Iudaea Province


Iudaea Province

:"Kingdom of Judea redirects here. For the 10th-6th century BCE kingdom, see Kingdom of Judah"Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard "Yehuda" Tiberian "Unicode|Yehûḏāh"; Greek: "Ιουδαία"; Latin: "Iudaea"; sometimes spelled "Judaea" in English) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later renamed Palestine. It was named in reference to the ancient Kingdom of Judah of the 6th century BCE, which had subsequently been conquered by Babylonia, the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great, and contested by the Seleucid and Ptolemaic Empires in the six Syrian Wars of the 2nd century BCE. The majority of the population, and their local rulers, remained Jewish until after Bar Kokhba's revolt when Jews were excluded from Jerusalem (renamed Aelia Capitolina), except for Tisha B'Av.

Rome's involvement in the area dated from 63 BCE, following the end of the Third Mithridatic War, when Rome made Syria a province. After the defeat of Mithridates VI of Pontus, general Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) remained to secure the area. Subsequently, during the 1st century BCE, Judea's Hasmonean Kingdom became a client kingdom and then a province of the Roman Empire.

Iudaea Province was the stage of three major rebellions (see Jewish-Roman wars), including the Great Jewish Revolt (66-70 CE) the Kitos War (115-117 CE), and Bar Kokhba's revolt (132-135 CE), after which Hadrian changed the name of the province to "Syria Palaestina" and Jerusalem to "Aelia Capitolina" in an attempt to erase the historical ties of the Jewish people to the region. [H.H. Ben-Sasson, "A History of the Jewish People", Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0674397312, page 334: "In an effort to wipe out all memory of the bond between the Jews and the land, Hadrian changed the name of the province from Iudaea to Syria-Palestina, a name that became common in non-Jewish literature."]

The client kingdom of Judea

The first intervention of Rome in the region dates from 63 BCE, following the end of the Third Mithridatic War, when Rome made a province of Syria. After the defeat of Mithridates VI of Pontus, Pompey (Pompey the Great) remained there to secure the area.

Judea at the time was not a peaceful place. Queen Salome Alexandra had recently died and her sons, Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II, divided against each other in a civil war. In 63 BCE, Aristobulus was besieged in Jerusalem by his brother's armies. He sent an envoy to Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, Pompey's representative in the area. Aristobulus offered a massive bribe to be rescued, which Pompey promptly accepted. Afterwards, Aristobulus accused Scaurus of extortion. Since Scaurus was Pompey's brother in law and protégée, the general retaliated by putting Hyrcanus in charge of the kingdom as Prince and High Priest.

When Pompey was defeated by Julius Caesar, Hyrcanus was succeeded by his courtier Antipater the Idumaean, also known as Antipas, as the first Roman Procurator. In 57-55 BCE, Aulus Gabinius, proconsul of Syria, split the former Hasmonean Kingdom into Galilee, Samaria & Judea with five districts of Sanhedrin/Synedrion (councils of law). [ [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0146;query=whiston%20chapter%3D%23182;layout=;loc=14.54 Antiquities of the Jews 14.5.4] : "And when he had ordained five councils (συνέδρια), he distributed the nation into the same number of parts. So these councils governed the people; the first was at Jerusalem, the second at Gadara, the third at Amathus, the fourth at Jericho, and the fifth at Sepphoris in Galilee." [http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=229&letter=S&search=Gabinius Jewish Encyclopedia: Sanhedrin] : "Josephus uses συνέδριον for the first time in connection with the decree of the Roman governor of Syria, Gabinius (57 BCE), who abolished the constitution and the then existing form of government of Palestine and divided the country into five provinces, at the head of each of which a sanhedrin was placed ("Ant." xiv. 5, § 4)."]

Both Caesar and Antipater were killed in 44 BCE, and the Idumean Herod the Great, Antipater's son, was designated "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate in 40 BCE [ [http://earlyjewishwritings.com/text/josephus/war1.html Jewish War 1] .14.4: Mark Antony " ...then resolved to get him made king of the Jews ... told them that it was for their advantage in the Parthian war that Herod should be king; so they all gave their votes for it. And when the senate was separated, Antony and Caesar went out, with Herod between them; while the consul and the rest of the magistrates went before them, in order to offer sacrifices [to the Roman gods] , and to lay the decree in the Capitol. Antony also made a feast for Herod on the first day of his reign."] . He didn't gain military control of Judea till 37 BCE. During his reign the last representatives of the Maccabees were eliminated, and the great port of Caesarea Maritima was built. He died in 4 BCE, and his kingdom was divided among his sons, who became tetrarchs ("rulers of fourth parts"). One, Herod Archelaus, ruled Judea so badly that he was dismissed in 6 CE by the Roman emperor Augustus, after an appeal from his own population. Another, Herod Antipas, ruled as tetrarch of Galilee and Perea from 4 BCE to 39 CE, being then dismissed by Caligula.

Iudaea

Infobox Former Subdivision
native_name = Iudaea
common_name = Israel
continent = Asia
region = Mediterranean



era =
subdivision = Province
nation = the Roman Empire
year_start = 6
year_end = 132
p1 = Herod Archelaus
s1 = Simon bar Kokhba
capital = Caesarea Maritima
latd= 32 |latm= 30 |latNS= N |longd= 34 |longm= 54 |longEW= E
common_languages = Koine Greek, Aramaic, Latin, Hebrew
religion = Imperial cult (ancient Rome), Second Temple Judaism, Early Christianity
title_leader = Prefect
leader1 = Pontius Pilate
year_leader1 = 26-36
title_representative = King
representative1 = Agrippa I
year_representative1 = 41-44
representative2 = Agrippa II
year_representative2 = 48-100
title_deputy = High Priest
deputy1 = Annas
year_deputy1 = 6-15
deputy2 = Caiaphas
year_deputy2 = 18-36
event_start = Census of Quirinius
event1 = Crisis under Caligula
date_event1 = 37-41
event2 = Destruction of the Second Temple
date_event2 = August 4, 70
event_end = Bar Kokhba revolt
date_end = 132-135
In 6 CE Judea became part of a larger Roman province, called "Iudaea", which was formed by combining Judea proper with Samaria and Idumea. [H.H. Ben-Sasson, "A History of the Jewish People", Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0674397312, page 246: "When Archelaus was deposed from the ethnarchy in 6 CE, Judea proper, Samaria and Idumea were converted into a Roman province under the name Iudaea."] It did not include Galilee, Gaulanitis (the Golan), nor Peraea or the Decapolis. The capital was at Caesarea. Quirinius became Legate (Governor) of Syria and conducted the first Roman tax census of Iudaea, which was opposed by the Zealots. [ [http://earlyjewishwritings.com/text/josephus/ant18.html Josephus' Antiquities 18] ] This province was one of the few governed by a knight of the equestrian order, not a former consul or praetor of senatorial rank; even though its revenue was of little importance to the Roman treasury, it controlled the land and coastal sea routes to the bread basket Egypt and was a border province against Parthia because of the Jewish connections to Babylonia. Pontius Pilate was one of these prefects, from 26 to 36 CE. Caiaphas was one of the appointed High Priests of Herod's Temple, being appointed by the Prefect Valerius Gratus in 18. Both were deposed by the Syrian Legate Lucius Vitellius in 36 CE.

The 'Crisis under Caligula' (37-41) has been proposed as the first open break between Rome and the Jews. [H.H. Ben-Sasson, "A History of the Jewish People", Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0674397312, "The Crisis Under Gaius Caligula", pages 254-256: "The reign of Gaius Caligula (37-41) witnessed the first open break between the Jews and the Julio-Claudian empire. Until then — if one accepts Sejanus' heyday and the trouble caused by the census after Archelaus' banishment — there was usually an atmosphere of understanding between the Jews and the empire ... These relations deteriorated seriously during Caligula's reign, and, though after his death the peace was outwardly re-established, considerable bitterness remained on both sides. ... Caligula ordered that a golden statue of himself be set up in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Only Caligula's death, at the hands of Roman conspirators (41), prevented the outbreak of a Jewish-Roman war that might well have spread to the entire East."]

Between 41 and 44 CE, Iudaea regained its nominal autonomy, when Herod Agrippa was made King of the Jews by the emperor Claudius. Following Agrippa's death, the province returned to direct Roman control for a short period. Iudaea was returned to Agrippa's son Marcus Julius Agrippa in 48. He was the seventh and last of the Herodians. There was, however, an imperial procurator in the area, responsible for keeping peace and tax raising. When Agrippa II died, about 100, the area returned to direct Roman Empire control.

Iudaea was the stage of three major rebellions against the Romans. They were (see Jewish-Roman wars for the full account):

*66-70 CE - first rebellion, followed by the destruction of Herod's Temple and the siege of Jerusalem (see Great Jewish Revolt, Josephus)
*115-117 CE - second rebellion, called Kitos War, due to excessive taxation
*132-135 CE - third rebellion, Bar Kokhba's revolt

Following the suppression of Bar Kokhba's revolt, the emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province to "Syria Palaestina" and Jerusalem became "Aelia Capitolina" in order to humiliate the Jewish population by attempting to erase their historical ties to the region. [H.H. Ben-Sasson, "A History of the Jewish People", Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0674397312, page 334: "In an effort to wipe out all memory of the bond between the Jews and the land, Hadrian changed the name of the province from Iudaea to Syria-Palestina, a name that became common in non-Jewish literature."]

According to historian H.H. Ben-Sasson [H.H. Ben-Sasson, "A History of the Jewish People", Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0674397312, page 351] , under Diocletian (284-305) the region was divided into "Palaestina Prima" which was Judea, Samaria, Idumea, Peraea and the coastal plain with Caesarea as capital, "Palaestina Secunda" which was Galilee, Decapolis, Golan with Beth-shean as capital, and "Palaestina Tertia" which was the Negev with Petra as capital.

References

External links

* [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/images.jsp?artid=64&letter=V&imgid=2043 Jewish Encyclopedia: Image of Brass Coin of Vespasian, with Inscription "Iudaea Capta." Struck in 72 C.E.]
* [http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=541&letter=P&search=Lucius%20Vitellius Jewish Encyclopedia: Procurators ]
* [http://focusonjerusalem.com/whatromecalledthepromisedland.html The name Rome gave to the land of Israel]


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