- Gravity darkening
Gravity darkening, also referred to as Gravity Brightening, is an
astronomical phenomenonwhere a starrotates so rapidly that it has a detectibly oblateshape, such as in Regulusin the Leo constellation.
When a star is oblate, it has a larger radius at its equator than it does at its poles. As a result, the poles have a higher surface gravity, and thus temperaure and brightness. Thus, the poles are gravity brightened, and the equator gravity darkened.
The star becomes oblate (and hence gravity darkening occurs) because the centrifugal force resulting from rotation creates additional outward pressure on the star. The centrifugal force is expressed mathematically as:where is mass (in this case of a small volume element of the star), is the
angular velocity, and is the radial distance from the axis of rotation. In the case of a star, becomes larger as we move along the surface from the pole to the equator. This means that equatorial regions of a star will have a greater centrifugal force when compared to the pole. The centrifugal forcepushes mass away from the axis of rotation, and results in less overall pressure on the gas in the equatorial regions of the star. This will cause the gas in this region to become less dense, and cooler.
Von Zeipel theorem
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