- Infante Carlos, Count of Molina
- Not to be confused with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, who is sometimes erroneously called Charles V of Spain
Infante Carlos Count of Molina Carlist pretender as Carlos V Pretendence 1833–1845 Successor Carlos VI Spouse Maria Francisca of Portugal
Teresa, Princess of Beira
Issue Infante Carlos, Count of Montemolin
Juan, Count of Montizón
Full name Carlos María Isidro Benito Father Charles IV Mother Maria Luisa of Parma Born 29 March 1788
Palacio Real de Aranjuez
Died 10 March 1855(aged 66) Burial Trieste Cathedral
The Infante Carlos of Spain (29 March 1788 – 10 March 1855) was the second surviving son of King Charles IV of Spain and of his wife, Maria Luisa of Parma. As Carlos V he was the first of the Carlist claimants to the throne of Spain. He is often referred to simply as 'Don Carlos', but should not be confused with Carlos, son of King Philip II of Spain, after whom Verdi's opera is named.
Carlos was born on 29 March 1788, at the Palacio Real de Aranjuez in Aranjuez, Community of Madrid. In 1808, Napoleon captured Madrid in the Battle of Somosierra, and induced Carlos's father Charles IV and Carlos' older brother Ferdinand VII to renounce their rights to the throne of Spain. But Carlos who was heir presumptive to his brother refused to renounce his rights to the throne, which he considered to have been given to him by God. From 1808 until 1814 he and his brothers were prisoners of Napoleon at Valençay in France.
In 1814 Carlos and the rest of the Spanish royal family returned to Madrid. In September 1816 he married his niece Infanta Maria Francisca of Portugal (1800–1834), daughter of King John VI of Portugal and Carlos' sister Carlota Joaquina. Francisca was also sister of the second wife of Carlos' brother Ferdinand VII. The couple had three sons:
- Infante Carlos, Count of Montemolin (1818–1861), known as Count of Montemolin
- Juan, Count of Montizón (1822–1887), known as Count of Montizón
- Fernando (1824–1861)
Apart from several formal offices, Carlos took no significant part in the government of Spain. Ferdinand VII had found it necessary to cooperate with the moderate liberals and to sign a constitution. Carlos, however, was known for his firm belief in the divine right of kings to govern absolutely, the rigid orthodoxy of his religious opinions, and the piety of his life.
During the revolutionary troubles of 1820–1823 (the "liberal triennium") Carlos was threatened by the extreme radicals, but no attack was made on him. While there were certain conservatives in Spain who wanted to put Carlos on the throne immediately, Carlos himself was a firm believer in the legitimate succession and would never have taken up arms against his brother.
Pragmatic Sanction of 1830
In May 1830 Ferdinand VII published the Pragmatic Sanction, again allowing daughters to succeed to the Spanish throne as well as sons. This decree had originally been approved by the Cortes in 1789, but it had never been officially promulgated. On 10 October 1830, Ferdinand's wife gave birth to a daughter Isabella, who thereupon displaced her uncle in the line of succession.
The clerical party (called in Spanish 'apostólicos') continued to support the rights of Carlos to the throne. They considered the Pragmatic Sanction not only impractical but also illegal. They intrigued in favour of Carlos, but he himself would do no more than assert his rights in words. His wife and her sister, Maria Teresa (1793–1874), the princess of Beira, on the other hand, were actively engaged in intrigues with the apostólicos.
In March 1833 Ferdinand 'authorised' Carlos to go to Portugal with his wife and sister-in-law. The 'authorisation' was in fact an order to remove Carlos from Spain and his adherents.
In April 1833 Ferdinand called upon Carlos to take an oath of allegiance to Isabella as Princess of Asturias, the title traditionally used by the heir to the throne. In respectful but firm terms, Carlos refused. He had no personal desire for the throne, but he was adamant that he could not renounce what he considered to be his God-given rights and responsibilities.
Ferdinand VII died 29 September 1833. In Madrid, his widow declared herself regent for their daughter. On 1 October, Carlos issued a manifesto declaring his own accession to the throne as 'Charles V'. He informed the members of Maria Cristina's government that they were confirmed in their posts, and proceeded to the Portuguese-Spanish border. There he was met by forces loyal to Maria Cristina and Isabella who threatened to arrest him. Carlos remained in Portugal which itself was in a state of civil war between the adherents of Carlos' nephew and brother-in-law Miguel and his grand-niece, Miguel's niece Maria II. In Spain there were various risings which developed into the First Carlist War.
When the Miguelite party was finally beaten in Portugal in 1834, Carlos escaped to England where the government offered to grant him an annual pension of 30,000 pounds if he would renounce his claims and never return to Spain or Portugal. Carlos refused absolutely. In July he passed over to France, where he was actively aided by the legitimist party. He soon joined his adherents at Elizondo in the western Pyrenees of Spain. In October 1834 his sister-in-law Cristina issued a decree depriving him of his rights as an Infante of Spain; this was confirmed by the Cortes in 1837.
Carlos remained in Spain for five years. During these years he accompanied his armies, without displaying any of the qualities of a general or even much personal courage. But he endured a good deal of hardship, and was often compelled to take to hiding in the hills. On these occasions he was often carried over difficult places on the back of a stout guide commonly known as the "royal jackass" (burro real).
The semblance of a court which Carlos maintained was torn by incessant personal intrigues. While some of his adherents supported him because they believed in his hereditary rights to the throne, others were more concerned to promote the special privileges of the Basque provinces. There were ongoing conflicts between Carlos' military staff and the clergy who exercised significant influence over him.
In the first few years of the war, there were several moments when victory was within Carlos' grasp. The last of these was the so-called Royal Expedition of the summer of 1837 when Carlos himself accompanied his army from Navarre to the outskirts of Madrid. Carlos hoped to enter the city without any significant bloodshed, but when it became clear that only a battle would win the city, Carlos vacillated. After several days Carlos himself decided to withdraw; his army melted away and was reduced to a third of its former strength.
In June 1838 Carlos appointed Rafael Maroto as his commander-in-chief. In February 1839 Maroto had four Carlist generals shot and issued a proclamation criticizing Carlos' court. When Carlos removed him from office, Maroto marched to Tolosa where Carlos was living and made him a virtual prisoner. Maroto was re-appointed commander-in-chief, and his opponents in Carlos' court were dismissed. Maroto then began private negotiations with Cristina's commander-in-chief, and in August 1839 abandoned Carlos completely.
In September 1839 Carlos left Spain for France where he was briefly imprisoned. For almost another year some of his commanders continued to fight on his behalf especially in Catalonia. However, by July 1840 almost all resistance was concluded.
In May 1845 Carlos abdicated his rights to the throne of Spain in favour of his eldest son Carlos Luis. Subsequently he used the title 'count of Molina'. On 10 March 1855, he died at Trieste (then in the Austrian Empire) where he is buried in the chapel of Saint Charles Borromeo in the cathedral of San Giusto.
In midst of the first Carlist War, on 15 January 1837 the Cortes passed a law, ratified by royal decree of Regent María Cristina, which excluded Don Carlos and several his named allies from the succession to the Spanish crown and declared them stripped from their Spanish titles. These were: Carlos himself, and his descent, and his ally and future wife Teresa of Portugal, Teresa's son Sebastian (1811–1875), and Carlos's nephew Miguel I of Portugal (1802–1866), the other absolutist rival monarch in another country. This was grounded on them being "rebels".
Ancestors of Infante Carlos, Count of Molina 16. Louis, Dauphin of France 8. Philip V of Spain 17. Maria Anna of Bavaria 4. Charles III of Spain 18. Odoardo II Farnese 9. Elisabeth of Parma 19. Dorothea Sophie of the Palatinate 2. Charles IV of Spain 20. Augustus II of Poland 10. Augustus III of Poland 21. Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth 5. Maria Amalia of Saxony 22. Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor 11. Maria Josepha of Austria 23. Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick 1. Infante Carlos, Count of Molina 24. Louis, Dauphin of France (= 16) 12. Philip V of Spain (= 8) 25. Maria Anna of Bavaria (= 17) 6. Philip, Duke of Parma 26. Odoardo II Farnese (= 18) 13. Elisabeth of Parma (= 9) 27. Dorothea Sophie of the Palatinate (= 19) 3. Maria Luisa of Parma 28. Louis of France, Duke of Burgundy 14. Louis XV of France 29. Princess Maria Adelaide of Savoy 7. Marie Louise Élisabeth of France 30. Stanisław Leszczyński 15. Marie Leszczyńska 31. Catherine Opalińska
- Holt, Edgar. The Carlist Wars in Spain. Chester Springs, Pennsylvania: Dufour Editions, 1967.
Titles in pretence Pragmatic Sanction
— TITULAR —
King of Spain
29 September 1833 – May 1845
Reason for succession failure:
Crown passes to Isabella II
Carlist claimants to the Spanish throne Senior Carlists Majority claimants Spanish Royal claimants Legitimist claimants Habsburg claimantsCarlos VIII (1936-1953) · Carlos IX (1953-1961) · Francisco I (1961-1975) · Domingo I (1975-present) Infantes of SpainThe generations indicate descent from Charles I, under whom the crowns of Castile and Aragon were united, forming the Kingdom of Spain. Previously, the title Infante had been largely used in the different realms. 1st Generation 2nd Generation 3rd Generation 4th Generation 5th Generationnone 6th Generationnone 7th Generation 8th Generation 9th Generation 10th Generation 11th Generation 12th Generation 13th Generation 14th Generation 15th Generation 16th Generationnone*title granted by Royal Decree
**consort to an Infanta who was naturalized as a Spanish Infante
The Bourbons of Spain Philip VSpouse(s)ChildrenSiblingsLouis, Duke of Burgundy • Charles, Duke of BerryGrandchildrenMaría Isabel Antonia • María Josefa Antonieta • María Isabel Ana • María Josefa Carmela • Maria Luisa, Holy Roman Empress • Felipe, Duke of Calabria • Charles IV • María Teresa • Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies • Gabriel • Ana María • Antonio Pascual • Francisco Javier • Isabella, Archduchess of Austria • Ferdinand, Duke of Parma • Maria Luisa, Queen of Spain • Luis, Count of Chinchón • Maria Teresa, Countess of Chinchón • María Luisa, Duchess of San Fernando de Quiroga Louis ISpouse(s)HSH Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans Ferdinand VISpouse(s) Charles IIISpouse(s)ChildrenGrandchildrenCarlos Clemente • Carlota Joaquina, Queen of Portugal • Maria Luisa • Maria Amalia • Carlos Domingo • Maria Luisa, Duchess of Lucca • Carlos Francisco • Felipe Francisco • Ferdinand VII • Carlos, Count of Molina • Maria Isabella, Queen of the Two Sicilies • Maria Teresa • Felipe Maria • Francisco de Paula • Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress* • Luisa, Grand Duchess of Tuscany* • Carlo, Duke of Calabria* • Maria Ana* • Francis I of the Two Sicilies* • Maria Christina, Queen of Sardinia* • Maria Cristina Amelia* • Gennaro* • Giuseppe* • Maria Amalia, Queen of the French* • Maria Cristina* • Maria Antonia, Princess of Asturias* • Maria Clothilde* • Maria Enrichetta* • Carlo* • Leopold, Prince of Salerno* • Alberto* • Maria Isabella*Great grandchildrenCarlos, Count of Montemolin • Juan, Count of Montizón • Fernando • Isabella II of Spain • Luisa Fernanda, Duchess of Montpensier • Francisco de Asis • Isabel • Francis, Duke of Cádiz • Henry, Duke of Seville • Luisa, Duchess of Moscoso • Duarte Felipe • Josefina • Teresa • Fernando • Maria Cristina, Infanta of Portugal • Amelia Philippina, Princess Adalbert of Bavaria • Charles IVSpouse(s)HRH Princess Maria Luisa of ParmaChildrenCarlos Clemente • Carlota Joaquina, Queen of Portugal • Maria Luisa • Maria Amalia • Carlos Domingo • Maria Luisa, Duchess of Lucca • Carlos Francisco • Felipe Francisco • Ferdinand VII • Carlos, Count of Molina • Maria Isabella, Queen of the Two Sicilies • Maria Teresa • Felipe Maria • Francisco de PaulaGrandchildrenCarlos, Count of Montemolin • Juan, Count of Montizón • Fernando • Isabella II of Spain • Luisa Fernanda, Duchess of Montpensier • Francisco de Asis • Isabel • Francis, Duke of Cádiz • Henry, Duke of Seville • Luisa, Duchess of Moscoso • Duarte Felipe • Josefina • Teresa • Fernando • Maria Cristina, Infanta of Portugal • Amelia Philippina, Princess Adalbert of Bavaria Ferdinand VIISpouse(s)Children Isabella IISpouse(s)Children Alfonso XIISpouse(s)ChildrenGrandchildrenAlfonso, Duke of Calabria* • Fernando, Prince of Bourbon-Two Sicilies • Isabella Alfonsa, Princess of Bourbon-Two Sicilies • Alfonso, Prince of Asturias • Jaime, Duke of Segovia • Beatriz, Princess of Civitella-Cesi • Ferdinand • Maria Cristina, Countess of Marone • Juan, Count of Barcelona • GonzaloGreat grandchildren Alfonso XIIISpouse(s)ChildrenGrandchildren Juan Carlos ISpouse(s)ChildrenGrandchildren
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