- The Samson Option (book)
name = The Samson Option
language = English
media_type = Print (Hardback)
pages = 362 pp
isbn = ISBN 0-394-57006-5
"The Samson Option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy" is a
1991book by Seymour Hersh. It details the history of Israel's nuclear weapons program and its effects on Israel-American relations. The book's title, the Samson Option, refers to the nuclear strategywhereby Israel would launch a massive nuclear retaliatory strike if the state itself was being overrun, just as the Biblical figure Samsonis said to have pushed apart the pillars of a Philistine temple, bringing down the roof and killing himself and thousands of Philistines who had gathered to see him humiliated.
According to "
The New York Times", Hersh relied on Ari Ben-Menashe, a former Israeli government employee who says he worked for Israeli intelligence, for much of his information on the state of the Israeli nuclear program. However, Hersh confirmed all of this information with at least one other source.cite news | title= Israeli Nuclear Arsenal Exceeds Earlier Estimates, Book Reports | publisher= The New York Times | url= http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE6DA1F3CF933A15753C1A967958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=1 |date= 1991-10-20| accessdate=2007-11-13 ] Hersh did not travel to Israelto conduct interviews for the book, believing that he might have been subject to the Israeli Military Censor. Nevertheless, he did interview Israelis in the United Statesand Europeduring his three years of research.
Yaleprofessor Gaddis Smithreviewed the book for " Foreign Affairs", calling it a "fascinating work of investigative history" that succeeded in sifting "hard fact from the decade's rumors and half-confirmed reports" on the Israeli program. [cite web | title= The Samson Option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal And American Foreign Policy | publisher= Foreign Affairs | url= http://www.foreignaffairs.org/19920301fabook6171/seymour-m-hersh/the-samson-option-israel-s-nuclear-arsenal-and-american-foreign-policy.html |date= Spring 1992| accessdate=2007-11-13 ] New Scientist's review stated that the book "breaks new ground" by revealing that "US officials helped to suppress the information they gathered on Dimona," i.e, Israel's Negev Nuclear Research Center.[Dan Charles, [http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg13217965.400-review-israel-has-its-nuclear-demons-.html Review: Israel has its nuclear demons] , issue 1796 of New Scientist magazine, 23 November 1991, page 58.] The book spent three weeks on Publishers Weekly's bestseller list. [ [http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/product-description/0394570065 Amazon listing] ]
Some Jewish and Israeli publications were much more critical of the book.
AIPAC's newsletter "Near East Report" said that the book has "many inaccuracies," [ [http://www.jonathanpollard.org/1999/012299c.htm JonathanPollard.org] ] and " The Jerusalem Report" said that it was "yet another pretentious, self-serving and therefore unreliable effort to stir up a controversy for its own sake and make a fast buck." [cite web | title= Nuclear Sham | publisher= The Jerusalem Report | url= http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/jrep/access/468753031.html?dids=468753031:468753031&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Nov+7%2C+1991&author=Avner+Yaniv&pub=The+Jerusalem+Report&edition=&startpage=37&desc=Nuclear+Sham |date= 1991-11-07| accessdate=2007-11-14 ]
Hersh revelations and allegations
Random Houseboasted on the inside folds of the cover that "The Samson Option" “reveals many startling events,” among them:
* How Israel stole United States
satellitereconnaissance intelligence and used it to target the Soviet Union.
* How Israeli Prime Minister
Yitzhak Shamirdirected that some of the intelligence stolen by American spy Jonathan Pollardbe turned over to the Soviet Union.
* How Israel created a false control room at the Dimona nuclear facility to hide from American nuclear inspectors its use in creating nuclear weapons.
* How President
Dwight Eisenhower’s administration tried and failed to force Israel to acknowledge its nuclear ambitions.
* How Israel threatened to use nuclear weapons on the third day of the 1973
Yom Kippur War, blackmailing U.S. President Richard Nixoninto airlifting military supplies.
* How Israel used a top
London newspapereditor to capture Mordecai Vanunu.
* How a top American Democratic Party fund-raiser influenced the White House while raising money for the Israeli bomb.
* How American intelligence finally learned the truth about Dimona.
American Library Associationbook review lists additional “significant revelations” in the book:
* Fuller details about the Israeli bombing of the
Iraqi nuclear facility in 1981.
* That Israel collaborated with
South Africaon a nuclear testover the Indian Oceanin 1979. (Now disputed. See nuclear.)
* That during the 1991
Gulf WarIsrael pointed nuclear armed mobile missiles at Iraq.
* That Israel holds a few
neutron bombs in additional to several hundred other nuclear weapons.
* That U.S. policy towards Israel’s nuclear program "was not just one of benign neglect: it was a conscious policy of ignoring reality." [Benjamin Segedin, [http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg13217965.400-review-israel-has-its-nuclear-demons-.html Review of The Samson Option : Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy by Hersh, Seymour M.] , American Library Association Booklist, November 15, 1991.]
The New Scientist book review lists specific examples of U.S. official’s suppression of information:
* CIA analysts kept quiet about what they found in
Lookheed U-2spy plane photographs of Dimona during the 1950s.
Lewis Strauss, chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission during the 1950s, probably knew about and supported the Israeli nuclear weapons program.
The review also notes the revelation that U.S. President
John F. Kennedyattempted to persuade Israel to abandon its nuclear program, and angry notes were exchanged between Kennedy and Israeli Premier David Ben-Gurionin 1963.
Other notable allegations in "The Samson Option" include:
* The U.S. did not understand that Israel saw the Soviet Union as its number one threat; that even before he became President Nixon’s
National Security Advisor Henry Kissingerhad told Israeli leaders that the U.S. would not help Israel if the Soviets attacked it; that Israeli missiles targeted the Soviet Union from 1971 on; that the Soviets had added four Israeli cities to their target list; that the Soviets had threatened Israel after the 1973 war because Israel kept breaking ceasefires with Egypt. [Seymour Hersh, "The Samson Option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy," Random House, 1991, 17, 66, 174-75, 177, 216, 220, 232.]
White Houseunder Kennedy was “fixated” upon what to do about Israel’s nuclear weapons. However, none of the prominent Kennedy biographers, including Arthur Schlesingerand Theodore C. Sorensenmentioned the fact. [Seymour Hersh, 100.]
*In December 1960 U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
John A. McConerevealed Central Intelligence Agency(CIA) information about Israel's Dimona nuclear weapons plant to the New York Times. Hersh writes that Kennedy appointed McCone Director of Central Intelligencein part because of his willingness to deal with Israeli and other nuclear issues - and despite the fact that McCone was a Republican. McCone resigned as director in 1965, feeling unappreciated by President Lyndon B. Johnson, who he complained would not read his reports, including on the need for full-fledged inspections of Israeli nuclear facilities. [Seymour Hersh, 72-73, 105, 120, 151.]
* President Johnson suppressed the January, 1965 [http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB1/nhch7_1.htm Gilpatric report] which called for tough anti-
nuclear proliferationefforts, including against Israel, because he feared backlash from American Jews. In June 1965 Senator Robert F. Kennedypublicly called for many of the report’s recommendations, invoking his assassinated brother’s name, thus provoking Johnson to further bury the report. [Seymour Hersh, 151-152.]
* Hersh alleges that the Soviets learned about and communicated to
Egyptian President Anwar SadatIsraeli threats to use the Samson Option in the 1973 war. [Seymour Hersh, 227.]
Menachem Begin’s conservative party coalition, which took power in 1977, was more committed to “the Samson Option and the necessity for an Israeli nuclear arsenal” than the Labor Party. Rather than merely react to attack, they intended to “use Israeli might to redraw the political map of the Middle East.” Begin, who hated the Soviet Union, immediately targeted more Soviet cities with nuclear weapons. [Seymour Hersh, 259-260.]
* Hersh includes two threatening sounding quotations from Israeli leaders. He writes that a “former Israeli govt official” with “first hand knowledge of his government’s nuclear weapons program” told him: "We can still remember the smell of Auschwitz and Treblinka. Next time we’ll take all of you with us." [Seymour Hersh, 42.] And he quotes then Israeli defense minister
Ariel Sharonas saying: "We are much more important than (Americans) think. We can take the Middle East with us whenever we go." [Seymour Hersh, 289.]
Hersh stated in "The Samson Option" that the foreign editor of the British "
Daily Mirror", Nicholas Davies, told the Mossadin 1986 the name of the hotel in which Israeli nuclear technician Mordechai Vanunuwas hiding.cite news | title= Britain Urged to Investigate Spy Allegations | publisher= The New York Times | url= http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE7DB1338F930A15753C1A967958260 |date= 1991-10-23| accessdate=2007-11-13 ] Vanunu was in the process of revealing information on the Israeli nuclear program to " The Sunday Times", but was subsequently kidnapped and smuggled to Israel by the Mossad. Hersh further stated that Davies was involved in Israeli arms sales, and that his boss, Robert Maxwellalso had ties to the Mossad. He received this information from Ben-Menashe and from Janet Fielding, Davies' former wife.cite news | title= Media Baron Sues Seymour Hershs | publisher= The Washington Post | url= http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost/access/74746795.html?dids=74746795:74746795&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Oct+25%2C+1991&author=Glenn+Frankel&pub=The+Washington+Post+(pre-1997+Fulltext)&edition=&startpage=b.01&desc=Media+Baron+Sues+Seymour+Hersh |date= 1991-10-25| accessdate=2007-11-13 ]
Both Davies and Maxwell immediately rejected the allegations, calling them "a complete and total lie" a "ludicrous, a total invention" respectively. On
October 23, 1991they filed a libel suit against the book's British publisher, Faber & Faber Ltd., and two days later they filed another libel suit against Hersh himself. [cite news | title= Two British Newsmen Accuse Author of Libel| publisher= The New York Times | url= http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0D81F3FF936A15753C1A967958260 |date= 1991-10-25| accessdate=2007-11-13 ] Davies never pursued his case, and Maxwell died the following month. In August 1994 the Mirror Group settled Maxwell's suit, paying Hersh and Faber & Faber damages, covering their legal costs, and issuing a formal apology. [cite news | title= U.S. Author Gets Apology In Libel Case | publisher= The New York Times | url= http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A05EFD61F30F93AA2575BC0A962958260&n=Top/Reference/Times%20Topics/People/H/Hersh,%20Seymour |date= 1994-8-19| accessdate=2007-11-13 ]
Two British MPs asked for further investigations into the book's revelations. Labor Party MP
George Gallowayproposed an independent tribunal to investigate the extent of foreign intelligence penetration of Maxwell's Mirror Group. Conservative Party MP Rupert Allasonasked for the Department of Trade and Industryto see if potential arms sales to Iran had violated a UN embargo.
In "The Samson Option" Hersh cites Ben-Menashe and an anonymous Israeli source in stating that US intelligence information stolen by convicted spy
Jonathan Pollardhad been "sanitized" and given by Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamirdirectly to the Soviet Union. This information was said to include US data and satellite pictures which were used by US forces for nuclear targeting against the USSR. These claims were subsequently denied by the military aide to Shamir, the then Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin, the Soviet official who was said to have received the information, and a Washington official. [cite news | title= Did Shamir Give Away Secrets?| publisher= Time | url= http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,974135,00.html |date= 1991-10-28| accessdate=2007-11-14 ]
Gates arms deals
Because Hersh named Ben-Menashe as a major source of the book, other allegations by the former Israeli official were granted greater attention.cite news | title= Will Gates Be Given the Gate? | publisher= Time | url= http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,974269,00.html |date=
1991-11-11| accessdate=2007-11-14 ] Among other things, Menashe had claimed that Robert Gates, then in Senate hearings to be confirmed as the director of the CIA, had been involved in "illegal arms shipments to Iraq" during the 1980s. However, Gates was confirmed after the Senate Intelligence Committee could not substantiate the claims.
Table of Contents
*1. A Secret Agreement
*2. The Scientist
*3. The French Connection
*4. First Knowledge
*5. Internal Wars
*6. Going Public
*7. Dual Loyalty
*8. A Presidential Struggle
*9. Years of Pressure
*10. The Samson Option
*11. Playing the Game
*12. The Ambassador
*13. An Israeli Decision
*14. A Presidential Gift
*15. The Tunnel
*16. Prelude to War
*17. Nuclear Blackmail
*19. The Carter Malaise
*20. An Israeli Test
*21. Israel's Nuclear Spy
*22. An Israeli Asset
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