List of constructed languages


List of constructed languages

This list of constructed languages is in alphabetical order, and divided into auxiliary, engineered, and artistic (including fictional) languages, and their respective subgenres.

Auxiliary languages

poken (major)

The following are languages that have generated significant followings, or which have been of significance in the history of auxiliary languages.

poken (minor)

There have been literally hundreds of proposals for auxiliary languages, and more continue to be created. The following are languages with some notability, either historically or because of unusual characteristics.

Controlled languages

Controlled languages are natural languages that have in some way been altered to make them simpler, easier to use, or more acceptable to those who do not speak the original language well. Most of these have been based on English.

* Basic English
* Globish
* Special English
* Plain English
* Simplified English
* E-Prime

Visual languages

Visual languages use symbols or movements in place of the spoken word.

* Blissymbols (zbl)
* Gestuno
* Signuno
* Earth Language

Engineered languages

Human-usable

* An Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language by John Wilkins
* Arahau
* aUI
* Characteristica universalis
* Isotype
* Ithkuil
* Láadan (ldn)
* Loglan
* Logopandecteision
* Lojban (jbo)
* Ro

Knowledge representation

* Common Logic, an ISO standard derived from KIF
* CycL
* The Distributed Language Translation project used a "binary-coded" version of Esperanto as a pivot language between the source language and its translation.
* Lincos
* Loom
* RDF

Artistic languages

Languages used in fiction

Literature

* Adûnaic from J. R. R. Tolkien's works
* Aklo, Tsath-yo, and R'lyehian are ancient and obscure languages in the works of H. P. Lovecraft, Clark Ashton Smith, and others. Aklo is considered by some writers to be the written language of the Serpent People
* Amtorian, spoken in some cultures on the planet Venus in Pirates of Venus by Edgar Rice Burroughs and several sequels. Judged by critic Fredrik Ekman to have "a highly inventive morphology but a far less interesting syntax." (See [http://www.erblist.com/erblist/ven1sum.html] .)
* Ancient Language in the Inheritance Trilogy by Christopher Paolini (although this is considered to be a cipher of English by many)
* Angley, Unglish and Ingliss - three languages spoken respectively at Western Europe, North America and the Pacific in the 29th Century world of Poul Anderson's "Orion Shall Rise". All derived from present-day English, the three are mutually unintelligable, following 800 years of separate development after a 21st century nuclear war and the extensive absorption of words and grammatical forms from French in the first case, Russian, Chinese and Mongolian in the second, and Polynesian in the third.
* Anglic, the dominant languague of the declining Galactic empire depicted in Poul Anderson's Dominic Flandry series, is descended from present-day English but so changed that only professional historians or linguists can understand English texts.
* Anglo-French, in the alternate history world of the Lord Darcy stories by Randall Garrett - where England and France were permanently united into a single kingdom by Richard the Lionheart and their languages consequently merged.
* asa'pili ("world language"), in "bolo'bolo", by Swiss author P.M..
* Atreides battle, in "Dune" by Frank Herbert
* Babel-17, in "Babel-17" by Samuel R. Delany
* Baronh, language of Abh in "Seikai no Monsho" ("Crest of the Stars") and others, by Morioka Hiroyuki
* Black Speech - language of Mordor in "The Lord of the Rings"
* Chakobsa, a language used in the "Dune" novels by Frank Herbert
* "Codex Seraphinianus" by Luigi Serafini appears to be written in a constructed language which is presumably the language of the alien civilization the book describes
* Common The language spoken in a wide variety of fantasy fiction, particularly Dungeons and Dragons.
* D'Haran The ancient, dead language of pre-Great War New World (D'Hara, Midlands, and Westland) in Terry Goodkind's "Sword of Truth" series.
* Drac, language of the alien species in Barry B. Longyear's Enemy Mine and The Enemy Papers
* Kad'k, the language of the Dwarfs in Terry Pratchett's Discworld
* "Earthsea" books (by Ursula K. Le Guin)
** Language of the Making - the basis of all magic, spoken by Dragons as their native tongue and learned with considerable effort by human mages
** Hardic - linguistically descended from the above
** Osskilian, and Kargish - a different family of languges, distantly related
* Elemeno, language of two sisters in "Caucasia" by Danzy Senna.
* Fremen, language of the native people of Arrakis, in "Dune" and other novels by Frank Herbert
* "Galactic Standard Speech" in Asimov' "Foundation series". Inhabitants of the planet Fomalhaut speak "an extreme dialect" of it.
* Galacticspeak from "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy"
* Gobbledygook, the language of goblins, in the Harry Potter series. Noted speakers include Albus Dumbledore and Barty Crouch.
* Glide, created by Diana Reed Slattery, used by the Death Dancers of "The Maze Game"
*High Speech of Gilead from Stephen King's The Dark Tower (series)
* Ilythiiri, the language of drow elves in Forgotten Realms setting. [http://php.iupui.edu/~asimmon/drow.html]
* Kesh, in Ursula K. Le Guin's novel "Always Coming Home
* Krakish, in "Guardians of Ga'Hoole" by Kathryn Lasky
* Láadan (ldn), in Suzette Haden Elgin's science fiction novel "Native Tongue" and sequels
* Lapine, in "Watership Down" by Richard Adams
* Lilliputian from Jonathan Swift's "Gulliver's Travels". Further samples of the language are provided in T. H. White's "Mistress Masham's Repose". In Gulliver's Travels, other fictional languages, spoken in other places Gulliver visits, are also presented, e.g. Brobdingnagian, Laputan, Balbinarbian and Houyhnhnm languages.
* Mando'a, created by Karen Traviss, used by the Mandalorians in the "Star Wars" "Republic Commando" novels ' and '
* Mangani in the Tarzan novels of Edgar Rice Burroughs
* Marain, in The Culture novels of Iain M. Banks
* The languages of Middle-earth (most notably Sindarin (sjn), Quenya (qya) and Khuzdûl) by J. R. R. Tolkien, partly published in "The Lord of the Rings", and posthumously discussed in "The History of Middle-earth" and other publications.
* Molvanian from "Molvania, A Land Untouched By Modern Dentistry"
* Nadsat slang, in "A Clockwork Orange" by Anthony Burgess
* Newspeak, in "Nineteen Eighty-Four" by George Orwell (fictional constructed language)
* The "Nautilus Language", spoken on board Jules Verne's famous fictional submarine, in token of crew members having completely renounced their former homelands and backgrounds. Every morning, after scanning the horizon with his binoculars, Nemo's second-in-command says: "Nautron respoc lorni virch". The meaning of these words is never clarified, but their constuction seems to indicate that the "Nautilus Language" (its actual name is not given) is based on European languages.
* Old Solar, in "Out of the Silent Planet", "Perelandra", and "That Hideous Strength" by C. S. Lewis
* The Old Tongue from Robert Jordan's "Wheel of Time" series
* Paluldonian in a Tarzan novel, Tarzan the Terrible, by Edgar Rice Burroughs. Used by the inhabitants of the realm of Pal-ul-don in Africa, separated from the outside world by inpenetrable marshes.
* Parseltongue, the language of snakes, in the Harry Potter series. The ability of humans to speak it is considered a magic ability.
* Pennsylvanisch, from Michael Flynn's "The Forest of Time"
* Pravic and Iotic, in "The Dispossessed" by Ursula K. Le Guin
* Ptydepe, from Václav Havel's play "The Memorandum"
* Quintaglio from Robert J. Sawyer's "Quintaglio Ascension Trilogy"
* Qwghlmian from Neal Stephenson's "Cryptonomicon" and "The Baroque Cycle"
* Reformed Egyptian in the Book of Mormon [Standard language references such as Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, eds., "The World's Writing Systems" (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996) (990 pages); David Crystal, "The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language" (Cambridge University Press, 1997); and Roger D. Woodard, ed., "The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages" (Cambridge University Press, 2004) (1162 pages) contain no reference to "reformed Egyptian." "Reformed Egyptian" is also ignored in Andrew Robinson, "Lost Languages: The Enigma of the World's Undeciphered Scripts" (New York: McGraw Hill, 2002), although it is mentioned in Stephen Williams, "Fantastic Archaeology: The Wild Side of North American Prehistory" (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991).]
* Rihannsu, spoken by the Rihannsu (Romulans) in the "Star Trek" novels of Diane Duane
* Spocanian, in Rolandt Tweehuysen's fictional country Spocania
* Stark (short for Star Common), a common interstellar English-based language from Orson Scott Card's "Ender" series
* Starsza Mowa from Andrzej Sapkowski's Hexer saga
* Troll language from Terry Pratchett's Discworld
* Utopian language, appearing in a poem by Petrus Gilles accompanying Thomas More's "Utopia"
* Whitmanite, spoken by members of a radical Anarchist-Pacifist cult of the same name in Robert Heinlein' "The Puppet Masters". "Allucquere" is a female given name in Whitmanite.
* Zaum, poetic tongue elaborated by Velimir Khlebnikov, Aleksei Kruchonykh, and other Russian Futurists as a "transrational" and "most universal" language "of songs, incantations, and curses".
* Several languages spoken by Panurge in François Rabelais' Pantagruel (1532)
* "The Time Machine" featured an unnamed language for the Eloi people.
* Jack Womack's Dryco novels feature a future form of English with a modified grammar.

Comic books

* Bordurian in some of Hergé's "The Adventures of Tintin", mostly in "The Calculus Affair"
* Interlac, the universal language spoken in the 30th century in the Legion of Super Heroes comics
* Kryptonese, or Kryptonian, the language of Superman's home planet of Krypton
* Syldavian, in some of Hergé's "The Adventures of Tintin", mostly in "King Ottokar's Sceptre"

Movies and television

* Two kinds of alien language, termed "Alienese" and "Beta Crypt 3" appear quite frequently in background sight gags in Futurama.
* Ancient in the Stargate universe (i.e. Stargate SG-1 and Stargate Atlantis) is the language of the Ancients, the builders of the Stargates; it is similar in pronunciation to Medieval Latin. The Athosians say prayers in Ancient.
* Atlantean created by Marc Okrand for the film ""
* Cityspeak, a "mishmash of Japanese, Spanish, German," plus Hungarian and French, spoken on the street of overcrowded and multi-lingual Los Angeles of 2019 in "Blade Runner". Similarly, used in many cyberpunk genre role playing games.
* The Divine Language is a language invented by director Luc Besson and actress Milla Jovovich for the 1997 movie The Fifth Element.
* Enchanta, in the Encantadia and Etheria television series in the Philippines, created by the head writer Suzette Doctolero
* Gelfling, spoken in Jim Henson's fantasy epic "The Dark Crystal"
* Goa'uld, the galactic "lingua franca" from "Stargate SG-1", supposedly influenced Ancient Egyptian
* Huttese, language of both alien species and people in some of George Lucas's Star Wars films
* Irken, in "Invader Zim", by Jhonen Vasquez, "et al."
* Klingon (tlh), in the "Star Trek" movie and television series, created by Marc Okrand
* Krakozhian from "The Terminal"
* Ku, a fictional African language in the movie "The Interpreter" (2005)
* Linguacode, a universal language code sometimes used by the United Federation of Planets in the "" television series.
* Marklar, spoken by the people of Marklar in a "South Park" episode.
* Minbari from Babylon 5, three related languages used together, corresponding to the areas of expertise of the three societal castes.
* Nadsat, the fictional language spoken by Alex and his friends in "Clockwork Orange"
* Nellish, a personal language from the main character of "Nell"
* Paku from "Land of the Lost"
* PortuGreek, the trade language featured in "Waterworld"
* The pseudo-Spanish/Greek/Arabic language of Republica, as used in the fictional "Chanel 9" program within the British comedy sketch show the "The Fast Show"
* Quenya (qya) and Sindarin (sjn), the two Elven languages, spoken in the "Lord of the Rings" movies.
* Slovetzian, the fictional Slavic language of Slovetzia in the movie "The Beautician and the Beast"
* The "Star Wars" series features several fictional languages, see: Languages in Star Wars
* Tenctonese from the "Alien Nation" movie and television series, created by Van Ling and Kenneth Johnson
* Unas in "Stargate SG-1", supposedly the first hosts of the Goa'uld
* Ulam, language spoken by the prehistoric humans in Anthony Burgess' movie "Quest for Fire", created by melting roots of European languages.
* Vampire language used in the movie "Blade".
* Vulcan language from "Star Trek"

Unnamed languages

* In the Janissaries series of science-fiction novels by Jerry Pournelle, the human natives of the planet Tran speak a language apparently derived from Mycenaean. A form of Latin is also spoken in an empire resembling ancient Rome's, but only by scholars.
* Riddley Walker, a 1980 novel by Russell Hoban, set in a post-apocalyptic future, is written entirely in a "devolved" form of English.
* Writer/director Luc Besson invented a Divine Language for Milla Jovovich's character "Leeloo" to speak in the film The Fifth Element.

Music

* Gulevache: fictional Romance Language of the kingdom of Gulevandia on the bilingual opera Cardoso en Gulevandia by the comedy group Les Luthiers
* Kobaian, the language used by 70's French rock group Magma.
* Vonlenska, sometimes known as "Hopelandic", the language sung by Jón Þór Birgisson of the Icelandic band "Sigur Rós" on many of their songs.
* Loxian, featured on the Enya album Amarantine.
* Unnamed language by Yves Barbieux, used in his song "Sanomi" and performed by the Belgian group Urban Trad in the Eurovision Song contest in 2003.
* Mohelmot, a forbidden language used by The Residents on the album .
* Unnamed language by Emmanuelle Orange, used in her song Pialoushka and performed by Montreal band Eden106.
* Unnamed language featured in the chorus of 2NU's 1991 track "This is Ponderous".

Performance

* Grammelot (Cirquish) is a "gibberish" that goes back to the 16th century, used by performers, including those of Cirque du Soleil

Games

* In the Halo series several alien languages are spoken by the Covenant."
* Al Bhed is a language used by the race of people known by the same name in the fictional world of Spira, in the games "Final Fantasy X" & "Final Fantasy X-2"
* Alaani, Angram (old dwarvish), Asdharia (high elvish), Isdira (elvish), Rogolan (dwarvish), Rssahh (language of the 'lizard-people') and others in the role-playing game "The Dark Eye"
* Ancient Altmer, the old tongue of High Elves in The Elder Scrolls series.
* Ancient Hylian is the ancient language used by the first Hylians in "The Legend of Zelda"
* Animalese is one language spoken by the NPC characters of Animal Crossing. There is also the option that they can speak Bebebese.
* Bluddian from the video game "Captain Blood" by Cryo Interactive Entertainment
* Common, Darnassian, Draenei language, Dwarvish, Gnomish, Gutterspeak, Orcish, Taurahe, Thalassian, and Troll language, all from the Warcraft Universe
* D'ni, the language spoken by the subterranean D'ni people in Cyan Worlds' Myst series of computer games and novels
* Dino, the language made by the Dinosaur Planet in Star Fox Adventures
* Gargish, used in the Ultima computer game series, by the gargoyle race
* [http://conlang.wikia.com/wiki/Hymmnos Hymmnos] , used by Reyvateils for Song Magic in Ar tonelico
* [http://wiki.urbandead.com/index.php/Zamgrh kiZombie] , used by zombies in the Urban Dead MMORPG
* Lashonnu is the language of the Wealdings (the Forest People) in the Gondica role playing game by Anders Blixt
* Mando'a, created by Karen Traviss, used by the Mandalorians in ""
* Or'zet, the rediscovered language of the Orks from the "Shadowrun" role playing game
* The unnamed language used by the Protoss in the "StarCraft" series
* Simlish from the computer game "The Sims"
* Sload, the language of the epynomous race in The Elder Scrolls series.
* Sperethiel, the language of the Elven nations of Tir Tairngire and Tir na Nog from the "Shadowrun" role playing game
* Tho Fan, in the Xbox game Jade Empire
* The unnamed language used by the Zerg race in the "StarCraft" series
* The unnamed language used by the Blobs when they sing, in the PlayStation Portable Game, "LocoRoco"
* The unnamed language used in the "Klonoa" series up to "", and an expetation in "Namco X Capcom", uses normal Japanese. It is known as "Klonian" or more recently "Lunatean" from Klonoa 2: Lunatea's Veil.
*Panzerese, a mix of German, Japanese, and Latin, used in the Panzer Dragoon series of games.
*Alltongue, magical language spoken in Arcadia in "The Longest Journey" series
* Vasudan, the language spoken by the Vasudan race in and in the other titles in the FreeSpace series.

Toys

* Furbish

Internet-based

* Teonaht, by Sally Caves
* several languages created for the fictional planet of Almea by Mark Rosenfelder

Alternative languages

* Anglish
* Brithenig (bzt), created by the inventor of the alternate history of Ill Bethisad, Andrew Smith
* Several North Slavic languages, inspired by the existence of West, East and South Slavic languages and the absence of a Northern branch
* Wenedyk, a language of the alternate history of Ill Bethisad created by Jan van Steenbergen

Micronational languages

* Talossan, by R. Ben Madison

Personal languages

* Enochian by Edward Kelley
* Lingua Ignota, by Hildegard of Bingen

Language games

*
* Gibberish
* Jeringonza
* Língua do Pê
* Louchebem
* Opish
* Pig Latin
* Rosarigasino
* Rövarspråket
* Sananmuunnos
* Šatrovački
* Starckdeutsch, Starckteutsch
* Tutnese
* Ubbi dubbi
* Verlan
* Vesre

References and notes

ee also

* Alien language
* Artificial script
* Constructed language
* Engineered language
* International auxiliary language
* Language game
* List of languages
* Voynich Manuscript


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