- Educational policies and initiatives of the European Union
European Unioneducation is the responsibility of Member States; European Union institutions play a supporting role. According to Art. 149 of the Treaty of Amsterdam, the Community cquote|shall contribute to the development of quality education by encouraging cooperation between Member States, through actions such as promoting the mobility of citizens, designing joint study programmes, establishing networks, exchanging information or teaching languages of the European Union. The Treaty also contains a commitment to promote life-long learning for all citizens of the Union. The EU also funds educational, vocational and citizenship-building programmes which encourage EU citizens to take advantage of opportunities which the EU offers its citizens to live, study and work in other countries. The best known of these is the Erasmus programme, under which more than 2,000,000 students have taken part in inter-university exchange and mobility over the last 20 years. Since 2000, conscious of the importance of Education and Training for their economic and social objectives, EU Member States have begun working together to achieve a set of 13 specific goals in the field of Education. This is referred to as the Education and Training 2010programme. By sharing examples of good policy practice, by taking part in Peer Learning activities, by setting benchmarks and by tracking progress against key indicators, the 27 Member States aim to respond coherently to common challenges, whilst retaining their individual sovereignty in the field of Education policy. The European Union is also a partner in various inter-governmental projects, including the Bologna Processwhose purpose is to create a European higher education areaby harmonising academic degreestructures and standards as well as academic quality assurancestandards throughout EU Member States and in other European countries.
Building a Europe of Knowledge
The European Union adopted its first education programme (the COMETT programme, designed to stimulate contacts and exchanges between universities and industry) in July 1987. This programme was rapidly followed by the
ERASMUS programme, which promoted inter-university contacts and cooperation, as well as substantial student mobility (as, in 1989, did the "Youth for Europe" programme, the EU's first youth exchange support scheme). These programmes were adopted by the EU countries but with considerable support fro the European Parliamentwhich made budgets available even before the legal instruments had been adopted.
European Unionhas two different types of instrument to increase the quality and openness of the education and training systems of the EU's Member States: a set of policy instruments through which EU countries are encouraged to develop their own education systems and to learn from each others' successes; and a substantial programme to support exchanges, networks and mutual learning between schools, universities or training centres as well as between the political authorities responsible for these areas in the different Member States.
Education and Training Policy
European Union's interest in Education policy (as opposed to Education programmes) developed after the Lisbon summit in March 2000, at which the EU's Heads of State and Government asked the Education Ministers of the EU to reflect on the "concrete objectives" of education systems with a view to improving them [European Council Presidency conclusions at [http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/ec/00100-r1.en0.htm] ;cf paragraphs 24-27] . The European Commissionand the European Union's Member States worked together on a report for the Spring 2001 European Council[((cf http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/2010/doc/rep_fut_obj_en.pdf)] , and in 2002 the Spring Summit approved their joint work programme [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/pri/en/oj/dat/2002/c_142/c_14220020614en00010022.pdf] showing how they proposed to take the report's recommendations forward. Since then they have published a series of "Joint Reports" every other year [(2004: http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/2010/doc/jir_council_final.pdf; 2006: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2006/c_079/c_07920060401en00010019.pdf)] .
The Commission seeks to encourage Member States to improve the quality of their education and training systems in two main ways: through a process of setting targets and publishing the position of Member States in achieving them and by stimulating debate on subjects of common interest. This is done using the process known as the
Open Method of Coordination.
As regards target setting, the Member States agreed in the Council on 5 May 2003 a series of "Reference Levels of European Average Performance in Education and Training (Benchmarks)" [(http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/2010/doc/after-council-meeting_en.pdf)] against which their systems would be measured. These require that by 2010:
*not more than 10% of school pupils should leave school before the end of compulsory schooling
*the numbers of Maths, Science and Technology university graduates should increase by at least 15%, and the proportion of girls within that number should also increase
*at least 85% of 22-year olds should have completed upper secondary education
*the percentage of low-achieving 15-year olds in reading literacy, as measured at level 1 in the OECD's
Programme for International Student Assessmentshould have decreased by at least 20% compared to the year 2000
*participation of the 25-64 age group in lifelong learning (ie, continuing education or training including in-company skills development) should be not less than 12.5% per annum.
Good progress has been made in the field of graduates in Maths, Science and Technology; but in other areas performance overall has stagnated, although there are individual good performances (cf "Progress towards the Lisbon Objectives in Education and Training" [http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/2010/doc/progressreport06.pdf - in particular Part II] .
In addition to the measurement of progress, the Commission also publishes policy papers designed to encourage the EU's Member States to look more closely at particular areas of their education and training policy. The Commission has published such papers over many years, but until the Lisbon Summit in March 2000, few were widely followed. Since then, however, Member States have become more open to mutual exchange and learning, and a number of Commission papers have had significant impact. A recent example (late 2006) may be found in the Communication on "Efficiency and equity in European education and training systems" [http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/2010/doc/comm481_en.pdf] . This paper was generally welcomed by Member States [see Council conclusions at [http://eur-ex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2006/c_298/c_29820061208en00030006.pdf] ] but it drew criticism from some (in particular Germany and Austria) who felt that it commented negatively on their education and training systems [see, for example, the article of 14 November 2006 in Der Spiegel Online at [http://www.spiegel.de/unispiegel/studium/0,1518,448433,00.html] or similar articles in Financial Times Deutschland and Tageszeitung on 15 November 2006.] .
Finally, the Commission has supported a variety of networking systems between Ministers (and Ministries) in the EU's Member States, in addition to the thrice yearly meetings of the "Education Council" within the EU's own institutional system. These range from biennial meetings of Ministers responsible for Vocational Education and Training (the "Copenhagen Process"), through regular meetings of Director Generals for Higher Education or for Vocational Education and Training to more specialised networks or "clusters" within the "
Education and Training 2010 programme" in areas such as key competences, foreign language learning or the recognition of informal and non-formal qualifications [ [http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/2010/et_2010_en.html EUROPA - Education and Training - INNERPAGE - Education ] ] .
Education and Training Programmes
Inside the EU
The first European Union exchange programmes were the COMETT Programme for Industry-University links and exchanges, launched in 1987 (and discontinued in 1995); the Erasmus university exchange programme was launched in the same year. Similar programmes have been running ever since, and as from 2007 all the education and training programmes were brought together in one single programme; the
Lifelong Learning Programme 2007-2013[ [http://ec.europa.eu/education/programmes/llp/index_en.html EUROPA - Education and Training - The Lifelong learning programme ] ] . The Lifelong Learning programme comprises separate sub-programmes for schools; universities and higher education; vocational education and training; adult education; teaching about the EU in universities; and a 'horizontal' programme for policy development.
The schools exchange programme, named after the 15th century Czech teacher, scientist and educator John Amos
Comenius, has helped over 2.5 million school students take part in joint projects across boundaries. The Erasmus programme (named after Desiderius Erasmus, the 16th century Dutch humanist and theologian), has been the icon of university exchange programmes since its launch in 1987. Some two million students have so far spent a fully accredited period of between 3 months and an academic year in another EU university under the programme, which has become a symbol of Europe in universities. The vocational education and training programme is named after the renaissance inventor and all-rounder Leonardo da Vinci. It currently helps around 75,000 young people each year to do an apprenticeship or internship in another EU country. The adult education programme, named after Pastor Nikolaj Grundtvig, the 19th century Danish theologian, poet, philosopher and thinker, helps those involved in adult education to have access to similar international experience. The sub-programme which supports teaching about Europe in higher education is named after the French politician and architect of European Unity, Jean Monnet.
The programme entered into force on 1 January 2007, and will continue until projects launched in its final year 2013 are closed - probably in 2016.
Outside the EU
The first EU programme to promote educational exchange and cooperation between educational institutions inside the EU and those outside it was the
Tempusprogramme, adopted on 7 May 1990 by the Council as part of the assistance provided by the European Community of the day to the countries breaking free of Soviet rule.
The idea behind Tempus was that individual universities in the
European Communitycould contribute to the process of rebuilding free and effective university systems in partner countries; and that a bottom-up process through partnerships with individual universities in these countries would provide a counterweight to the influence of the much less trusted Ministries, few of which had by then undergone serious change since Soviet domination. The programme was an immediate success; and by 1993 the number of participating countries had grown from five at the start to eleven. The programme was subsequently enlarged to include the [Post-Soviet states|Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union; again to include the countries of the Western Balkans [Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Republic of Macedonia, Serbia.] ; and finally to cover the Mediterranean countries. [for a full list of current coverage, see [http://www.tempus.am/about_tempus.html#partner] ] .
Tempusprogramme [ official European Union website: [http://ec.europa.eu/education/programmes/tempus/index_en.html] ] currently supports projects run by consortia of universities in the EU and in partner countries which aim to update curricula and teaching methods; to improve academic management (eg, strategic development plans, systems of quality assessment and assurance); and to promote the higher education priorities of its partner countries. It also provides Individual Mobility Grants to enable individuals to travel to or from Europe in connection with these themes. The Tempus programme is still running, but will be renewed and revised as from 2007.
Tempus was followed by a series of smaller programmes built more round the mobility of academics towards the EU. These included the ALFA/ALBAN programmes with Latin American universities [ see official web-site [http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/projects/alfa/information_en.htm] ] ; the Asia-Link programme [official web-site [http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/projects/asia-link/index_en.htm] ] ; and others, sometimes time-limited. A number of these appear to have been set up as a means of development assistance rather than with the development of universities as such, an impression strengthened by the fact that they were managed by the
European Commission's development assistance service EuropeAid rather than (like Tempusor Erasmus Mundus programme)by its Education and Culture department.
Finally, in 2003 the European Union launched the Erasmus Mundus programme, a project to ensure the place of European Universities as centres of excellence across the world; to attract the best students from around the world to Europe; and to enable partnerships between European universities and those in other countries. The programme had strong support both from the Council of Ministers and from the
European Parliament[see the enthusiastic report on the draft Erasmus Mundus programme by Mme Marielle de SarnezMEP for the European Parliament: [http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//NONSGML+REPORT+A5-2003-0087+0+DOC+PDF+V0//EN&language=EN] ] . The first phase of Erasmus Mundus will finish in 2008. The Commission has announced its intention to propose a further period.
cite book|last=Pepin|first=Luce|title=The history of European cooperation in education and training|publisher=European Commission|location=Luxembourg|year=2006 ISBN 92-894-8986-3
Directorate-General for Education and Culture
Education and Training 2010
European credit transfer system
European higher education area
Lifelong Learning Programme 2007-2013
Comenius programme- relating to primary and secondary education.
Erasmus programme- relating to higher education.
Leonardo da Vinci programme- relating to vocational education and training.
Grundtvig programme- relating to adult education.
* The Erasmus Mundus programme
[http://www.europeanschoolnet.org European Schoolnet] - network of 28 Ministries of Education in Europe
[http://www.eurydice.org Eurydice] - information on the European school system
[http://www.etwinning.net eTwinning] - partnerships for schools in Europe
[http://www.euractiv.com/en/education EU education News and Policy] EurActiv.com
[http://www.elearningeuropa.info eLearning Europa] - EU eLearning news
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