News Corporation


News Corporation
News Corporation
Type Public
Traded as NASDAQNWS, NWSA
ASXNWS, NWSLV
NYSENWS
NASDAQ-100 Component
S&P 500 Component
S&P/ASX 50 Component
Industry Media conglomerate
Founded Adelaide, Australia (1979 (1979))[1][2] Delaware, United States (November 12, 2004 (2004-11-12))[3]
Founder(s) Rupert Murdoch
Headquarters 1211 Avenue of the Americas,
New York City, NY 10036
, United States
Area served Worldwide
Key people Rupert Murdoch
(Chairman & CEO)
Chase Carey
(President & COO)
Products Books, cable programming, films, magazines, newspapers, satellite television, sporting events, television, websites
Revenue increase US$ 33.405 billion (2011)[4]
Operating income increase US$ 4.537 billion (2011)[4]
Net income increase US$ 2.739 billion (2011)[4]
Total assets increase US$ 61.980 billion (2011)[4]
Total equity increase US$ 29.506 billion (2011)[4]
Employees 51,000 (2011)[5]
Subsidiaries List of subsidiaries
Website NewsCorp.com

News Corporation (NASDAQNWS, NWSA, ASXNWS, NWSLV) or News Corp. is an American multinational media conglomerate. It is the world's second-largest media conglomerate as of 2011 in terms of revenue, and the world's third largest in entertainment as of 2009,[6][7][8][9] although the BBC remains the world's largest broadcaster.[10][11][12] The company's chairman and chief executive is Rupert Murdoch.

News Corporation is a publicly traded company listed on the NASDAQ, with secondary listings on the Australian Securities Exchange. Formerly incorporated in South Australia, the company was re-incorporated under Delaware General Corporation Law after a majority of shareholders approved the move on 12 November 2004. At present, News Corporation is headquartered at 1211 Avenue of the Americas, in New York City, in the newer 1960s–1970s corridor of the Rockefeller Center complex.

Contents

History

News Corp was created in 1979 by Rupert Murdoch as a holding company for News Limited. News Limited was created by Murdoch from the assets he inherited in 1952 following the death of his father, Sir Keith Murdoch, and subsequent expansion. The main asset left to him was ownership of the Adelaide afternoon tabloid, The News. News Limited operates today as News Corporation's Australian brand, operating out of Surry Hills, in Sydney.

Main studios of the News Corporation's Fox News Channel viewed at street level from 1211 Avenue of the Americas in New York City.

Moving into the United States

News Ltd. made its first acquisition in the United States in 1973, when it purchased the San Antonio Express-News. Soon afterwards it founded the National Star, a supermarket tabloid, and in 1976 it purchased the New York Post.

In 1981 News Corp bought half of the movie studio 20th Century Fox, buying the other half in 1984. In 1985 News Corp announced it was buying the Metromedia group of stations, setting the stage for the launch of a fourth U.S. commercial broadcasting television network. On 4 September 1985, Murdoch became a naturalized citizen to satisfy the legal requirement that only United States citizens could own American television stations. In 1986, the Metromedia deal closed, and the Fox Broadcasting Company was launched. This network, known on-screen as "Fox", can now be picked up in over 96% of U.S. households.

Expansion and consolidation

In 1986 and 1987, News Corp (through subsidiary News International) moved to adjust the production process of its British newspapers, over which the printing unions had long maintained a highly restrictive grip.[13] A number of senior Australian media moguls were brought into Murdoch's powerhouse, including John Dux, who was managing director of the South China Morning Post. This led to a confrontation with the printing unions NGA and SOGAT. The move of News International's London operation to Wapping in the East End resulted in nightly battles outside the new plant. Delivery vans and depots were frequently and violently attacked.[13] Ultimately the unions capitulated.

By 1992, News Corp had amassed huge debts, which forced it to sell many of the American magazine interests it had acquired in the mid-1980s to K-III Communications, as well spinning off long held Australian magazines interests as Pacific Magazines. Much of this debt came from its stake in the Sky Television satellite network in the UK, which incurred massive losses in its early years of operation, which (like many of its business interests) was heavily subsidised with profits from its other holdings until it was able to force rival satellite operator BSB to accept a merger on its terms in 1990. (The merged company, BSkyB has dominated the British pay-TV market since.)

In 1993 News Corp acquired a 63.6% stake of the Hong Kong-based STAR TV satellite network for over $500 million, followed by the purchase of the remaining 36.4% in July 1995.[14][15] Murdoch declared that:[16]

"(Telecommunications) have proved an unambiguous threat to totalitarian regimes everywhere ... satellite broadcasting makes it possible for information-hungry residents of many closed societies to bypass state-controlled television channels."

In 1995, the Fox network became the object of scrutiny from the FCC when it was alleged that its Australian base made Murdoch's ownership of Fox illegal. The FCC, however, ruled in Murdoch's favor, stating that his ownership of Fox was in the public's best interests. It was also noted that the stations themselves were owned by a separate company whose chief shareholder was U.S. citizen Murdoch, although nearly all of the stations' equity was controlled by News Corp. In the same year News Corp announced a deal with MCI Communications to develop a major news website as well as funding a conservative news magazine, The Weekly Standard. In the same year, News Corp launched the Foxtel pay television network in Australia in a partnership with Telstra and Publishing and Broadcasting Limited.

In 1996, Fox established the Fox News Channel, a 24-hour cable news station to compete against Ted Turner's rival channel CNN.

In 1999, News Corp significantly expanded its music holdings in Australia by acquiring the controlling share in a leading Australian based label, Michael Gudinski's Mushroom Records; merging it with already held Festival Records to create Festival Mushroom Records (FMR). Both Festival and FMR were managed by Rupert Murdoch's son James Murdoch for several years.

Also in 1999, The Economist reported that News Corp paid comparatively lower taxes and Newscorp Investments specifically had made £11.4 billion ($20.1 billion) in profits over the previous 11 years but had not paid net corporation tax. It also reported that after an examination of the available accounts, Newscorp could normally have been expected to pay corporate tax of approximately $350 million. The article explained that in practice the corporation's complex structure, international scope and use of offshore tax havens allowed News Corporation to pay minimal taxes.[17][18]

Development since 2000

In late 2003, News Corp acquired a 34% stake in DirecTV Group (formerly Hughes Electronics), operator of the largest American satellite TV system, from General Motors for US $6 billion. DirecTV Group was sold to Liberty Media in 2008 in exchange for its holding in News International.

In 2007 News Corporation reached an agreement to purchase Dow Jones, publishers of The Wall Street Journal, for an estimated $5.6 billion. On 15 October 2007 the corporation spun off a business news channel from Fox News—Fox Business Network.[19] The channel's lawyers were "reviewing all of the fine details of the contract" between Dow Jones and CNBC, said Alexis Glick, Fox Business Network's vice president of business news and the channel's morning anchor. But, she added, "we will actively use" the other Dow Jones properties.[20] "...this new channel is a bit tedious. Somehow, business is more interesting when treated in a business-like way", commented Rob Carrick in 16 October's Toronto Globe and Mail.[21] On 8 February 2007, Murdoch promised guests at the McGraw-Hill Media Summit that, "a Fox channel would be more business-friendly than CNBC. That channel leap[s] on every scandal, or what they think is a scandal", he said.[22]

In 2009, News Corp established NewsCore, a global wire service set up to provide news stories to all of News Corp's journalistic outlets.[23]

In 2010 due to the Fijian government's requirement that the country's media outlet must be 90% owned by Fiji nationals, News Corporation sold 90% of their stake in their Fijian newspapers (Fiji Times, Nai Lalakai, and Shanti Dut) to Motibhai Group of Companies.[24]

On July 13, 2011, Rupert Murdoch announced that the company would withdraw the News Corporation takeover bid for BSkyB due to concerns relating to the News of the World phone hacking affair.[25] News Corporation already owned, and continues to own, 39.1% of BSkyB.

2011 scandal

In July 2011, News Corp closed down the News of the World newspaper in the United Kingdom due to allegations of phone hackings. The allegations include trying to access former Prime Minister Gordon Brown's voice mail, and obtain information from his bank accounts, family's medical records, and private legal files. Allegations of hacking have also been brought up in relation to former Prime Minister Tony Blair, and the Royal Family.[26] Other allegations put out by The Guardian newspaper include the exploitation, with intent to gain access to or use private information, of a list of 4,332 names or partial names, 2,987 mobile phone numbers, 30 audio tapes of varying length and 91 PIN codes, of a kind required to access the voicemail of the minority of targets who change the factory settings on their mobile phones.[27] The names are said to include those of British victims of the Sept. 11, 2001 terror attacks, family members of victims of the "7/7" bombings on London's transit system, family members of British troops killed overseas, Milly Dowler, a 13-year-old missing British girl who was later found dead, actor Hugh Grant and a lawyer representing the family of Princess Diana's lover at the inquest into her death.[27]

On July 13, 2011 News Corp withdrew its bid to purchase the final 61% stake in BskyB after pressure from both the Labour and Conservative Parties in Parliament.[28]

Recent allegations about the violation of ethical standards by the News Corporation subsidiary, News of the World, have been speculatively applied to News Corporation holdings in the United States. Senator John Rockefeller (D-WV), stated on July 12, 2011 that there should be a government investigation into News Corporation "to ensure that Americans have not had their privacy violated."[29] His statement was echoed on Wednesday by Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ) who specifically requested an investigation into 9/11 victims, as well as Sen. Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) who encouraged an investigation by the Securities and Exchange Commission.[29] On July 13, 2011, Representative Peter King (R-NY) wrote a letter to the FBI requesting an investigation into News Corporations ethical practices, and on July 14, the FBI opened a probe into the hacking of 9/11 victims.[30] Les Hinton, chief executive of the media group's Dow Jones, resigned on July 15 saying, "I have seen hundreds of news reports of both actual and alleged misconduct during the time I was executive chairman of News International and responsible for the company. The pain caused to innocent people is unimaginable.That I was ignorant of what apparently happened is irrelevant and in the circumstances I feel it is proper for me to resign from News Corp, and apologise to those hurt by the actions of the News of the World." [31]

Shareholders

  • In August 2005 the Murdoch family owned only about 29% of the company. However, nearly all of these shares were voting shares, and Rupert Murdoch retained effective control of the company. Nonetheless, John Malone of Liberty Media had built up a large stake, with about half of the shares being voting shares. Therefore, in November 2006, News Corporation announced its intention to transfer its 38.5 per cent managing interest in DirecTV Group to John Malone's Liberty Media; in return it bought back Liberty's 16.3% shares in News Corp., giving Murdoch tighter control of the latter firm.[32] Murdoch sold 17.5 million class A shares in December 2007.[33]
  • Years after when Elektra Records was absorbed in 2004, News Corporation owned half of the re-issues from the record label company.

Annual conference

News Corporation organises an annual management conference, discussing media issues related to geopolitics. Attendees include News Corporation executives, senior journalists, Politicians and Celebrities. Previous events were in Cancun, Mexico, and the Hayman Island off the coast of Australia. The events are private and secretive, there are no records available for the agenda or talks given at the conferences, and no uninvited journalists are permitted access.[37]

The 2006 event in Pebble Beach, California was led by Rupert Murdoch. According to a copy of the agenda leaked to the Los Angeles Times and other media accounts,[38] issues discussed related from Europe to broadcasting and new media, terrorism to the national policy.[39] The event included speeches from Rupert Murdoch, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Bono, Al Gore, Senator John McCain and Bill Clinton while Israel's President, Shimon Peres, appeared on a panel named "Islam and the West". Other notable attendees included Newt Gingrich and Nicole Kidman.

Political donations

In anticipation of US midterm elections, News Corp. donated $1 million to the Republican Governors Association in June 2010. The move was criticized by Democrats who said this was evidence of News Corp's media outlets conservative leanings (see Fox News Channel controversies). The Democratic Governors Association also criticized the donation and demanded more transparency in the reporting by News Corp companies. DGA head Nathan Daschle wrote to the chairman of News Corp company Fox News, Roger Ailes: "In the interest of some fairness and balance, I request that you add a formal disclaimer to your coverage any time any of your programs covers governors or gubernatorial races between now and election day."[40]

Around the same time, News Corp. also donated $1 million to the United States Chamber of Commerce. The Chamber aggressively supported the Republican effort to retake Congress in 2010.[41] This donation and an earlier $1 million contribution that News Corp. made to the Republican Governor's Association led media critics to question whether the company had crossed an ethical line for a media company.[41]

Corporate governance

The company's Board of Directors consists of 17 individuals:

Office of the chairman

  • Rupert Murdoch (Chairman and CEO)
  • Chase Carey (President, Chief Operating Officer & Deputy Chairman)
  • David DeVoe (Chief Financial Officer)
  • James Murdoch (Deputy Chief Operating Officer; Chairman and CEO, International)
  • Roger Ailes (Chairman, Fox Television Stations Group)
  • Daniel Suárez García (Chairman and CEO, Latin America)

Holdings

A recent deal was made between Ad Systems Inc in which Murdoch is to pay Ad Systems (ADSYQ.PK) $4 billion for a majority share of 80% totaling at 250 million shares. The new share price of Ad Systems(ADSYQ.PK) is to be $5 per share on Monday 21st of November when the NYSE opens.The deal is said to go through on 19th of November 2011. This is the biggest take over of news inc till now.

Books

Newspapers

  • Australia published by News Limited.
  • Fiji
  • Papua New Guinea
  • UK and Ireland newspapers, published by subsidiaries of News International Ltd.
  • US newspapers and magazines
    • The New York Post
      • Community Newspaper Group
    • Dow Jones & Company
      • Consumer Media Group
      • Enterprise Media Group
        • Dow Jones Newswires – global, real-time news and information provider.
        • Factiva – provides business news and information together with content delivery tools and services.
        • Dow Jones Indexes – stock market indexes and indicators, including the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
        • Dow Jones Financial Information Services – produces databases, electronic media, newsletters, conferences, directories, and other information services on specialised markets and industry sectors.
        • Betten Financial News – leading Dutch language financial and economic news service.
      • Local Media Group
        • Ottaway Community Newspapers – 8 daily and 15 weekly regional newspapers.
      • STOXX (33%)- joint venture with Deutsche Boerse and SWG Group for the development and distribution of Dow Jones STOXX indices.
      • Vedomosti (33%) – Russia's leading financial newspaper (joint venture with Financial Times and Independent Media).
      • SmartMoney
    • The Timesledger Newspapers of Queens, New York:
      • Bayside Times, Whitestone Times, Flushing Times, Little Neck Ledger, Jamaica Times, Astoria Times, Forest Hills Ledger
    • The Courier-Life Newspapers in Brooklyn
    • The Brooklyn Paper
    • Caribbean Life
    • Times-Herald Record (Middletown, New York)
    • The Leader - Corning, NY

Magazines

  • U.S.A
    • SmartSource Magazine (weekly Sunday newspaper coupon insert)
  • Australian
    • Alpha Magazine
    • Australian Country Style
    • Australian Golf Digest
    • Australian Good Taste
    • Big League
    • BCME
    • Delicious
    • Donna Hay
    • Fast Fours
    • GQ (Australia)
    • Gardening Australia
    • InsideOut (Aust)
    • Lifestyle Pools
    • Live to Ride
    • Notebook
    • Overlander 4WD
    • Modern Boating
    • Modern Fishing
    • Parents
    • Pure Health
    • Super Food Ideas
    • Truck Australia
    • Truckin' Life
    • twowheels
    • twowheels scooter
    • Vogue (Australia)
    • Vogue Entertaining & Travel
    • Vogue Living
  • Inside Out (UK Based Magazine)

Music and radio

  • Fox Film Music Group
  • Russia
    • Nashe (50%)
    • Best FM (50%)
  • Fox News Radio

Sport

Studios

TV

News Corp agreed to sell eight of its television stations to Oak Hill Capital Partners for approximately $1.1 billion as of 22 December 2007. The stations are US Fox affiliates.[42] These stations, along with those already acquired by Oak Hill that were formerly owned by The New York Times Company, formed the nucleus of Oak Hill's Local TV LLC division.

Broadcast

  • Fox Broadcasting Company (Fox), a US broadcast television network
  • MyNetworkTV, a US broadcast television network
  • Fox Television Stations Group, a group of owned and operated Fox television stations
  • Saeta TV Channel 10, channel of Uruguay
  • ITV plc (7.5%), a British broadcast television network and the UK's largest advertising revenue based broadcaster
  • News Corp Europe
    • bTV, a broadcast television network in Bulgaria. They sold this to CME in February 2010.
    • B1 TV (12,5%), a broadcast television network in Romania, in partnership with Ismar International NVkkkk
    • Fox Televizija, a broadcast television network in Serbia (49%). They sold this to Antenna Group in January 2010
    • Fox Turkey, a Turkish terrestrial channel (56,5%) (formerly TGRT)
    • Imedi Media Holding (100%), a Georgian radio and TV broadcaster.
      • Imedi Television
      • Radio Imedi
    • Israel 10 (9%), a terrestrial channel in Israel.
    • LNT (100%), a terrestrial channel in Latvia
    • TV5 Riga (100%), a terrestrial channel in Latvia
    • Cielo (100%), a free channel in Italy

Satellite television

Cable

Cable TV channels owned (in whole or part) and operated by News Corporation include:

PLATFORMS

  • India
    • Hathway Cable & Datacom (22.2%), India's 2nd largest cable network through 7 cities including Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai & Pune
  • Taiwan
    • Total TV (20%), Pay TV platform with JV partner KOO's Group majority owner (80%). News Corp also has a 20% interest in the KOO's Group directly

Internet

  • Fox Interactive Media
    • Foxsports.com – website with sports news, scores, statistics, video and fantasy sports
    • Hulu (27%) – online video streaming site in partnership with NBC Universal and The Walt Disney Company.
    • Flektor – provides Web-based tools for photo and video editing and mashups.
    • IGN Entertainment – Internet entertainment portal (Includes the sites IGN, GameSpy, TeamXbox, 1up.com, and Askmen.com)
    • Giga.de
    • Slingshot Labs – web development incubator (Includes the sites DailyFill).
    • Strategic Data Corp – interactive advertising company which develops technology to deliver targeted internet advertising.
    • Scout.com
    • WhatIfSports.com – sports simulation and prediction website. Also provides fantasy-style sports games to play.
  • Indya.com – 'India's no. 1 Entertainment Portal'
  • ROO Group Inc (5% increasing to 10% with performance targets)
  • News Digital Media
  • REA Group (60.7%)
    • Realestate.com.au
    • Casa.it (69.4%), Sky Italia also holds a 30.6% share
    • atHome group, operator of leading realestate websites in Luxembourg, France, Belgium and Germany.
      • Altowin (51%),provider of office management tools for realestate agents in Belgium.
    • Propertyfinder.com (50%), News International holds the remaining 50%
      • Sherlock Publications, owner of hotproperty.co.uk portal and magazine titles 'Hot Property', 'Renting' and 'Overseas'
      • ukpropertyshop.co.uk, most comprehensive UK estate agent directory.
    • PropertyLook, property websites in Australia and New Zealand.
    • HomeSite.com.au, home renovation and improvement website.
    • Square Foot Limited, Hong Kong's largest English Language property magazine and website
      • Primedia – Holding co. of Inside DB, a Hong Kong lifestyle magazine.
  • TadpoleNet Media (10%) Hosts of ArmySailor.com
  • New Zealand

Other assets

  • NDS – Conditional access technology and personal digital video recorders (PVRs) (49%)
    • Jungo
    • Timothy Coville
    • ITE, publisher of PlayStation and Mobile games, and interactive television
  • Broadsystem Ltd (UK) – Telephony provider for media companies, bought in 1991
  • Broadsystem Australia (Australia)
  • Broadsystem Ventures (UK) – provider of cheap-rate telephone calls, particularly for customers of Sky Television. Bought outright in 1999.
  • Jamba! – Mobile Entertainment/Mobile Handsets Personalisation/Games.
  • News Outdoor Group – Largest outdoor advertising company in Eastern Europe with over 70,000 ads including billboards and bus shelters, operating in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Israel, Poland, Romania, Russia (96 cities), Turkey & Ukraine.
    • Maximedia Israel (67%)
    • Mosgorreklama (50%) – Russia sign and marketing material manufacturer
    • Kamera Acikhava Reklamclik (?) – leading outdoor advertising company in Turkey
  • Australian Associated Press (45%) – real time news service.
  • STATS, Inc. (50%) – worlds leading provider of sporting information and statistical analysis (a JV with Associated Press)
  • Fox Sports Grill (50%) – Upscale sports bar and restaurant with 7 locations – Scottsdale, Arizona; Irvine, California; Seattle, Washington (U.S. state)|Washington; Plano, Texas; Houston, Texas; San Diego, California; and Atlanta, Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia.
  • Fox Sports Skybox (70%) – Sports fan's Bar & Grill at Staples Center and 6 airport restaurants.
  • News America Marketing (US) – (100%) – nation’s leading marketing services company, products include a portfolio of in-store, home-delivered and online media under the SmartSource brand.
  • Rotana (9%) – Largest Arab entertainment company owned by Saudi Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal
  • The Daily – iPad only newspaper delivered daily.
  • Making Fun – social game developer for making games for social networking sites, smartphones, tablets and other devices.[43]

See also

Factory 1b.svg Companies portal

References

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