Mark I tank

Mark I tank
Mark I Tank
British Mark I male tank Somme 25 September 1916.jpg
A British Mark I "male" tank near Thiepval on 26 September 1916, fitted with wire mesh to deflect grenades and the initial steering tail, shown raised. Photo by Ernest Brooks
Type Tank
Place of origin United Kingdom United Kingdom
Service history
In service 1916–1931, and 1945 (briefly)
Used by  United Kingdom
 Germany
 Soviet Union
 United States
 France
 Canada
 Australia
 Estonia
 Latvia
Wars First World War, Russian Civil War, Second World War
Production history
Designer William Tritton, Major Walter Gordon Wilson
Designed 1915
Manufacturer William Foster & Co. of Lincoln
Metropolitan Carriage, Birmingham
Produced 1915–1919
Number built 150
Variants Mark II, Mark III, Mark IV, Mark V series, Mark VI, Mark VII, Mark VIII, Mark IX, Mark X, Gun Carrier Mark I
Specifications
Weight Male: 28 tons (28.4 tonnes)
Female: 27.4 tonnes
Length 32 ft 6 in (9.94 m) with tail
Width 13 ft 9 in (4.33 m) [male]
Height 8 ft 0.5 in (2.44 m)
Crew 8 (commander, driver, two gearsmen and four gunners)

Armour 0.23–0.47 in (6–12 mm)
Main
armament
Male: Two 6 pdr QF or 6 pdr 6 cwt QF
Female: Four .303 Vickers machine guns
Secondary
armament
Male: Four .303 in Hotchkiss Machine Guns
Female: Two .303 in Hotchkiss machine guns
Engine Daimler-Knight 6 cylinder sleeve valve petrol engine
105 hp
Power/weight Male: 3.7 hp/tonne
Female: 3.8 hp/tonne
Transmission primary gearbox:2 forward and 1 reverse
secondary:2 speeds
Operational
range
6.2 hours endurance
Speed 4 miles per hour maximum

The British Mark I was a tracked vehicle developed by the British Army during the First World War and the world's first combat tank. The Mark I entered service in August 1916, and was first used in action on the morning of 15 September 1916 during the Battle of Flers-Courcelette, of the Somme Offensive.[1] Born of the need to break the domination of trenches and machine guns over the battlefields of the Western Front, it was the first vehicle to be named "tank", as an expedient to maintain secrecy and to disguise its true purpose.[2] It was developed to be able to cross trenches, resist small-arms fire, travel over difficult terrain, carry supplies, and to capture fortified enemy positions. It is regarded as successful in many respects, but suffered from many problems owing to its primitive nature.

Contents

Development

The Mark I was a development of Little Willie, the experimental tank built for the Landships Committee by Lieutenant Walter Wilson and William Tritton in the summer of 1915. Working on problems discovered with Willie, the Mark I was designed by Wilson. A gun turret above the hull would have made the centre of gravity too high, so the guns were put in sponsons. The prototype Mark I, ready in December 1915, was called "Mother", (previous names having been "The Wilson Machine", "Big Willie", and "HMLS Centipede"). One hundred and fifty of the Mark I were built.

Description

The Mark I was a rhomboid vehicle with a low centre of gravity and long track length, able to grip muddy ground and cross trenches. Sponsons (also called "barbettes") on the hull sides carried two naval 6-pounder guns. There were two Hotchkiss machine guns in the sponsons and two removable guns for the front and back.

The hull was undivided internally; the crew shared the same space as the engine. The environment inside was extremely unpleasant; the atmosphere was contaminated with poisonous carbon monoxide, fuel and oil vapours from the engine and cordite fumes from the weapons as ventilation was inadequate. Temperatures inside could reach 50 °C (122 °F). Entire crews lost consciousness inside the tank or became violently sick when again exposed to fresh air.[citation needed]

To counter the fumes inside and the danger of bullet splash or fragments and rivets knocked off the inside of the hull, the crew wore helmets with goggles and chainmail masks. Gas masks were standard issue as well, as they were to all soldiers at this point in the war (see Chemical warfare). The side armour of 8 mm initially made them largely immune to small arms fire, but could be penetrated by the recently developed armour-piercing K bullets. There was also the danger of being overrun by infantry and attacked with grenades. The next generation had thicker armour, making them nearly immune to the K bullets. In response, the Germans developed the 13.2 mm Mauser anti-tank rifle, and also a Geballte Ladung ("Bunched Charge")—several regular stick grenades bundled together for a much bigger explosion.

A direct hit on the roof by an artillery or mortar shell could cause the fuel tanks (which were placed high in the front horns of the track frames either side of the drivers' area, to allow gravity feed) to burst open. Incinerated crews were removed by special Salvage Companies, who also salvaged damaged tanks. They were forbidden to speak about this aspect of their work with still living tank crews.[3]

Steering was difficult; controlled by varying the speed of the two tracks. Four of the crew, two drivers (one of whom also acted as commander; he operated the brakes, the other the primary gearbox) and two "gearsmen" (one for the secondary gears of each track) were needed to control direction and speed, the latter never more than a walking pace. As the noise inside was deafening, the driver, after setting the primary gear box, communicated with the gearsmen with hand signals, first getting their attention by hitting the engine block with a heavy spanner. For slight turns, the driver could use the steering tail: an enormous contraption dragged behind the tank consisting of two large wheels, each of which could be blocked by pulling a steel cable causing the whole vehicle to slide in the same direction. If the engine stalled, the gearsmen would use the starting handle—a large crank between the engine and the gearbox. Many of these vehicles broke down in the heat of battle making them an easy target for German gunners. There was no wireless (radio); communication with command posts was by means of two pigeons, which had their own small exit hatch in the sponsons, or by runners. Because of the noise and vibration, early experiments had shown that radios were impractical, so lamps, flags, semaphore, coloured discs, and the carrier pigeons were part of the standard equipment of the various marks.[4]

During the First World War, British propaganda made frequent use of tanks, portraying them as a wonder weapon that would quickly win the war. They were featured in films and popular songs.[5]

Variants

A requirement was found for two types of armament, so Mark Is were armed either with 6 pounder guns and four machine guns and called "Male" (75) or two Vickers machine guns instead of the 6 pounders and called "Female" (75). Swinton is credited with inventing the terms.[6]

To aid steering, a pair of large wheels were added behind the tank. These were not as effective as hoped and were subsequently dropped.

The subsequent Mark II, III, IV and V and later tanks all bear a strong resemblance to their "Mother".

Mark I

British Mark I tank with special camouflage scheme
  • Crew: 8
  • Combat Weight
    • Male: 28 tons (28.4 tonne)
    • Female: 27 tons (27.4 tonne)
  • Armour: .23-.47 in (6–12 mm)
  • Armament

The Gun Carrier Mark I was a separate design, intended to carry a field gun or howitzer that could be fired from the vehicle. In service it was mostly used for carrying supplies and ammunition. Forty-eight were built.

Mark II

Mark II; tank no. 799 captured near Arras on 11 April 1917.

The Mark II incorporated minor improvements over the Mark I. With the Army declaring the Mark I still insufficiently developed for use, the Mark II order[7] would continue to be built but it would be used for training only.[8] Almost all were built of unhardened steel, but among those at the training ground at Wool, Dorset some (25) were found to have hardened steel[9] and these were shipped to France, despite the protestations of Stern (see below), and used in the Battle of Arras in April 1917 because of delays in the production of the Mark I tank.

The Mark II was built from December 1916 to January 1917 by Foster & Co and Metropolitan (25 Male and 25 Female respectively).[10]

Mark III

The Mark III was a training tank, which used Lewis machine guns and a smaller sponson for the females. Fifty were built. It was originally intended that the Mark III have all the proposed new design features of the Mark IV. This is why there were two distinct training types, the Mark II being little more than a slightly improved Mark I. Development of the new features was so slow however, that the change from the Mark II was very gradual. The last two Mark III's were melted down in the Second World War.

Mark IV

A female Mark IV tank C14. Photographed with German forces after the Battle of Cambrai. December 1917
Mark IV Female tank knocked out

Mark IV was an up-armoured version of the Mark I which went into production in May 1917. Fundamental mechanical improvements had originally been intended but these had to be postponed, the main change consisting in the switch to shorter-barrelled 6-pounder guns. It had all fuel stored in a single external tank (located between the rear track horns) in an attempt to improve crew safety. The sponsons could be pushed in to reduce the width of the tank for rail transportation. Rails on the roof carried an unditching beam. A total of 1,220 were built: 420 Males, 595 Females and 205 Tank Tenders, which were supply tanks.

The Mark IV was used successfully at the Messines Ridge in June 1917 where they outpaced the infantry on dry ground, but in the Third Ypres of July and August they found the swampy ground difficult and were of little use. About 460 Mark IV tanks were used during the Battle of Cambrai in November 1917.

The first tank-to-tank battle was between Mk IV tanks and German A7Vs in the Second Battle of Villers-Bretonneux in April 1918.[11]

Mark V series

Mark V
British Mark V (male) tank.jpg
A British Mark V (Male) tank
Service history
In service 1918–1945
Production history
Designer Major Wilson
Designed 1917
Manufacturer Metropolitan Carriage
Produced 1917– June 1918
Number built 400
Specifications
Weight Male: 29 tons
Female: 28 tons
Length 26 ft 5 in (8.5 m)
Width Male: 13 ft 6 inch (4.19 m)
Female: 10 ft 6 in
Height 2.64 m (8 ft 8 in)[12]
Crew 8 (commander, driver, two gearsmen and four gunners)

Armour 14 mm (0.55 in) maximum
Main
armament
Male: Two 6 pdr 6 cwt QF with 207 rounds
Female: Four .303 Vickers machine guns
Secondary
armament
Male: Four .303 in Hotchkiss Mk 1 Machine Gun
Female: Two .303 in Hotchkiss machine guns
Engine 19 litre six cylinder in-line Ricardo petrol engine
150 hp (110 kW)
Power/weight Male: 5.2 hp/ton
Transmission 4 forward 1 reverse, Wilson epicyclic in final drive
Fuel capacity 100 imperial gallons (450 l)
Operational
range
45 mi (72 km) about 10 hours endurance
Speed 5 mph (8.0 km/h) maximum
Steering
system
Wilson epicyclic steering

The Mark V was first intended to be a completely new design of tank, of which a wooden mock-up had been finished. However, when the new engine and transmission originally desired for the Mark IV became available in December 1917, the first more advanced Mark V design was abandoned for fear of disrupting the production run. The designation "Mark V" was switched to an improved version of the Mark IV, equipped with the new systems. The original design of the Mark IV was to be a large improvement on the Mark III but had been scaled back to be a mild improvement due to technical delays. The Mark V thus turned out very similar to the original design of the Mark IV - i.e. a greatly modified Mark III.

The Mark V had more power (150 bhp) from a new Ricardo engine. Use of Wilson's epicyclic steering gear meant that only a single driver was needed. On the roof towards the back of the tank behind the engine was a second raised cabin for a machine-gunner and the tank commander. The machine guns now fired through ball mounts rather than loopholes, giving better protection and a wider field of fire.

Four hundred were built, 200 each of Males and Females. Several were converted to Hermaphrodites by swapping sponsons to give a single 6-pounder gun for each. These are also sometimes known as "Mark V Composite".

The Mark V was a late participant in the First World War. It was first used in the Battle of Hamel on 4 July 1918 when 60 tanks contributed to a successful assault by Australian units on the German lines. A number saw service in the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War on the White Russian side. They participated in the British North Russia Campaign. Some saw service with the Estonian forces after Russian forces had to retreat into Estonia and be disarmed and were used until 1941. Mark Vs were also delivered to the French, Canadian and American armies.

Two Mark V tanks, one male, one female, can be seen in several photographs taken in Berlin in 1945 in front of the Berliner Dom (Berlin Cathedral).[13] It has been suggested[by whom?] this was a museum piece that had been previously displayed at the Lustgarten and it had been used as a static pillbox to help bolster the city's defences during Nazi Germany's final days. However, there is no evidence this was the case and it is not clear what role (if any) it played in the Battle of Berlin.

Mark V*

In 1917 Sir William Tritton developed the Tadpole Tail, an extension of the tracks to be fitted to the back of a tank to improve trench crossing abilities. This was necessary because the Hindenburg Line had 3.5 m (3.8 yd) wide trenches to stop the British tanks. When Major Philip Johnson of the Central Tank Corps Workshops heard of this project, he immediately understood that the weight of the heavy girders strengthening the attachment might be put to a better use by creating a larger tank. He cut a Mark IV in half and stretched the hull, lengthening it by six feet. When details had been forgotten, it was for a long time assumed that most Mark V* had been field conversions made by Johnson. It is now known that they were all factory-built. It had a larger "turret" on the roof and doors in the side of the hull. The weight was 33 tons. Of orders for 500 Males and 200 Females, 579 had been built by the Armistice – the order was completed by Metropolitan Carriage in March 1919.[10] The American 301st Heavy Tank Battalion was equipped with 19 Mark V and 21 Mark V* tanks in their first heavy tank action against the Hindenburg Line on 27 September 1918. Of the 21 Mark V* tanks, 9 were hit by artillery rounds (one totally destroyed), 2 hit British mines, 5 had mechanical problems, and 2 ditched in trenches. The battalion, however, did reach its objective.

A British Mark V* tank—on the roof the tank carries an unditching beam on rails, that could be attached to the tracks and used to extricate itself from difficult muddy trenches and shell craters

The extra section was also designed to house a squad of infantry. This was the first ever purpose designed tracked armoured personnel carrier (APC), it was also the first APC to be significantly armed, as some earlier conversions of tanks into supply carriers lacked any armament. It could operate as a tank as well as carrying troops, and it was not until the post World War II era Merkava that a tank that could also carry troops under protection was produced.

Note: the asterisk (*) in early British tank designations was usually pronounced as "star" when spoken, e.g., Mark Five-star, or Mark Five-star-star, etc.

Mark V**

A British Mark V** tank

Because the Mark V* had been lengthened, its original length-width ratio had been spoiled. Lateral forces in a turn now became unacceptably high causing thrown tracks and an enormous turn circle. Therefore Major Wilson redesigned the track in May 1918, with a stronger curve to the lower run reducing ground contact (but increasing ground pressure as a trade-off) and the tracks widened to 26.5 inches. The Mark V engine was bored out to give 225 hp and sited further back in the hull. The cabin for the driver was combined with the commander's cabin; there now was a separate machine gun position in the back. Of a revised order for 700 tanks (150 Females and 550 Males) only 25 were built and only one of those by the end of 1918.[10]

Mark V***

See: Mark X.

Mark VI

The Mark VI was one of a pair of related projects to develop the tank initiated in late 1916. The Mark V would be the application of as many advanced features as could be managed on the Mark I hull design and the Mark VI would be a complete break with the Mark I hull. The Mark V would not be built as such, because of the delays with the Mark IV and it would be a different Mark V that was built. The Mark VI project design had a completely new hull – taller and with rounded track paths. The single main gun was in the front of the hull. It did not progress past the stage of a wooden mock-up; the project was cancelled in December 1917 in order that a tank co-developed with the US (the Mark VIII) could go forward.

Mark VII

Mark Knothe, the Technical Liaison Officer between Stern, Elles and Anley, contributed to the development of the tank, designing a longer Mark I with Williams-Janney hydraulic transmission;[14] one of the Mark IIs used as test vehicles had used a hydraulic transmission. In October 1917 Brown Brothers [15] in Edinburgh were granted a contract to develop this line of research further. In July 1918 the prototype was ready. Its drive system was very complex. The 150 hp Ricardo engine drove into Variable Speed Gear Ltd. pumps that in turn powered two hydraulic motors, moving one track each by means of several chains. To ward off the obvious danger of overheating there were many fans, louvres and radiators. Steering was easy and gradual however and the version was taken into production to equip one tank battalion. Three had been built, and only one delivered out of an order for 74 when war ended.[14] It was passed over in favour over the V** which was ordered at the same time. The hull was slightly lengthened in comparison with the Mark V. No Mark VIIs survive.

Mark VIII

The Allied Mark VIII (Liberty) tank

When Stern was removed from his post following disagreements with the war office, he was sidelined by appointment to a new department to work on a cooperative design between the Allies – assembly in France, hulls, guns and their ammunition from the UK and other components (principally the engines) from the USA[16] American involvement in the development of the tank design led to the Mark VIII, also known as "Liberty" or Anglo-American tank (though initially the French were partially involved).

The engine was compartmentalised from the crew, and the turret structure included forward and rear firing machine guns. Of a planned (shared production) of 1,500 each, 24 were built by the British before they pulled out of the project and 100 completed by the Americans. The 100 were produced between September 1918 and 1920, at the Rock Island Arsenal, at a cost of $35,000 [£8,750] apiece ($430,000 [£226,000] in 2006). About 40 hulls for the U.S Liberty were produced by the Manchester Tank Syndicate, 11 British Type Mark VIII by the North British Locomotive Co.[17]

They were used and upgraded until the 1930s when given to Canada for training (as opposed to the M1917s which were sold at scrap value). The tank itself was over 34 feet (10 m) long, and there had been an even longer 44 foot (13 m) version planned but never made (the Mark VIII*). The tank was outdated by the 1930s due to its speed (under 6 mph/10 km/h) and armour (16–6 mm) but it did have one of the longest independent trench crossing capabilities of any armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) ever made. Modern main battle tanks and AFVs rely on bridge laying tanks for crossing large deep trenches.

  • Crew: 12 (later 10)
  • Weight 37 tons (37.6 tonnes)
  • Length/Height/Width : 34 ft 2 in by 10 ft 3 in by 12 ft 4 in (10.4 m by 3.1 m by 3.8 m) (Mark VIII* length 44 ft/13.4 m)
  • Engine: Ricardo 330 hp petrol (UK), Liberty V12 300 hp (U.S.).[17]

Mark IX

The Mark IX was a troop carrier or infantry supply vehicle—among the first tracked armoured personnel carrier not counting experiments with the lengthened Mk V's. 34 were built out of an order for 200.

Mark X

Paper only project to improve the Mark V, originally known as Mark V***. This was basically a contingency plan in case the Mark VIII project would fail (if so a production of 2000 was foreseen for 1919), trying to produce a tank with as many parts of the Mark V as possible but with improved manoeuvrability and crew comfort.

Combat history

A disabled Mark IV tank near Cambrai, 1917.
German forces using captured British Mark IVs during the Second Battle of the Marne.

The first tanks were added, as a "Heavy Branch", to the Machine Gun Corps until a separate Tank Corps was formed on 28 July 1917 by Royal Warrant. A small number of Mark I tanks took part in the battle of the Somme during the Battle of Flers-Courcelette in September 1916. They were used to cut through barbed wire to clear the way for infantry, and were even driven through houses to destroy machine gunner's emplacements.[18] Although many broke down or became stuck, almost a third that attacked made it across no mans land, and their effect on the enemy was noted, leading to a request by the British C-in-C Douglas Haig for a thousand more. This came as a bit of a surprise: William Tritton had already started the development of a heavier tank: the Flying Elephant. Unfortunately for the Allies, it also gave the Germans time to develop a specifically designed anti-tank weapon for the infantry, an armour-piercing 7.92 mm K bullet.

During the Battle of Amiens in August 1918, several hundred Mark V tanks with the new Whippet tanks penetrated the German lines in a foretaste of modern armoured warfare.

Mark V tanks, acquired by the Red Army in the course of the Russian Civil War, were used in 1921 during the Red Army invasion of Georgia and contributed to the Soviet victory in the battle for Tbilisi.[19]

In 1945, at least two Mk V tank leftovers were used by German garrison in defense of Berlin. It's unknown whom the tanks were captured from. Both tanks were destroyed in the subsequent battle in Berlin.[20]

A few tanks were present at the Second Battle of Gaza in Palestine in 1917.

Surviving vehicles

Little Willie

Little Willie survives at the Bovington Tank Museum; it was saved from being scrapped in 1940—many other prototypes were melted down during the Invasion Scare—on the pretext it was helping to defend Bovington base against possible German attacks.

Mark I

A single male survives. This is the only surviving Mark I and the world's oldest surviving combat tank. It is part of the collection at the Bovington Tank Museum. It is painted to represent Number 705, C19, Clan Leslie although its identity and wartime history are unknown. There are indications it may have served as a driver-training tank and it has been suggested it is Number 702, which would make it the second Mark I built. Between 1919 and 1970, it was sited in the grounds of Hatfield House to commemorate the fact this was a testing site for tanks during their earliest development.[21]

Mark II

There is a single surviving Mark II Female, F53: The Flying Scotsman, at the Bovington Tank Museum. This tank still has battle damage sustained at the Battle of Arras in April 1917.

Mark IV

Seven Mark IV's survive.

  • A Mark IV Female, F4: Flirt II, which fought at the Battle of Cambrai, is at the Museum of Lincolnshire Life, Lincoln, England. A local company, William Foster & Co., manufactured the first tanks.
  • A Mark IV Female is preserved at Ashford in Kent. This is one of many that were presented for display to towns and cities in Britain after the war; most were scrapped in the 1920s and 1930s.
  • The Royal Museum of the Army in Brussels has a Male Mark IV tank, the Lodestar III, still in original colours.
  • A Mark IV Female,Grit, is displayed in the ANZAC hall at the Australian War Memorial.
  • In 1999, a Mark IV Female, D51: Deborah, was excavated at the village of Flesquières in France. It had been knocked out by shell-fire at the Battle of Cambrai (1917) and subsequently buried when used to fill a crater. Work is underway on its restoration.[22]
  • A Mark IV Male, Excellent, is displayed at Bovington. After World War I, this tank was presented by the army to HMS Excellent, a Royal Navy shore establishment where some tank crewmen were trained. During World War II, it was made operational again for service with the Home Guard when German invasion threatened in 1940.[23] It is still maintained in working order.[24]
  • Mark IV Female Liberty: displayed at United States Army Ordnance Museum, Aberdeen, Maryland. Originally named Britannia, Renamed Liberty, the tank joined the Ordnance Museum collection in 1919. After decades of exposure to the elements, it is in poor condition, but about to undergo restoration.[25]

Mark V

Eleven Mark V's survive. The majority are in Russia or Ukraine and are survivors of the tanks sent there to aid the White forces during the Russian Civil War.

  • The Bovington Tank Museum displays a Mark V Male, Number 9199, one of two British World War I tanks still in working order. It was in action at the Battle of Amiens where its commander – Lt. HA Whittenbury – was awarded the Military Cross.
  • A Mark V** Female: Ol'Faithfull, is also preserved at Bovington.
  • A heavily restored Mark V Male, Devil, survives at the London Imperial War Museum.
  • A Mark V* Male, Number 9591, has since 2010 been part of the collection of the National Armor and Cavalry Museum, Fort Benning, Georgia. Issued to Company A, US 301st Heavy Tank Battalion and knocked out by a single artillery round on September 27, 1918 during the attack against the Hindenburg Line, it was repaired and sent back to the United States. It represents the only surviving exemplar of the Mark V*.
  • A Mark V is at the Kubinka Tank Museum, Russia.
  • A Mark V serves as memorial in Arkhangelsk. This was originally used by British forces during the Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War.
  • Two preserved Mark Vs, a Male and a Female, form part of an outdoor memorial at Luhansk in Ukraine; two more are in storage.
  • A Mark V Female is at the Kharkiv Historical Museum, Ukraine.

Mark VIII/Liberty

  • A Mark VIII Liberty tank originally at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has in 2010 been transferred to the National Armor and Cavalry Museum at Fort Benning, GA. The vehicle was originally assigned to the American 67th Infantry Regiment (Heavy Tanks) at Fort Benning, GA.
  • An unmodified Liberty tank is preserved at Fort Meade, Maryland. The tank displayed in the post museum was made in 1920 at Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois. It was assigned to the 301st Tank Battalion (Heavy), later redesignated the 17th Tank Battalion (Heavy). Throughout most of 1921–1922, Major Dwight D. Eisenhower commanded this unit
  • A British Mark VIII is at Bovington.

Mark IX

A single vehicle survives at Bovington; it has just been restored.

Gallery

Citations and Notes

  1. ^ The complete guide to tanks and armoured fighting vehicles. pp. 20,. ISBN 978-1 84681-110-4. 
  2. ^ complete guide to tanks, p.93
  3. ^ Fletcher (2001) Pg. 124
  4. ^ Dowling, Timothy (2005). Personal Perspectives: World War I. New York: Harper Perennial. p. 139. ISBN 9781851095650. 
  5. ^ "First Day of the "Tank" Film: Great Popular Enthusiasm". The Times. 1917-01-16. 
  6. ^ Glanfield, Devil's Chariots
  7. ^ orders were first placed in July
  8. ^ Glanfield, J (2001). The Devil's Chariots – The birth and secret battles of the first tanks. Stroud: Sutton Publishing. p. 278. ISBN 0750927062. 
  9. ^ Glanfield, Devil's Chariots, p.176
  10. ^ a b c Glanfield, Devil's Chariots, Appendix 2
  11. ^ part of the Battle of the Lys
  12. ^ Tank, Mark V (Male), Bovington Tank Museum
  13. ^ "WW1 MK V tanks in Berlin 1945.". http://beute.narod.ru/Beutepanzer/uk/MK_V/Mk_V.htm. 
  14. ^ a b Glanfield, Devil's Chariots, p.172
  15. ^ a subsidiary of Vickers
  16. ^ Glanfield, Devil's Chariots, p.290
  17. ^ a b Glanfield, Devil's Chariots, Appendix 1
  18. ^ C.J. Arthur, 'True World War I Stories', page 178, ISBN 1-84119-095-0
  19. ^ Aksenov, A., Bullok, D (2006), Armored Units of the Russian Civil War: Red Army, p. Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-545-7
  20. ^ http://beute.narod.ru/Beutepanzer/uk/MK_V/Mk_V.htm
  21. ^ "Mark I". The Bovington Tank Museum. October 2008. http://www.tankmuseum.org/ixbin/indexplus?_IXSESSION_=7i6m3gpk8e5&_IXDB_=&_IXSPFX_=templates%2Fsummary%2Ftvod%2Fb&_IXFPFX_=templates%2Ffull%2Ftvod%2Ft&_IXMAXHITS_=12&_IXACTION_=summary&_IXMENU_=Vehicles&%3Amus_administration_name=VEH&%24+with+mus_catalogue+and+(B*+in+mus_current_location_building+index+mus_text_location)=.&_IXtext=Please+enter&_IXbov_entry_number=E1970.20.2&_IXbov_basic_name=Please+enter&_IXmus_object_name=Please+enter&_IXmus_brief_description=Please+enter&bov_main_utility_type=. Retrieved 2008-10-15. 
  22. ^ http://www.tank-cambrai.com/pages/indexpag.html
  23. ^ Fletcher (2007)
  24. ^ "Tank Mark IV (Male) (E1972.63)". http://www.tankmuseum.org/ixbin/indexplus?_IXSS_=_IXMENU_%3dVehicles%26_IXACTION_%3dSUMMARY%26%253atext%3d%2522WW1%2bHall%2522%2bin%2bmus_current_location_Section%2bindex%2bmus_text_location%26_IXMAXHITS_%3d12%26_IXSESSION_%3d3be1uYC4Swu%26%2524%2bwith%2bmus_catalogue%3d%252e%26_IXFPFX_%3dtemplates%252ffull%252ftvod%252ft%26%253amus_administration_name%3dVEH&_IXFIRST_=8&_IXSPFX_=templates/full/tvod/t&_IXMAXHITS_=1&submit-button=summary&_IXSESSION_=3be1uYC4Swu&_IXMENU_=Vehicles. Retrieved 2010-02-06. 
  25. ^ Atwater, W. F.; Hand, S. D.; Hardin, M. J.; Edwards, E. W.; Chamsine, G.. The Measurement and Modeling of a World War I Mark IV Tank Using CLR and CCD Camera/Line Scanning Systems in an Outside Environment. Service Metrology Case Studies. http://metrology.survice.com/mark_4_tank.pdf 

See also

Mark V Composite

References

  • Fletcher, David (2007). British Mark IV Tank. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781846030826. 
  • Fletcher, David (2001). The British Tanks, 1915–19. Crowood Press. ISBN 1861264003. 
  • Fletcher, David. British Mark I Tank 1916. Osprey Publishing. 

External links


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