promoter


promoter
A region of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds before initiating the transcription of DNA into RNA. The nucleotide at which transcription starts is designated +1 and nucleotides are numbered from this with negative numbers indicating upstream nucleotides and positive downstream nucleotides. Most bacterial promoters contain two consensus sequences that seem to be essential for the binding of the polymerase. The first, the Pribnow box, is at about -10 and has the consensus sequence 5\'-TATAAT-3\'. The second, the -35 sequence, is centred about -35 and has the consensus sequence 5\'-TTGACA-3\'. Most factors that regulate gene transcription do so by binding at or near the promoter and affecting the initiation of transcription. Much less is known about eukaryote promoters; each of the three RNA polymerases has a different promoter. RNA polymerase I recognizes a single promoter for the precursor of rRNA. RNA polymerase II, that transcribes all genes coding for polypeptides, recognizes many thousands of promoters. Most have the Goldberg-Hogness or TATA box that is centred around position -25 and has the consensus sequence 5\'-TATAAAA-3\'. Several promoters have a CAAT box around -90 with the consensus sequence 5\'-GGCCAATCT-3\'. There is increasing evidence that all promoters for genes for "housekeeping" proteins contain multiple copies of a GC-rich element that includes the sequence 5\'-GGGCGG-3\'. Transcription by polymerase II is also affected by more distant elements known as enhancers. RNA polymerase III synthesizes 5s ribosomal RNA, all tRNAs, and a number of small RNAs. The promoter for RNA polymerase III is located within the gene either as a single sequence, as in the 5s RNA gene, or as two blocks, as in all tRNA genes.

Dictionary of molecular biology. 2004.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • promoter — pro·mot·er n: one who alone or with others actively participates in the formation of a business or venture promoter s owe a fiduciary duty to the corporation they are promoting R. C. Clark Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Law. Merriam Webster.… …   Law dictionary

  • promoter — pro‧mot‧er [prəˈməʊtə ǁ ˈmoʊtər] noun [countable] 1. COMMERCE someone who arranges and advertises concerts and sports events: • a boxing promoter 2. a person, organization etc that tries to persuade people to support or use something: • The… …   Financial and business terms

  • Promoter — Pro*mot er, n. 1. One who, or that which, forwards, advances, or promotes; an encourager; as, a promoter of charity or philosophy. Boyle. [1913 Webster] 2. Specifically, one who sets on foot, and takes the preliminary steps in, a scheme for the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Promoter — ist eine DNA Sequenz, siehe Promotor (Genetik) eine freie erwerbswirtschaftliche Beschäftigung, siehe Promotionjob eine Tätigkeit der Öffentlichkeitsarbeit in der Musikindustrie, siehe Musikpromotion Diese Seite ist ein …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • promoter — promoter. См. промотор. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • promoter — /prə məʊtə/, it. /pro mɔter/ s. ingl. (propr. promotore ), usato in ital. al masch. e al femm. 1. (prof., comm.) [chi svolge attività di promozione di un prodotto commerciale] ▶◀ promotore. 2. (prof., massm.) [chi cura l allestimento di… …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • promoter — mid 15c., one who promotes, agent noun from PROMOTE (Cf. promote); specific financial sense of one who leads in forming a company is from 1876; sense of one who organizes sporting or entertainment events is attested from 1936 …   Etymology dictionary

  • promoter — /proˈmɔter, ingl. prəˈməutə(r)/ [vc. ingl., propr. «promotore»] s. m. e f. inv. 1. (commerciale) promotore, venditore 2. (nello spettacolo e nello sport) agente, manager 3. (di eventi e manifestazioni) impresario, organizzatore …   Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione

  • promoter — [n] supporter advertiser, advocate, ally, backer, booster, endorser, follower, organizer, publicist, sponsor; concept 423 …   New thesaurus

  • promoter — ► NOUN 1) the organizer of a sporting event or theatrical production. 2) a supporter of a cause or aim …   English terms dictionary

  • promoter — [prə mōt′ər, prōmōt′ər] n. [ME < MFr promoteur < ML promotor] 1. a person or thing that promotes; specif., a person who begins, secures financing for, and helps to organize an undertaking, as a business or a sports event 2. Chem. a… …   English World dictionary


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