History of Kyrgyzstan
Stone implements found in the
Tian Shanmountains indicate the presence of human society in what is now Kyrgyzstanas many as 200,000 to 300,000 years ago. The first written records of a civilization in the area occupied by Kyrgyzstan appear in Chinese chronicles beginning about 2000 B.C.
Origins of the Kyrgyz people
According to recent historical findings,
Kyrgyzhistory dates back to 201 BC. The early Kyrgyzlived in the upper Yenisey Rivervalley, central Siberia(see Yenisei Kirghizfor details). Chinese and Muslim sources of the 7th–12th centuries AD describe the Kyrgyz as red-haired with fair complexion and green (blue) eyes. First appearing in Chinese records of the Grand Historian as Gekun or Jiankun(鬲昆 or 隔昆), and later as part of the Tieletribes, they were once under the rule of Göktürksand Uyghurs.
The descent of the
Kyrgyzfrom the autochthonous Siberianpopulation is confirmed on the other hand by the recent genetic studies ( [http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/PNAS_2001_v98_p10244.pdf The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity] ). Remarkably, 63% of the modern Kyrgyz men share Haplogroup R1a1 (Y-DNA)with Tajiks(64%), Ukrainians(54%), Poles(56%) and even Icelanders(25%). Haplogroup R1a1 (Y-DNA)is believed to be a marker of the Proto-Indo-European languagespeakers.
Kyrgyz genesis legend tells about an ancestor and father of all Kyrgyzes "Kyzyl
Taigan" (Red Dog). A daughter of the khan was in the habit to take long walks in a company of 40 maidens-servants. Once, on return home after her usual walk, the Princess saw that her native aul was ravaged by an enemy. In the aul they found only one alive creature, a red dog. The princess and her 40 maids become mothers, in a company with only one male attraction, a red dog. By the number of matrons, the posterity of 40 maidens, "kyrk-kyz", began to be called Kyrgyz people. [Valihanov Ch. Ch. Works in 5 vol., vol. 2, p. 48, Alma-Ata, 1985] [Abramzon S.M. Kirgizes and their ethnogenetical historical and cultural connections, Moscow, 1971, p. 361] The cult of the Heavenly Dog was widespread between the tribes west and east of the ancient China. [Zuev Yu.L., The strongest tribe, p. 35-46, Almaty, 2004 ]
Kyrgyzstate reached its greatest expansion after defeating the Uyghur Khaganatein 840 AD. Then Kyrgyzquickly moved as far as the Tian Shanrange and maintained their dominance over this territory for about 200 years. In the 12th century, however, the Kyrgyzdomination had shrunk to the AltayRange and the Sayan Mountainsas a result of the rising Mongolexpansion. With the rise of the Mongol Empirein the 13th century, the Kyrgyzmigrated south.
Turkic peoplesruled them until 1685, when they came under the control of the Oirats( Dzungars).
Early medieval times
The first Turks to form a state in the territory of Central Asia (including Kyrgyzstan) were
Göktürksor Kök-Türks. Known in medieval Chinese sources as Tujue (突厥 tú jué), the Göktürks under the leadership of Bumin/Tuman Khan/Khaghan (d. 552) and his sons established the first known Turkic state around 552 in the general area of territory that had earlier been occupied by the Xiongnu, and expanded rapidly to rule wide territories in Central Asia. The Göktürks split in two rival Khanates, of which the western one disintegrated in 744 AD.
The first kingdom to emerge from the Qokturk khanate was the Buddhist
Uyghur Empirethat flourished in the territory encompassing most of Central Asia from 740 to 840 AD.
After the Uyghur empire disintegrated a branch of the Uyghurs migrated to oasis settlements in the
Tarim Basinand Gansu, such as Gaochang(Khoja) and Hami ( Kumul), and set up a confederation of decentralized Buddhist states called Kara-Khoja. Others, mainly closely related to the Uyghurs (the Karluks), occupying the western Tarim Basin, Ferghana Valley, Jungariaand parts of modern Kazakhstanbordering the Muslim Turco-Tajik KhwarazmSultanate, converted to Islam no later than the 10th century and built a federation with Muslim institutions called Kara-Khanlik, whose princely dynasties are called Karakhanidsby most historians. Its capital, Balasagunflourished as a cultural and economic centre.
Karlukprincely clan, the Balasagunlu Ashinalar (or the Karakhanids) gravitated toward the Persian Islamic cultural zone after their political autonomy and suzerainty over Central Asia was secured during the 9-10th century.
As they became increasingly Persianized they settled in the more Indo-Iranian sedentary centers such as
Kashgaria, and became detached from the nomadic traditions of fellow Karluks, many of whom retained cultural elements of the Uyghur Khanate.
The principality was significantly weakened by the early 12th century and the territory of modern Kyrgyrstan was conquered by Uyghur Kara-Khitais. The
Kara-Khitan Khanate(Traditional Chinese: 西遼; Simplified Chinese: 西辽; pinyin: Xī Liáo, 1124-1218), also known as Western Liao, was established by Yelü Dashi(耶律大石) who led around 100,000 Khitan remnants after escaping the Jurchenconquest of their native country, the Khitan dynasty.
The Khitay conquest of Central Asia can thus be seen as an internecine struggle within the Karluk nomadic tribe, played out as dynastic conflict between the conquering Buddhist Khitay elites and the defending Kara-Khanid princes, resulting in the subjugation of the latter by the former, and in the subjugation of the
Muslim Karluksby their Nestorian/Buddhist kin.
The Mongols' invasion of Central Asia in the 13th century devastated the territory of Kyrgyzstan, costing its people their independence and their written language. The son of Genghis Khan, Juche, conquered the Kyrgyz tribes of the Yenisey region, who by this time had become disunited. At the same time, the area of present Kyrgyzstan was an important link in the
Silk Road, as attested by several Nestoriangravestones. For the next 200 years, the Kyrgyz remained under the Golden Horde, Chagatai Khanateand the Oiratsas well as Dzungarsthat succeeded that regime. Freedom was regained in 1510, but Kyrgyz tribes were overrun in the seventeenth century by the Kalmyks, in the mid-eighteenth century by the Manchus, and in the early nineteenth century by the Uzbeks.
Timurids and Uzbeks
Timurids and Uzbeks.
In the early 19th century, the southern territory of Kyrgyzstan came under the control of the
Khanate of Kokand, but the territory was occupied and formally annexed by the Russian Empirein 1876. The Russian takeover instigated numerous revolts against tsarist authority, and many Kyrgyz opted to move into the Pamir Mountainsor to Afghanistan. The ruthless suppression of the 1916 rebellion in Central Asia, triggered by the Russian imposition of the military draft on the Kyrgyz and other Central Asian peoples, caused many Kyrgyz to flee to China.
The Soviet Era
Soviet power was initially established in the region in 1918, and in 1924, the
Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblastwas created within the Russian SFSR. (The term Kara-Kyrgyz was used until the mid-1920s by the Russians to distinguish them from the Kazakhs, who were also referred to as Kyrgyz.) In 1926, it became the Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. On December 5, 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic(SSR) was established as a full Union Republic of the U.S.S.R.
During the 1920s, Kyrgyzstan saw considerable cultural, educational, and social change. Economic and social development also was notable.
Literacyincreased, and a standard literary language was introduced. The Kyrgyz languagebelongs to the Western Turkic group of languages. In 1924, an Arabic-based Kyrgyz alphabetwas introduced, which was replaced by Latin scriptin 1928. In 1941 Cyrillicscript was adopted. Many aspects of the Kyrgyz national culture were retained despite suppression of nationalist activity under Joseph Stalin, who controlled the Soviet Union from the late 1920s until 1953.
The early years of
glasnostin the late 1980s had little effect on the political climate in Kyrgyzstan. However, the republic's press was permitted to adopt a more liberal stance and to establish a new publication, "Literaturny Kyrgyzstan", by the Union of Writers. Unofficial political groups were forbidden, but several groups that emerged in 1989 to deal with an acute housing crisis were permitted to function.
In June 1990, ethnic tensions between
Uzbeksand Kyrgyz surfaced in an area of the Osh Oblastwhere Uzbeks form a majority of the population. Violent confrontations ensued, and a state of emergency and curfew were introduced. Order was not restored until August 1990.
Modern Kyrgyz religious affiliation is eclectically Muslim for a majority of the population. Typical Kyrgyz families vary in their devotion to Islam. Urbanized areas of Kyrgyzstan are similar to the United States in terms of religious identity; while most Americans claim to be Christian, the majority are rather eclectic in practice. The same is true for Kyrgyzstan, in that the more rural the individual, the more devoted to Islam they tend to be and vice-versa.
Russian and Kyrgyz cultures differ in respect to family, religious identity, and social structure. Kyrgyzstan is a country in transition. The current social dilemma is one that has emerged from the controlling body mainly relying on classic Russian ethnicities, to Kyrgyz or Turkic ethnic groups shaping and forming the infrastructure of Kyrgyzstan. This has resulted in a measurable degree of instability and chaos associated with a social transition.
The ancestral Kyrgyz social structure was dominated by nomadic traditions, governing political philosophies, and socialization. As classical Russian ethnic groups were injected into the Soviet Republic of Kyrgyzstan, the urbanization process began and was mainly authored by the Russian communities placed within the Soviet Republic, mostly by policies created by the communist party. It is unclear why these policies were created and it is only clear that these policies forced Russians of certain descent to populate the Republic.
As in many former Soviet republics, after Kyrgyzstan regained independence in August 1991 many individuals, organizations, and political parties sought to reestablish (and, to a certain extent, to create from scratch) a Kyrgyz national cultural identity; often one that included a backlash against Russians.
The early 1990s brought measurable change to Kyrgyzstan. The
Kyrgyzstan Democratic Movement(KDM) had developed into a significant political force with support in parliament. In an upset victory, Askar Akayev, the president of the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences, was elected to the presidency in October 1990. The following January, Akayev introduced new government structures and appointed a new government comprised mainly of younger, reform-oriented politicians. In December 1990, the Supreme Soviet voted to change the republic's name to the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. (In 1993, it became the Kyrgyz Republic.) In February 1991, the name of the capital, Frunze, was changed back to its pre-revolutionary name— Bishkek.
Despite these moves toward independence, economic realities seemed to work against secession from the
Soviet UnionIn a referendum on the preservation of the USSR, in March 1991, 88.7% of the voters approved a proposal to remain part of the union as a "renewed federation."
August 19, 1991, when the State Emergency Committeeassumed power in Moscow, there was an attempt to depose Akayev in Kyrgyzstan. After the coup collapsed the following week, Akayev and Vice President German Kuznetsovannounced their resignations from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union(CPSU), and the entire politburo and secretariat resigned. This was followed by the Supreme Sovietvote declaring independence from the U.S.S.R. on August 31, 1991. Kyrgyz was announced as the state language in September 1991. (In December 2001, through a constitutional amendment, the Russian language was given official status.)
In October 1991, Akayev ran unopposed and was elected President of the new independent republic by direct ballot, receiving 95% of the votes cast. Together with the representatives of seven other republics, he signed the
Treaty of the New Economic Communiststhat same month. On December 21, 1991, Kyrgyzstan formally entered the new Commonwealth of Independent States(CIS).
In 1993, allegations of corruption against Akayev's closest political associates blossomed into a major scandal. One of those accused of improprieties was Prime Minister Chyngyshev, who was dismissed for ethical reasons in December. Following Chyngyshev's dismissal, Akayev dismissed the government and called upon the last communist premier,
Apas Djumagulov, to form a new one. In January 1994, Akayev initiated a referendumasking for a renewed mandate to complete his term of office. He received 96.2% of the vote.
constitutionwas passed by the parliament in May 1993. In 1994, however, the parliament failed to produce a quorum for its last scheduled session prior to the expiration of its term in February 1995. President Akayev was widely accused of having manipulated a boycott by a majority of the parliamentarians. Akayev, in turn, asserted that the communists had caused a political crisis by preventing the legislature from fulfilling its role. Akayev scheduled an October 1994 referendum, overwhelmingly approved by voters, which proposed two amendments to the constitution—one that would allow the constitution to be amended by means of a referendum, and the other creating a new bicameral parliament called the "Jogorku Kenesh".
Elections for the two legislative chambers—a 35-seat full-time assembly and a 70-seat part-time assembly—were held in February 1995 after campaigns considered remarkably free and open by most international observers, although the election-day proceedings were marred by widespread irregularities. Independent candidates won most of the seats, suggesting that personalities prevailed over ideologies. The new parliament convened its initial session in March 1995. One of its first orders of business was the approval of the precise constitutional language on the role of the legislature.
December 24, 1995, President Akayev was reelected for another 5-year term with wide support (75% of vote) over two opposing candidates. He used government resources and state-owned media to carry out his campaign. Three (out of six) candidates were de-registered shortly before the election.
A February 1996 referendum—in violation of the constitution and the law on referendums—amended the constitution to give President Akayev more power. Although the changes gave the president the power to dissolve parliament, it also more clearly defined the parliament's powers. Since that time, the parliament has demonstrated real independence from the executive branch.
An October 1998 referendum approved constitutional changes, including increasing the number of deputies in the lower house, reducing the number of deputies in the upper house, providing for 25% of lower house deputies to be elected by party lists, rolling back parliamentary immunity, introducing private property, prohibiting adoption of laws restricting freedom of speech and mass media, and reforming the state budget.
Two rounds of parliamentary elections were held on
February 20, 2000and March 12, 2000. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) reported that the elections failed to comply with commitments to free and fair elections and hence were invalid. Questionable judicial proceedings against opposition candidates and parties limited the choice of candidates available to Kyrgyz voters, while state-controlled media only reported favorably on official candidates. Government officials put pressure on independent media outlets that favored the opposition. The presidential election that followed later in 2000 also was marred by irregularities and was not declared free and fair by international observers.
The most recent elections were parliamentary, held
February 27and March 13, 2005. The OSCE found that while the elections failed to comply with commitments to free and fair elections, there were improvements over the 2000 elections, notably the use of indelible ink, transparent ballot boxes, and generally good access by election observers.
Sporadic protests against perceived manipulation and fraud during the elections of
February 27 2005, erupted into widespread calls for the government to resign, which started in the southern provinces. On March 24, 15,000 pro-opposition demonstrators in Bishkek called for the resignation of the President and his regime. Protesters seized the main government building, and Akayev hurriedly fled the country, first to neighboring Kazakhstanand then to Moscow. Initially refusing to resign and denouncing the events as a coup, he subsequently resigned his office on April 4. (See also: Tulip Revolution)
Notes and references
* [http://www.mongabay.com/reference/country_studies/kyrgyzstan/HISTORY.html History of Kyrgystan]
* [http://library.auca.kg/_data/list_of_books_in_history_of_Kyrgyzstan.pdf Books on History of Kyrgystan]
* [http://www.tragicdoughnuts.com/kyrgyzstan/constitution.html Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic]
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