- Sun Ning Railway Company
railroad_name = Sun Ning Railway
logo_filename = XinningRailway01.jpg
locale = South China
start_year = 1906
end_year = 1938
gauge = 1,435 mm
t=新寧鐵路cite news|publisher=China Radio International|url=http://firstname.lastname@example.org|date=2006-05-22|accessdate=2007-09-28|title=第四集：新宁铁路 (Episode 4: The Xinning Railway)|language=Chinese]
p=Xīnníng TiĕlùThe Sun Ning Railway Company (aka Sunning Railway Company and Xinning Railway Company) 新寧鐵路 (
pinyin: Xinning Tielu) was a standard gauge railwayin the Pearl River Deltain GuangdongProvince founded in 1906 by Chin Gee Hee陳宜禧 (pinyin: Chen Yixi) and Yu Shek 余灼 (pinyin: Yu Zhuo). It was South China's first railway [http://www.tsinfo.com.cn/en/xntls/1.htm The History of Xinning Railway] , Bureau of Archives of Taishan City.] Scigliano 2007.] [Another transliteration of 余灼 (pinyin: Yu Zhuo) is Yu Chuek (Editors' note, p. 125, Chin Gee Hee, "Letter Asking for Support to Build the Sunning Railroad" (1911), p. 125–128 in Judy Yung, Gordon H. Chang, and Him Mark Lai (compilers and editors), "Chinese American Voices", University of California Press (2006). ISBN 0520243102.)] and one of only three railways in pre-1949 China built solely with private Chinese capital. [Don T. Nakanishi and Tina Yamano Nishida, "The Asian American Educational Experience: A Source Book for Teachers and Students", Routledge (1995). ISBN 0415908728. p. 55.] [Jue (1983) for the ideographs and Taishanese spellings.]
In order to fund the railway, Chin raised $2.75 million, mainly from
overseas Chinese; some sources [Eric Scigliano, for example. Cheng and Yuzun (1982) seem to say that initial fundraising was entirely from China and from overseas Chinese, but some later funds were borrowed from abroad.] say that further investment came from James J. Hill, but others say that at a time when railway development in China was dominated by European nations, [Cheng and Yuzun (1982) record that "by 1911, over ninety percent of Chinese railroad lines were built by Westerners or by foreign loans."] he "vowed not to sell shares to foreigners, to borrow money from them, or to use their engineers." Chin's partner Yu Zhuo raised further funds in China and from overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia. Its benefits to Guangdong's economy were cut short when it was seized by local warlords in 1926; it was finally destroyed during the Second Sino-Japanese Warin 1938. [http://www.lib.washington.edu/specialcoll/findaids/docs/papersrecords/JueWillard5191_1.xml Guide to the Willard G. Jue Papers, 1880-1983] on the site of the University of WashingtonLibraries, accessed July 19, 2007.] Xiao-huang Yin & Zhiyong Lan (2003), p. 9.]
While raising funds and building the railway, Chin encountered numerous obstacles: a
magistratetried to usurp credit for organizing the company; there were many difficulties over obtaining a right of waydue to clanfeuds and superstitions ( geomancy[Helen F. Siu, "Agents and Victims in South China: Accomplices in Rural Revolution", Yale University Press (1989). ISBN 0300052650. p. 71.] ); and gentry-officials repeatedly attempted extortion. Chin bought an official title to become legally one of the gentry himself, which somewhat eased the process. Still, the construction was confronted by over a hundred riots staged by local landlord forces, resulting in thirty-nine othewise unnecessary turns, which made construction more expensive and affected speed and safety.Cheng and Yuzun (1982)]
The company was officially chartered in 1906. The first section—15 miles from Kung Yick City (公益, pinyin Gongyi) at the northern tip of the Taishan district to
Taishan—opened in January 1908. In 1909, it reached Doushan and the 54-mile railway was officially open for business. By 1913, it reached another 26 miles to Jiangmencity; a further 21-mile branch line from Taishan to Baisha opened in 1920. [Jue (1983) p. 34 is the source for the spelling Kung Yick and the location of the city.] Altogether, construction costs totalled about 9.7 million yuanor US$4.8 million. Rolling stockwas purchased mainly from the United States, although three tank locomotives came from Germany. Trains typically had six or seven cars, carrying both passengers (in three classes) and freight. At its height in the 1920s, it carried three million passengers and approximately a hundred thousand tons of cargo annually, with 80% of income coming from passengers. In this same era, freight was heavily weighted toward imports: the import/export ratio was about thirty to one, in an economy heavily based on remittances from abroad.
By 1922 there was a machine shop in Kung Yick City. Chin Gee Hee claimed that it "could manufacture everything except the locomotive." [Jue (1983), p. 34.]
Unfulfilled 1924 plans by Chin would have extended the railway in one direction 40 miles from Doushan to the
TongguCommercial Port and in the other to Foshan, through which would have reached Guangzhouand the domestic mainland. Chin also wanted to continue west through Yangjiangand the west of Guangdong and to the Leizhoupeninsula, forming a traffic network throughout the southwest of Guangdong. Several similar proposals met similar fates: the well-connected Yuehan Railway Companyhad a near-monopoly on railway construction in Guangdong, some of the gentry wished to create their own railways, and while the Sun Ning finally obtained the required formal positions, by the time it got those permissions it was in financial trouble. Furthermore, the Qinggovernment prevented them from borrowing from abroad, despite the fact that the government itself was taking foreign loans at the time. Consequently, the railway never connected to any major port or any other key city of the Chinese economy.
From 1927 to 1929, the government overtly took over the railroad, but it proved to be beyond their ability to operate it, and they returned it to civilian control. The railroad was destroyed in the Second Sino-Japanese War, dismantled in December 1938 to deny its use by the Japanese military, who nonetheless occupied Taishan. 23,782 rails were shipped to
Guangxiin 1942 to build the Qianguei Railway; all other assets, which were worth over three million yuan, were carried off by the Japanese.
Lucie Cheng and Liu Yuzun write that, while the railway did not play major economic or strategic role in the history of Chinese transportation, "its entire life reflects the interlocking but conflicting pressures of Western
imperialism, bureaucratic capitalismand feudalismwhich characterized early twentieth century China… Moreover [it] reflects the role of emigrant capital and nationalismon the development of enterprises in the emigrant motherland," reflecting especially the investment by overseas Chinese in a geographic area (Taishan) which had been the homeland for so many of them.
*Lucie Cheng and Liu Yuzun with Zheng Dehua, "Chinese Emigration, the Sunning Railway and the Development of Toisan", Amerasia 9(1): 59-74, 1982; [http://www.apex.net.au/~jgk/taishan/railroad.html transcribed online] , accessed 22 September 2007.
*Peter Crush, [http://www.hkrs.org.hk/members/crush/sunning/sunning_1.htm The Sunning Railway] , Hong Kong Railway Society; source for the Chinese characters for the railway name.
*Willard G. Jue, "Chin Gee-hee, Chinese Pioneer Entrepreneur in Seattle and Toishan", "The Annals of the Chinese Historical Society of the Pacific Northwest", 1983, 31:38. This is the source for ideographs and for (non-pinyin) transliteration of Taishanese names.
* [http://www.tsinfo.com.cn/en/xntls/1.htm The History of Xinning Railway] , Bureau of Archives of Taishan City. Undated; the
Internet Archiveshows the page [http://web.archive.org/web/20041210203114/http://www.tsinfo.com.cn/en/xntls/1.htm already existing] December 10, 2004. Accessed online 22 September 2007. This appears to draw heavily on the Cheng and Yuzun paper.
*Eric Scigliano, "Seattle's Chinese Founding Father", "Seattle Metropolitan", May 2007, p. 48.
*Xiao-huang Yin & Zhiyong Lan, [http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~acgei/PDFs/PhilanthropyPDFs/Phil_Why_Do_They_Give.pdf Why Do They Give? Change and Continuity in Chinese American Transnational Philanthropy since the 1970s] , commissioned by the
Global Equity Initiativefor a workshop on Diaspora Philanthropy to China and India, held in May 2003. p. 9. Accessed online 22 September 2007.
* [http://www.tsinfo.com.cn/en/xntls/31.htm Gallery of the Xinning Railway] , Archives of Taishan City.
*Peter Crush, [http://www.hkrs.org.hk/members/crush/sunning/sunning_1.htm The Sunning Railway] , Hong Kong Railway Society. Includes a map of the railway and many pictures of the railway's rolling stock.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Chin Gee Hee — Monument to Chin Gee Hee in Taishan City, Guangdong, China Photo: William Nettles. Chin Gee Hee (Traditional Chinese: 陳宜禧; Simplified Chinese: 陈宜禧, pinyin Chén Yíxǐ, … Wikipedia
Taicheng — Township (台城镇) is the capital of Taishan City, which lies on the right bank of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong Province, China.GeographyThe township covers 142.4km² with 18km² in the town itself which has a population of 93153. There are… … Wikipedia
List of companies listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange — Economy of Hong Kong Identity Hong Kong Dollar Banknotes Coins Monetary Authority … Wikipedia
Victoria (British Columbia) — Victoria Skyline von Victoria … Deutsch Wikipedia
Victoria (Kanada) — Victoria Basisdaten Gründung: 1843 (als Fort Camosun) Staat: Kanada … Deutsch Wikipedia
Wang Jingwei Government — Infobox Former Country native name = 中華民國 conventional long name = Nanjing Nationalist Government common name = Wang Jingwei Government| continent = Asia region = country = China era = World War II status = Puppet state status text= Puppet state… … Wikipedia
Reorganized National Government of China — Republic of China 中華民國 Chunghwa Minkuo Puppet regime of Imperial Japan ← … Wikipedia
Actions in Inner Mongolia (1933–1936) — Warbox conflict=Inner Mongolia (1933 36) partof=Second Sino Japanese War date=April 1933 to December 1936 place= Chahar and Suiyuan provinces result= 1933 Japanese victory, 1936 Chinese victory combatant1= 1933 flagicon|Japan Imperial Japanese… … Wikipedia
china — /chuy neuh/, n. 1. a translucent ceramic material, biscuit fired at a high temperature, its glaze fired at a low temperature. 2. any porcelain ware. 3. plates, cups, saucers, etc., collectively. 4. figurines made of porcelain or ceramic material … Universalium
China — /chuy neuh/, n. 1. People s Republic of, a country in E Asia. 1,221,591,778; 3,691,502 sq. mi. (9,560,990 sq. km). Cap.: Beijing. 2. Republic of. Also called Nationalist China. a republic consisting mainly of the island of Taiwan off the SE coast … Universalium