Andrew Huxley

Infobox Scientist
name = Sir Andrew Huxley


image_size = 182px
caption = Andrew Huxley at Trinity College, Cambridge, July 2005
birth_name = Andrew Fielding Huxley
birth_date = birth date and age|1917|11|22
birth_place = Hampstead, London, England
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nationality = British
ethnicity =
fields = physiologist and biophysicist
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known_for = nerve action potentials
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awards = 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
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Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley, OM, FRS (born 22 November 1917, Hampstead, London [GRO Register of Births: MAR 1918 1a 724 HAMPSTEAD - Andrew F. Huxley, mmn - Bruce] ) is an English physiologist and biophysicist, who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work with Alan Lloyd Hodgkin on the basis of nerve action potentials, the electrical impulses that enable the activity of an organism to be coordinated by a central nervous system. Hodgkin and Huxley shared the prize that year with John Carew Eccles, who was cited for research on synapses. Hodgkin and Huxley's findings led the pair to hypothesize the existence of ion channels, which were isolated only decades later. Together with the Swiss physiologist Robert Stämpfli he evidenced the existence of saltatory conduction in myelinated nerve fibres.

Huxley was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London on 17 March 1955. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II on 12 November 1974. Sir Andrew was then appointed to the Order of Merit on 11 November 1983.

Family

Huxley is a youngest son of the writer and editor Leonard Huxley by his second wife Rosalind Bruce, and hence half-brother of the writer Aldous Huxley and fellow biologist Julian Huxley and grandson of the biologist T. H. Huxley. In 1947 he married Jocelyn Richenda Gammell Pease (1925-2003), the daughter of the geneticist Michael Pease and his wife Helen Bowen Wedgwood, the daughter of Josiah Wedgwood. They had one son and five daughters:

* Janet Rachel Huxley (born 20 April 1948)
* Stewart Leonard Huxley (born 19 December 1949)
* Camilla Rosalind Huxley (born 12 March 1952)
* Eleanor Bruce Huxley (born 21 February 1959)
* Henrietta Catherine Huxley (born 25 December 1960)
* Clare Marjory Pease Huxley (born 4 November 1962)

Family tree

Nobel Prize

The experimental measurements on which the pair based their action potential theory represent one of the earliest applications of a technique of electrophysiology known as the voltage clamp. The second critical element of their research was the so-called giant axon of the Atlantic squid ("Loligo pealei"), which enabled them to record ionic currents as they would not have been able to do in almost any other neuron, such cells being too small to study by the techniques of the time. The experiments took place at the University of Cambridge beginning in 1935 with frog sciatic nerve and continuing into the 1940s, after interruption by World War II. The pair published their theory in 1952. In the paper, they describe [http://www.ebi.ac.uk/biomodels/ModelMonth/September2006/BIOMD0000000020_MM.html one of the earliest computational models] in biochemistry, that is the basis of most of the models used in Neurobiology during the following four decades. He continued to hold college and university posts in Cambridge until 1960, when he became head of the Department of Physiology at University College London. In 1969 he was appointed to a Royal Society Research Professorship which he holds in the Department of Physiology at University College London.He currently maintains his position as a fellow at Trinity College, Cambridge, teaching in physiology, natural sciences and medicine.

Sir Andrew is arguably one of the greatest mathematical biologists of the 20th Century. From his experimental work with Hodgkin, he developed a set of differential equations that provided a mathematical explanation for nerve impulses -- the "action potential". This work provided the foundation for the all of the current work on voltage-sensitive membrane channels, which are responsible for the functioning of animal nervous systems. Quite separately, he developed the mathematical equations for the operation of myosin "cross-bridges" that generate the sliding forces between actin and myosin filaments, which cause the contraction of skeletal muscles. These equations presented an entirely new paradigm for understanding muscle contraction, which has been extended to provide our understanding of almost all of the movements produced by cells above the level of bacteria.

ee also

* Hodgkin-Huxley model

References

* Huxley A.F. 1980. "Reflections on muscle." The Sherrington Lectures XIV. Liverpool.

* [http://www.trin.cam.ac.uk/index.php?pageid=172 The Master of Trinity] at Trinity College, Cambridge
* [http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/1963/huxley-bio.html Biography of Andrew Huxley]

Persondata
NAME = Huxley, Andrew
ALTERNATIVE NAMES = Huxley, Andrew Fielding
SHORT DESCRIPTION = physiologist and biophysicist
DATE OF BIRTH = 1917-11-22
PLACE OF BIRTH = Hampstead, London, England
DATE OF DEATH =
PLACE OF DEATH =


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  • Andrew Huxley — Andrew Huxley, Juli 2005 Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley OM (* 22. November 1917 in Hampstead, London) ist ein englischer Biophysiker und Physiologe, der 1963 gemeinsam mit John Carew Eccles und Alan Lloyd Hodgkin für die Entdeckungen über den Ionen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Andrew Huxley — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Huxley. Andrew Huxley Naissance 22 novembre 1917 …   Wikipédia en Français

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  • Andrew Huxley — noun English physiologist who, with Alan Hodgkin, discovered the role of potassium and sodium ions in the transmission of the nerve impulse (born in 1917) • Syn: ↑Huxley, ↑Andrew Fielding Huxley • Instance Hypernyms: ↑physiologist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Andrew Fielding Huxley — Andrew Huxley en el Trinity College en 2005 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Andrew Fielding Huxley — Andrew Huxley Pour les articles homonymes, voir Huxley. Andrew Huxley Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley, OM, (né le …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Andrew Fielding Huxley — Andrew Huxley, Juli 2005 Andrew Fielding Huxley, OM (* 22. November 1917 in Hampstead, London) ist ein englischer Biophysiker und Physiologe, der 1963 gemeinsam mit John Carew Eccles und Alan Lloyd Hodgkin für die „Entdeckungen über den Ionen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Andrew D. Huxley — (born 1966) is the chair of the physics department of Edinburgh University. Of no relation to Sir Andrew F. Huxley (the English physiologist and biophysicist), Prof. Andrew D. Huxley is of renown in the field of condensed matter physics. While at …   Wikipedia

  • Huxley — may refer to one of:* The Huxley family, descended from Normans who settled in England after the Battle of Hastings. The first record of the family, as Holdensia, appears in the records of Richard I. The name Huxley first appears in records in… …   Wikipedia


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