY. Concerning Iboga, its excitement-producing properties, its composition, and the new alkaloid it contains, ibogaine | journal = C. R. Acad. Sci. | volume = 133 | pages = 748 | url = http://ibogaine.desk.nl/dybowski.html | accessdate = 2006-06-23] and independently by Haller and Heckel in the same year using "T. iboga" samples from Gabon. In the 1930s, ibogaine was sold in France in 8mg tablets under the name "Lambarene". The total synthesis of ibogaine was accomplished by G. Büchi in 1966. [cite journal | author = G. Büchi, D.L. Coffen, Karoly Kocsis, P.E. Sonnet, and Frederick E. Ziegler | year = 1966 | title = The Total Synthesis of Iboga Alkaloids | journal = J. Am. Chem. Soc. | volume = 88 | issue = 13 | pages = 3099–3109 | url = http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/jacsat/1966/88/i13/f-pdf/f_ja00965a039.pdf | format = pdf | accessdate = 2006-06-23 | doi = 10.1021/ja00965a039] Since then, several further totally synthetic routes have been developed. [C. Frauenfelder (1999) [http://e-collection.ethbib.ethz.ch/ecol-pool/diss/fulltext/eth13329.pdf "Doctoral Thesis", page 24] (pdf)] The use of ibogaine in treating substance use disorders in human subjects first observed by Howard Lotsof in 1962, for which he was later awarded US patent|4499096 in 1985. In 1969, Claudio Naranjo was granted a French patent for the use of ibogaine in psychotherapy.

Ibogaine was placed in US Schedule 1 in 1967 as part of the US government's strong response to the upswing in popularity of psychedelic substances, though iboga itself was scarcely known at the time. Ibogaine's ability to attenuate opioid withdrawal confirmed in the rat was first published by Dzoljic "et al." (1988). [E.D. Dzoljic "et al." (1988): [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=3233054&query_hl=9&itool=pubmed_docsum "Effect of ibogaine on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome in chronic morphine-dependent rats"] Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 294, 64-70] Ibogaine's use in diminishing morphine self-administration in preclinical studies was shown by Glick "et al." (1991) [cite journal | author = Glick S.D., Rossman K., Steindorf S., Maisonneuve I.M., and Carlson J.N. | year = 1991 | title = Effects and aftereffects of ibogaine on morphine self-administration in rats | journal = Eur. J. Pharmacol | volume = 195 | issue = 3 | pages = 341–345 | url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=1868880&dopt=Citation | accessdate = 2006-06-24 | doi = 10.1016/0014-2999(91)90474-5] and ibogaine's capacity to reduce cocaine self-administration in the rat was shown by Cappendijk "et al." (1993). [cite journal | author = Cappendijk SLT, Dzoljic MR | year = 1993 | title = Inhibitory effects of ibogaine on cocaine self-administration in rats | journal = European Journal of Pharmacology | volume = 241 | pages = 261–265 | url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=8243561&query_hl=5&itool=pubmed_docsum | accessdate = 2006-06-25 | doi = 10.1016/0014-2999(93)90212-Z] Animal model support for ibogaine claims to treat alcohol dependence were established by Rezvani (1995). [cite journal | author = Rezvani, A., Overstreet D., and Lee, Y. | year = 1995 | title = Attenuation of alcohol intake by ibogaine in three strains of alcohol preferring rats. | journal = Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behaviour | volume = 52 | pages = 615–620 | url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=8545483&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsum | accessdate = 2006-06-25 | doi = 10.1016/0091-3057(95)00152-M]

The name "indra extract" in strict terms refers to 44 kg of an iboga extract manufactured by an unnamed European industrial manufacturer in 1981. This stock was later purchased by Carl Waltenburg, who distributed it under the name "Indra extract". Waltenburg used this extract to treat heroin addicts in Christiana, Denmark, a squatter village where heroin addiction was widespread in 1982. [ [http://www.ibogaine.org/history.html A Contemporary History of Ibogaine in the United States and Europe ] ] Indra extract was offered for sale over the internet until 2006, when the Indra web presence disappeared. It is unclear whether the extracts currently sold as "Indra extract" are actually from Waltenburg's original stock, or whether any of that stock is even viable or in existence. Ibogaine and related indole compounds are susceptible to oxidation when exposed to oxygen [a)Taylor WI (1965): "The Iboga and Voacanga Alkaloids" (Journal?), Pages 203, 207 and 208. Oxidation products: peroxides; indolenine, iboquine and iboluteine. [http://www.puzzlepiece.org/ibogaine/literature/taylor1965.pdf pdf] b) Also compare PMID 16959135] as opposed to their salt form which is stable. The exact methods and quality of the original Indra extraction was never documented, so the real composition of the product remains uncertain.

Data demonstrating ibogaine's efficacy in attenuating opioid withdrawal in drug dependent human subjects was published by Alper "et al." (1999) [ Alper "et al." (1999) [http://www.ibogaine.desk.nl/p234_s.pdf "Treatment of acute opioid withdrawal with ibogaine."] Am J Addict. 1999 Summer;8(3):234-42 (pdf)] and Mash "et al." (2000). [ D.C. Mash, "et al." (2000). [http://ibogaine.mindvox.com/Articles/Mash-01.pdf Ibogaine: Complex Pharmacokinetics, Concerns for Safety, and Preliminary Efficacy Measures] (pdf). Neurobiological Mechanisms of Drugs of Abuse Volume 914 of the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, September 2000.]

Formulations

Pure crystalline ibogaine hydrochloride is the most standardized formulation dosing and typically must be produced by the semi-synthesis from voacangine in commercial laboratories. In Bwiti religious ceremonies, the rootbark is pulverized and swallowed in large amounts to produce intense psychoactive effects. In Africa, iboga rootbark is sometimes chewed, which releases small amounts of ibogaine to produce a stimulant effect. Ibogaine is also available in a total alkaloid extract of the "Tabernanthe iboga" plant, which also contains all the other iboga alkaloids and thus has only about 1/5th the potency by weight as standardized ibogaine hydrochloride. [ [http://www.erowid.org/references/refs_view.php?ID=6466 Jenks CW (2002)] ]

Total alkaloid extracts of "T. iboga" are often loosely called "Indra extract". However, that name actually refers to a particular stock of total alkaloid extract produced in Europe in 1981. The fate of that original stock (as well as its original quality) is unknown.

Pharmacology

The pharmacology of ibogaine is quite complex, affecting many different neurotransmitter systems simultaneously. [P. Popik, P. Skolnick (1998). Pharmacology of Ibogaine and Ibogaine-Related Alkaloids. [http://www.ibogaine.desk.nl/alkaloids.html "The Alkaloids" 52, Chapter 3, 197-231, Academic Press, Editor: G.A. Cordell] ] [K.R. Alper (2001). Ibogaine: A Review. [http://ibogaine.org/ch01.pdf "The Alkaloids" 56, 1-38, Academic Press] (pdf)] Because of its fairly low potency at any of its target sites, ibogaine is used in doses anywhere from 5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight for minor effect to 30 mg/kg in the cases of strong polysubstance addiction. It is unknown whether doses greater than 30mg/kg in humans produce effects that are therapeutically beneficial, medically risky, or simply prolonged in duration. In animal neurotoxicity studies, there was no observable neurotoxicity of ibogaine at 25mg/kg, but at 50mg/kg one third of the rats had developed patches of neurodegeneration, and at doses of 75mg/kg or above, all rats showed a characteristic pattern of degeneration of Purkinje neurons, mainly in the cerebellum. [Xu Z, Chang LW, Slikker W Jr, Ali SF, Rountree RL, Scallet AC. A dose-response study of ibogaine-induced neuropathology in the rat cerebellum. "Toxicological Sciences". 2000 Sep;57(1):95-101. PMID 10966515] While caution should be exercised when extrapolating animal studies to humans, these results suggest that neurotoxicity of ibogaine is likely to be minimal when ibogaine is used in the 10-20mg/kg range typical of drug addiction interruption treatment regimes, and indeed death from the other pharmacological actions of the alkaloids is likely to occur by the time the dose is high enough to produce consistent neurotoxic changes. [Kontrimaviciūte V, Mathieu O, Mathieu-Daudé JC, Vainauskas P, Casper T, Baccino E, Bressolle FM. Distribution of ibogaine and noribogaine in a man following a poisoning involving root bark of the Tabernanthe iboga shrub. "Journal of Analytical Toxicology". 2006 Sep;30(7):434-40. PMID 16959135] [Maciulaitis R, Kontrimaviciute V, Bressolle F, Briedis V. Ibogaine, an anti-addictive drug: pharmacology and time to go further in development. A narrative review. "Human and Experimental Toxicology". 2008 Mar;27(3):181-94. PMID 18650249]

Mechanism and Pharmacodynamics

Among recent proposals for ibogaine mechanisms of action is activation of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) pathway in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brain. The work has principally been accomplished in preclinical ethanol research where 40 mg/kg of ibogaine caused increases of RNA expression of GDNF in keeping with reduction of ethanol intake in the rat,absent neurotoxicity or cell death. [He, Dao-Yao "et al." (2005): "Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Mediates the Desirable Actions of the Anti-Addiction Drug Ibogaine against Alcohol Consumption." Journal of Neuroscience, 25(3), pp. 619–628. [http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/25/3/619 Fulltext] ]

Ibogaine is a noncompetitive antagonist at α3β4 nicotinic receptors, binding with moderate affinity. [ Glick SD, Maisonneuve IM, Kitchen BA, Fleck MW. Antagonism of alpha 3 beta 4 nicotinic receptors as a strategy to reduce opioid and stimulant self-administration. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2002 Mar 1;438(1-2):99-105. ] Several other α3β4 antagonists are known, and some of these such as bupropion (Wellbutrin or Zyban), and mecamylamine have been used for treating nicotine addiction. This α3β4-antagonism correlates quite well with the observed effect of interrupting addiction. Co-administration of ibogaine with other α3β4-antagonists such as 18-MC, dextromethorphan or mecamylamine had a stronger anti-addictive effect than when it was administered alone. [ Glick SD, Maisonneuve IM, Kitchen BA. Modulation of nicotine self-administration in rats by combination therapy with agents blocking alpha 3 beta 4 nicotinic receptors. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2002 Jul 19;448(2-3):185-91.] Since α3β4 channels and NMDA channels are related to each other and their binding sites within the lumen bind a range of same ligands (e.g. DXM, PCP), [ Fryer JD, Lukas RJ. Noncompetitive functional inhibition at diverse, human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes by bupropion, phencyclidine, and ibogaine. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 1999 Jan;288(1):88-92. ] some "older" sources suggested that ibogaine's anti-addictive properties may be (partly) due to it being an NMDA receptor antagonist. [Popik P, Layer RT, Skolnick P (1994): "The putative anti-addictive drug ibogaine is a competitive inhibitor of [3H] MK-801 binding to the NMDA receptor complex." Psychopharmacology (Berl), 114(4), 672-4. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=7531855&query_hl=20&itool=pubmed_docsum Abstract] ] However, ligands, like 18-MC, selective for α3β4- vs. NMDA-channels showed no drop-off in activity.

It is suspected that ibogaine's actions on the opioid and glutamatergic systems are also involved in its anti-addictive effects. Persons treated with ibogaine report a cessation of opioid withdrawal signs generally within an hour of administration.

Ibogaine is a weak 5HT2A receptor agonist [Glick SD "et al." (1999): "(±)-18-Methoxycoronaridine: A Novel Iboga Alkaloid Congener Having Potential Anti-Addictive Efficacy." CNS Drug Reviews, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 27-42, see p. 35. [http://www.nevapress.com/cnsdr/full/5/1/27.pdf Fulltext] ] and although it is unclear how significant this action is for the anti-addictive effects of ibogaine, it is likely to be important for the hallucinogenic effects. [ Helsley S, Fiorella D, Rabin RA, Winter JC. Behavioral and biochemical evidence for a nonessential 5-HT2A component of the ibogaine-induced discriminative stimulus. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour. 1998 Feb;59(2):419-25. ] Ibogaine is also a sigma2 receptor agonist. [Mach RH, Smith CR, Childers SR (1995): "Ibogaine possesses a selective affinity for sigma 2 receptors." Life Sciences, 57(4), PL57-62. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?CMD=search&DB=pubmed Abstract] ]

Metabolites

Ibogaine is metabolized in the human body by cytochrome P450 2D6, and the major metabolite is noribogaine (12-hydroxyibogamine). Noribogaine is most potent as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor and acts as moderate κ- and weak µ-opioid receptor full agonist and has therefore also an aspect of an opiate replacement similar to compounds like methadone. Both ibogaine and noribogaine have a plasma half-life of around 2 hours in the ratcite web |url=http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/cgi/content/full/297/2/531 |title=In Vivo Neurobiological Effects of Ibogaine and Its O-Desmethyl Metabolite, 12-Hydroxyibogamine (Noribogaine), in Rats -- Baumann et al. 297 (2): 531 -- Journal of Pharmacology And Experimental Therapeutics |format= |work= |accessdate=] , although the half-life of noribogaine is slightly longer than the parent compound. It is proposed that ibogaine is deposited in fat and metabolized into noribogaine as it is released. [Lindsay B. Hough, Sandra M. Pearl and Stanley D. Glick. Tissue Distribution of Ibogaine After Intraperitoneal and Subscutaneous Administration. Life Sciences 58(7) (1996): 119–122. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=10849889&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_docsum Abstract] ] Noribogaine shows higher plasma levels than ibogaine and may therefore be detected for longer periods of time than ibogaine. Noribogaine is also more potent than ibogaine in rat drug discrimination assays when tested for the subjective effects of ibogaine. [C Zubaran MD, M Shoaib Ph.D, IP Stolerman Ph.D, J Pablo MS and DC Mash Ph.D. Noribogaine Generalization to the Ibogaine Stimulus: Correlation with Noribogaine Concentration in Rat Brain. Neuropsychopharmacology (1999) 21 119-126.10.1038/sj.npp.1395327. [http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v21/n1/abs/1395327a.html;jsessionid=163761FFB11BF6435DAC8B3CAF89A68D] ] Noribogaine differs from ibogaine in that it contains a hydroxy instead of a methoxy group at the 12 position.

Analogs

A synthetic derivative of ibogaine, 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) is a selective α3β4 antagonist that was developed collaboratively by the neurologist Stanley D. Glick (Albany) and the chemist Martin E. Kuehne (Vermont). [Christopher J. Pace, Stanley D. Glick, Isabelle M. Maisonneuve, Li-Wen Heb, Patrick A. Jokiel, Martin E. Kuehne, Mark W. Fleck. Novel iboga alkaloid congeners block nicotinic receptors and reduce drug self-administration. European Journal of Pharmacology 492 (2004): 159–167.] This discovery was stimulated by earlier studies on other naturally occurring analogues of ibogaine such as coronaridine and voacangine which showed these compounds also have anti-addictive properties. [Glick SD, Kuehne ME, Raucci J, Wilson TE, Larson D, Keller RW Jr, Carlson JN. Effects of iboga alkaloids on morphine and cocaine self-administration in rats: relationship to tremorigenic effects and to effects on dopamine release in nucleus accumbens and striatum. "Brain Research". 1994 Sep 19;657(1-2):14-22. PMID 7820611] [ [http://www.shvoong.com/medicine-and-health/1611478-antiaddictive-indole-alkaloids-ervatamia-yunnanensis/ Tsing Hua. Antiaddictive indole alkaloids in Ervatamia yunnanensis and their bioactivity. "Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University". January 28, 2006.] ]

Research

An ibogaine research project was funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse in the early 1990s. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) abandoned efforts to continue this project into clinical studies in 1995, citing other reports that suggested a risk of brain damage with extremely high doses and fatal heart arrhythmia in patients having a history of health problems , as well as inadequate funding for ibogaine development within their budget. However, NIDA funding for ibogaine research continues in indirect grants often cited in peer reviewed ibogaine publications.

In addition, after years of work and a number of significant changes to the original protocol, on August 17, 2006, a MAPS-sponsored research team received "unconditional approval" from a Canadian Institutional Review Board (IRB) to proceed with a long-term observational case study that will examine changes in substance use in 20 consecutive people seeking ibogaine-based addiction treatment for opiate dependence at the Iboga Therapy House in Vancouver.

Legal status

Ibogaine and its salts were regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1967 pursuant to its enhanced authority to regulate stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens granted by the 1965 Drug Abuse Control Amendments (DACA) to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. In 1970, with the passage of the Controlled Substances Act, it was classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States, along with other psychedelics such as LSD and mescaline. Since that time, several other countries, including Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, and Switzerland, have also banned the sale and possession of ibogaine. Although illegal, ibogaine has been used by hundreds of drug addicts in the United States and abroad. Howard Lotsof, a pioneer in bringing awareness to ibogaine's success in helping hardcore drug dependants to quit their addiction and others had been offering willing persons the treatment. In Czech Republic and Slovenia, taking advantage of less repressive legal systems, ibogaine has been applied to people coming from the U.S. and other countries, seeking a safe haven.

In early 2006, a non-profit foundation addressing the issue of providing ibogaine for the purpose of addiction interruption within establishment drug treatment care was formed in Sweden. [ [http://www.ibogain.se/ Stiftelsen Iboga´s web site] ]

ee also

*Oneirophrenia

References

External links

* [http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/ibogaine/ibogaine.shtml Erowid Ibogaine Vault]
* [http://www.ibogaine.desk.nl Ibogaine Dossier]
* [http://www.ibogaine.co.uk Ibogaine UK]
* [http://ibogaine.mindvox.com MindVox Ibogaine Site and Forums]
* [http://www.ibogaine-research.org The Ibogaine Research Project]
* [http://www.cures-not-wars.org/ibogaine/iboga.html The Staten Island Project: The Ibogaine Story]
* [http://doraweiner.org/bill_of_rights.html Ibogaine Patients' Bill of Rights]
* [http://www.kron4.com/Global/story.asp?S=1652207 Ibogaine & Addiction]
* [http://cbs5.com/specialreports/local_story_034171611.html Ibogaine on CBS Channel 5; February, 2005]
* [http://books.guardian.co.uk/departments/healthmindandbody/story/0,,1045038,00.html Ten years of therapy in one night]
* [http://userpages.umbc.edu/~jfreed1/Ibogaine.html Ibogaine: A Novel Anti-Addictive Compound - A Comprehensive Literature Review]
* [http://www.ibogatherapyhouse.net Iboga Therapy House] Canadian treatment center where ibogaine is legally administered

Further reading

* Daniel Pinchbeck writes of his own experience with ibogaine (among other psychoactives) in "Breaking Open the Head"
* [http://www.lunartproductions.com/index.php?id=135 "Ibogaine: Rite Of Passage"] is a documentary film about the use of ibogaine in Bwiti tradition and addiction medicine.
* Hunter S. Thompson wrote a fantasy sequence for "Rolling Stone" magazine about 1972 Democratic presidential front-runner Edmund Muskie being addicted to Ibogaine that was part of the work later collected into Thompson's book "Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail '72".


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  • Ibogaine — Ibogaïne Ibogaïne Structure de l ibogaine Général Nom IUPAC 12 Méthoxyibogamine No CAS …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ibogaïne — Structure de l ibogaine Général Nom IUPAC 12 Méthoxyibogamine No CAS …   Wikipédia en Français

  • ibogaine — (n.) nerve stimulant, 1901, from Fr. ibogaine, from iboga, Congolese name of the shrub from which the chemical is extracted, + chemical suffix INE (Cf. ine) (2) …   Etymology dictionary

  • ibogaine — [ī′bō gā΄ēn΄, ī′bō gā΄in; ī bō′gā ēn΄, i bō′gāēn] n. an alkaloid, C20H26N2O, extracted from a tropical African shrub ( Tabernanthe iboga) of the dogbane family, and acting as an antidepressant or stimulant: may cause hallucinations, paralysis,… …   English World dictionary

  • ibogaine — /i boh geuh een /, n. Pharm. an alkaloid, C20H26N2O, obtained from an African shrub, Tabernanthe iboga, having antidepressant and hallucinogenic properties. [ < F ibogaïne (1901) < NL iboga the shrub s specific epithet (said to be < an indigenous …   Universalium

  • ibogaine — noun A naturally occurring psychoactive compound found in a number of plants, principally iboga, and used for medicinal and ritual purposes in African spiritual traditions of the Bwiti …   Wiktionary

  • ibogaine — Indole alkaloid of the iboga group. Obtained from several parts of the African shrub Tabernanthe iboga (family Apocynaceae). Used by African hunters to arrest movement of the hunter; hallucinogenic, antidepressant, and euphoric. * * * ibo·ga·ine… …   Medical dictionary

  • ibogaine — [ɪ bəʊgəˌi:n] noun a hallucinogenic compound from the roots of a West African shrub, sometimes used to treat heroin or cocaine addiction. Origin early 20th cent.: from a blend of iboga (local name for the compound) and cocaine …   English new terms dictionary

  • ibogaine — ibo·ga·ine …   English syllables

  • ibogaine — ə̇ˈbōgəˌēn noun ( s) Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary iboga (from New Latin, specific epithet of Tabernanthe iboga, from a native name in central Africa) + ine : a crystalline alkaloid hallucinogen C20H26N2O obtained from the roots …   Useful english dictionary


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