Syria (Roman province)


Syria (Roman province)

Syria was a Roman province, conquered in 64 BC by Pompey, as a consequence of his military presence after pursing victory in the Third Mithridatic War. It remained under Roman, and subsequently Byzantine, rule for seven centuries, until 637 when it fell to the Islamic conquests.

The Syrian army accounted for three legions of the Roman army, defending the Parthian border. In the 1st century, it was the Syrian army that enabled Vespasian's coup. Syria was of crucial strategic importance during the crisis of the third century.

From the later 2nd century, the Roman senate included several notable Syrians, including Claudius Pompeianus and Avidius Cassius. In the 3rd century, Syrians even reached for imperial power, with the Severan dynasty.

In 193, the province was divided into "Syria Coele" and "Syria Phoenice".In the 4th century, under Theodosius I, "Syria Coele" was further subdivided into "Syria", "Syria Salutaris", and "Syria Euphratensis"), while "Syria Phoenice" was divided into "Phoenice" and "Phoenicia Libanesia".

The region remained an important province of the Byzantine Empire well into the 6th century, although frequently plagued by Sassanid incursions.In 637, Antioch was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate army.

ee also

*History of Syria
*Ottoman Syria
*Assyria (Roman province)

References

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