Crumlin Arm (Monmouthshire canal)


Crumlin Arm (Monmouthshire canal)

The Crumlin Arm of the Monmouthshire canal is part of the Monmouthshire & Brecon Canal network in South Wales. It connected Crumlin and its tramways to the Docks at Newport.

[v · Legend
Unused straight waterway Unknown BSicon "uFEATURE"
River Usk and Brecon
Unused waterway turning from left
Unknown BSicon "ueFEEDER" + Unused waterway turning right
Feeder
Unknown BSicon "uxWEIRg"
Unknown BSicon "ueFEEDER" + Unknown BSicon "uxDOCKf"
Weir and Theatre Basin
Unknown BSicon "uexAKRZu" Unknown BSicon "uAKRZu"
A40(T) Road bridges
Unused straight waterway Unknown BSicon "uFGATEu"
69 Brynich lock
Unused waterway turning left Unknown BSicon "ueKRZo" Unused waterway turning from right
Brynich aqueduct
Unused transverse waterway Unknown BSicon "ueKRZo" Unknown BSicon "uexABZlg"
Nant Manascin aqueduct
Waterway under minor road Unused straight waterway
B4558 Cross Keys bridge, Pencelli
Unused transverse waterway Unknown BSicon "ueKRZo" Unknown BSicon "uexABZlg"
Afon Caerfanell aqueduct, Talybont
Unknown BSicon "uTUNNEL1" Unused straight waterway
Ashford Tunnel (375 yd)
Unknown BSicon "uLOCKSu" Unused straight waterway
65-68 Llangynidr Locks (4)
Unused transverse waterway Unknown BSicon "ueKRZo" Unknown BSicon "uexABZlg"
Afon Crawnon aqueduct
Unknown BSicon "uFGATEu" Unused straight waterway
64 Llangynidr Locks - Lower lock
Waterway under minor road Unused waterway under minor road
B4560 Llangynidr bridge
Unused transverse waterway Unknown BSicon "ueKRZo" Unknown BSicon "uexABZlg"
Nant Cleisfer aqueduct
Waterway under minor road Unused straight waterway
B4558 Fro Bridge
Urban straight track Unknown BSicon "uexAKRZu"
A4077 Crickhowell Bridge
Unused transverse waterway Unknown BSicon "ueKRZo" Unknown BSicon "uexABZlg"
Aqueduct, Llangattock
Unknown BSicon "uHWHARF" Waterway T-junction to right Unused straight waterway
Gilwern Wharf
Unused transverse waterway Unknown BSicon "ueKRZo" Unknown BSicon "uexABZlg"
Afon Clydach aqueduct
Unknown BSicon "uAKRZu" Unused straight waterway
A4077 Gilwern Bridge
Unknown BSicon "uAKRZu" Unused straight waterway
A465 Heads of the Valleys Road
Unused transverse waterway Unknown BSicon "ueKRZo" Unknown BSicon "uexABZlg"
Llanwenarth aqueduct, Govilon
Unknown BSicon "uemKRZu" Unused straight waterway
Disused railway bridge
Unknown BSicon "uSTRfr" Unknown BSicon "uxSTRfr"
Llanfoist and Abergavenny
Unused transverse waterway Unknown BSicon "ueKRZo" Unknown BSicon "uexABZ3lf"
Ochram Brook aqueduct
Unknown BSicon "uHWHARF" Waterway T-junction to right
Goytre Wharf
Urban straight track + Unknown BSicon "POINTERl"
Brecknock & Abergavenny Canal
Unknown BSicon "ugDOCKf" Waterway turning to left Urban track turning from right
Pontnewynydd Basin
Unknown BSicon "ugLOCKSu" Urban straight track
Pontnewynydd branch locks (11)
Unwatered canal Unknown BSicon "ueKRZo"
Afon Lwyd aqueduct
Unwatered canal turning left Unknown BSicon "uddHSTRg" Waterway T-junction to right
Pontymoile Basin
Unknown BSicon "uAKRZu"
A472 Pontymoile Bypass Bridge
Waterway turning from left Waterway turning to right
Urban straight track + Unknown BSicon "POINTERl"
Monmouthshire Canal
Waterway under minor road
Crown Bridge, Sebastopol
Unknown BSicon "uTUNNEL1"
Cwmbran Tunnel (87 yd)
Waterway with marina/wharf on right
Five Locks Basin
Unknown BSicon "uxENDEe"
Limit of navigation
Unknown BSicon "uexLOCKSu"
59-63 Cross Keys locks (5)
Unknown BSicon "uexLOCKSu"
56-58 Pontnewydd locks (3)
Unknown BSicon "uexLOCKSu"
53-55 Three Locks (3)
Unknown BSicon "uexLOCKSu"
49-52 Forge Hammer locks (4)
Unused straight waterway + Unknown BSicon "AROADrg"
Unknown BSicon "AROADrf"
A4051 road built over canal bed
Unused straight waterway + Unknown BSicon "AROADlf"
Unknown BSicon "AROADlg"
Unused straight waterway
Urban tunnel straight track
Culverted section
Unknown BSicon "uexLOCKSu"
47-48 Two Locks (2)
Unknown BSicon "uexLOCKSu"
38-46 Drapers lock to Ty Coch lock (9)
Unused waterway under minor road
Pentre Lane bridge
Unknown BSicon "uFGATEu"
37 Tamplin Lock
Unknown BSicon "uFGATEu"
36 Tyfynnon Lock
Unknown BSicon "uFGATEu"
35 Malpas Lock
Unknown BSicon "uFGATEu"
34 Gwasted Lock
Unused waterway turning left Unknown BSicon "ueKRZo" Unused transverse waterway
Malpas Brook aqueduct
Waterway under motorway
M4 motorway bridge
Waterway turning from left Unknown BSicon "uJUNCe" Urban track turning from right
Malpas Junction
Urban straight track + Unknown BSicon "POINTERl"
Urban straight track
Crumlin Arm
Urban straight track Unknown BSicon "ugTUNNEL1"
Barrack Hill Tunnel (closed 1930)
Urban straight track Unknown BSicon "ugFGATEu"
1 Mill Street lock
Urban straight track Unknown BSicon "ugWHARF"
Llanarth St Wharf
Urban straight track Unknown BSicon "ugFGATEu"
Potter Street lock
Urban straight track
Unwatered canal + Unknown BSicon "ugDOCKf"
Newport Old Town Dock
Waterway with floodgate down
2 Gwastad Lock (restored)
Unknown BSicon "uexLOCKSd"
3-6 Waen lock to Allt-yr-yn lock (4)
Unused waterway with floodgate down
7 Cwrt-y-Mwnws Lock
Unknown BSicon "uxAKRZu2"
M4 Motorway bridge
Unknown BSicon "uexLOCKSd"
8-21 Cefn Flight (Fourteen Locks)
Unknown BSicon "ugBRÜCKE"
Site of Giles aqueduct
Unknown BSicon "uxgTRANSf"
Unknown BSicon "uxgTRANSg"
Infilled section
Unknown BSicon "ugTRANSf"
Navigable section
Urban straight track
Unknown BSicon "ugTRANSg"
Pontywaun terminus
Unwatered canal with floodgate down
22 Cwmcarn lock
Unknown BSicon "ugLOCKSd"
23-29 Abercarn locks (7)
Unknown BSicon "ugLOCKSd"
30-33 Newbridge locks (4)
Unknown BSicon "ugWHARF"
Crumlin wharf

Contents

History

The Crumlin to Abercarn section opened in March 1794 and two years later the branch was open except for Fourteen Locks. It was not until April 1799 that the proprietors (shareholders) declared that the canal was finally complete. The branch was 11 miles (18 km) long, rising 358 ft (109 m) through 32 locks.

Route

The canal started at a basin in Crumlin and ran through the villages of Newbridge, Abercarn and Cwmcarn now under the A467. The canal then reached Cwmcarn lock now under the grass at the end of the present canal. The canal crosses the Pontywaun aqueduct and follow the side of the mountain above Crosskeys and Risca this section is the longest lock-free pound on the system until the Fourteen Locks. The canal descends the fourteen locks and turns sharp along the hill side. The canal now flows next to the M4 into urban Newport to Barrack Hill tunnel (now disused and culverted). The rest of the canal through the city is lost beneath modern roads and buildings. The Kingsway dual carriageway follows the route of the canal to the now-filled-in Old Town Docks near the Transporter Bridge.

Locks

Location Number of locks
Allt-yr-yn 5
Cefn 1
Fourteen Locks 14
Cwmcarn 1
Abercarn 7
Newbridge area 4

These were originally numbered (as were bridges) by the usual system of top down. Therefore, Cwmcarn lock was number 12. The GWR renumbered the locks (and bridges) from Newport to Crumlin and then up the Main Line to Brecon. Thus, Cwmcarn lock became Lock 22. Lock 22 was under the grass area just beyond the end of the canal. Going down was a lock-free pound to the top of Fourteen Locks and going up was another pound to Abercarn bottom lock below the old Prince of Wales Colliery.

Traffic

The vast majority of the tonnage was coal or iron (particularly coal). Bricks from Allt-yr-yn Brickworks were later important but in relatively small tonnages. There was a regular general cargo boat twice a week from Newport to Crumlin until 1915 but whilst it was important for traders, the tonnages were small. The Branch was often short of water and by 1829 a tramroad was available from Beaufort to Newport as well as from the big collieries at Abercarn. This meant that the canal above Abercarn became less used.

Boats were approximately 64 ft 9 in (19 m) long by 9 ft 2 in (2.8 m) wide.

Canal today

Today the canal is mostly disused and the northern end is lost beneath the A467 bypass. Eight miles of canal is viable but blocked by roads. The National cycle route 47 follows the towpath for seven miles (11 km) from Barrack Hill tunnel, Newport to Green Meadow Bridge, Crosskeys. 1.5 miles (2.4 km) of canal between Pontywaun Aqueduct (Pontywaun) to Darren Bridge (Risca) is still navigable but only by small craft via a slipway at Pontywaun.

Plans

There are plans to reopen the canal down to the Fourteen Locks then on to central Newport. This requires building two aqueducts, raising a number of roads and rebuilding 20 locks. There are plans to build a marina at the Darran quarry in Risca with a transport museum. Other plans include a new marina at Newport and a connection to the River Usk to connect to the main system of canals in the UK.

See also

Moore Bridge.jpg UK Waterways portal

References

Coordinates: 51°40′47″N 3°08′12″W / 51.6798°N 3.1368°W / 51.6798; -3.1368


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