Three Arch Rocks National Wildlife Refuge


Three Arch Rocks National Wildlife Refuge

Infobox_protected_area | name = Three Arch National Wildlife Refuge and Wilderness
iucn_category = V


caption =
locator_x =
locator_y =
location = Oregon, USA
nearest_city = Oceanside, Oregon
lat_degrees = 45
lat_minutes = 28
lat_seconds = 08
lat_direction = N
long_degrees = 123
long_minutes = 59
long_seconds = 20
long_direction = W
area = convert|15|acre|km2|1|sing=off
established = October 14, 1907
governing_body = United States Fish and Wildlife Service

Three Arch Rocks National Wildlife Refuge is a U.S. National Wildlife Refuge off the northern Oregon Coast. It is one of six National Wildlife Refuges within the Oregon Coast National Wildlife Refuge Complex and was the first National Wildlife Refuge west of the Mississippi River. In 1970 the Refuge was designated as wilderness. It is one of the smallest wilderness areas in the United States. [http://www.wilderness.net/index.cfm?fuse=NWPS&sec=wildView&wname=Three%20Arch%20Rocks Three Rocks Wilderness] - Wilderness.net]

Geography

Three Arch Rocks consists of 15 acres (6 ha) on three large and six small rocky islands located about a half mile (1 km) offshore from Oceanside. It is one of the smallest designated wilderness areas in the U.S., but features the largest colony of breeding Tufted Puffins and the largest Common Murre colony south of Alaska. It is the only northern Oregon pupping site for the threatened Steller Sea Lion. cite web
url = http://www.fws.gov/oregoncoast/3archrocks/index.htm
title = Three Arch Rocks National Wildlife Refuge
publisher = United States Fish and Wildlife Service
accessdate = 2007-09-18
]

History

The refuge was established by President Theodore Roosevelt after being persuaded by two young conservationists — William L. Finley and Herman Bohlman — who studied and photographed Three Arch Rocks from Oceanside beginning in 1901. They recorded hunters killing dozens of sea lions at a time for skin and oil, and sportsmen shooting seabirds purely for sport. Due to a scarcity of regional chicken farms at the time, seabird eggs were priced at up to a dollar per dozen, encouraging egg harvesting and reducing the bird colony population. Finley and Bohlman suggested a wildlife refuge to Roosevelt to protect dwindling populations and ensure survival of seabird and marine mammal populations. Roosevelt declared the Three Rocks area a National Wildlife Refuge in 1907. In 1970 the United States Congress designated the Refuge wilderness.

Protection

The Three Arch Rocks Refuge has provided protection for Oregon's largest seabird nesting colony of more than 230,000 birds since October 141907. The entire Oregon Coast National Wildlife Refuge Complex protect over a million nesting seabirds, including common murres, tufted puffins, cormorants, and storm-petrels.

Access

The islands are closed to public access. Boats must remain at least 500 ft (150 m) away during summer months, [ cite web
url = http://www.fws.gov/oregoncoast/PDF/Boat%20Poster.pdf
title = Help Protect Marine Wildlife
format = PDF
publisher = United States Fish and Wildlife Service
accessdate = 2007-09-14
] and aircraft must maintain at least convert|2000|ft|m|-2|abbr=on clearance. [ cite web
url = http://www.fws.gov/oregoncoast/PDF/Pilots%20Poster%20FINAL.pdf
title = Pilots: Please Help Protect Marine Wildlife in Oregon
format = PDF
publisher = United States Fish and Wildlife Service
accessdate = 2007-09-14
] The area is managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.

See also

* List of National Wildlife Refuges in Oregon
* List of Oregon Wildernesses
* List of U.S. Wilderness Areas
* Wilderness Act

References

External links

* [http://www.fws.gov/oregoncoast/3archrocks/ Three Arch Rocks National Wildlife Refuge]
* [http://www.fws.gov/oregoncoast/images/maps/TAR_public_111607.pdf Three Arch Rocks Map]


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