List of freshwater aquarium plant species


List of freshwater aquarium plant species

Aquatic plants are used to give the aquarium a natural appearance, oxygenate the water, and provide habitat for fish, especially fry (babies) and for invertebrate species. Some aquarium fish and invertebrates also eat live plants. Recently, there has been a movement in the hobby to use aquatic plants as part of aesthetic aquarium design and aquascaping, spearheaded by Japanese aquarist Takashi Amano.

Most of these plant species are found either partially or fully submersed in their natural habitat. Although there are a handful of obligate aquatic plants that must be grown in water ("Cabomba" sp., for example), most grow and thrive fully emersed if the soil is kept moist.

Listed alphabetically by scientific name

As a very important note, the taxonomy of most plant genera is not final. Scientific names and classifications have changed often in the past years, creating confusion for most aquarists. Most of the old names are still in use today on some web sites.

Common aquarium plant species:


*"Acorus calamus"
*"Aglaonema modestum"
*"Aglaonema simplex"
*"Alisma gramineum"
*"Alternanthera bettzichiana"
*"Alternanthera lilacina"
*"Alternanthera philoxeroides"
*"Alternanthera reineckii "rosaefolia""
*"Alternanthera sessilis"
*"Ammania gracilis" (Delicate ammania, red ammania)
*"Ammania latifolia"
*"Ammania senegalensis"
*"Anubias afzelii" (Narrow-leafed anubias)
*"Anubias barteri var. barteri" (Broadleaved anubias)
*"Anubias barteri var. angustifolia"
*"Anubias barteri var. caladiifolia"
*"Anubias barteri var. glabra"
*"Anubias barteri var. nana" (Dwarf anubias)
*"Anubias gilletti"
*"Anubias gracilis"
*"Anubias hastifolia"
*"Anubias heterophylla"
*"Anubias pynaertii"
*"Aponogeton appendiculatus"
*"Aponogeton bernierianus"
*"Aponogeton boivinianus"
*"Aponogeton capuronii"
*"Aponogeton crispus" (Crinkled or ruffled aponogeton)
*"Aponogeton decartyi"
*"Aponogeton desertorum"
*"Aponogeton dioecus"
*"Aponogeton distachyos"
*"Aponogeton elongatus"
*"Aponogeton fenestralis"
*"Aponogeton henkelianus"
*"Aponogeton junceus"
*"Aponogeton longiplumulosus"
*"Aponogeton loriae"
*"Aponogeton madagascariensis" (Madagascar laceleaf, lace plant)
*"Aponogeton natans"
*"Aponogeton rigidifolius"
*"Aponogeton tenuispicatus"
*"Aponogeton ulvaceus" (Compact apongeton)
*"Aponogeton undulatus"
*"Armoracia aquatica"
*"Azolla caroliniana" (water velvet, mosquito fern)
*"Azolla filiculoïdes" (Azolla, moss fern)
*"Azolla pinnata"
*"Bacopa amplexicaulis"
*"Bacopa australis"
*"Bacopa caroliniana" (lemon bacopa, water hyssop, giant bacopa)
*"Bacopa crenata"
*"Bacopa monnieri" (water hyssop, dwarf bacopa, baby tears)
*"Bacopa myriophylloides"
*"Bacopa rotundifolia" (Round bacopa)
*"Baldellia ranunculoides"
*"Barclaya longifolia" (Orchid lily)
*"Barclaya motleyi"
*"Blyxa aubertii"
*"Blyxa echinosperma"
*"Blyxa japonica" (Japanese rush)
*"Blyxa novoguineensis"
*"Blyxa octandra"
*"Bolbitis heteroclita"
*"Bolbitis heudelotii" (African or Congo fern)
*"Cabomba aquatica" (Yellow cabomba, giant cabomba)
*"Cabomba caroliniana" (Green cabomba)
*"Cabomba furcata"
*"Cabomba palaeformis"
*"Cabomba piauhyensis" (Red cabomba)
*"Caldesia parnassifolia"
*"Calla palustris"
*"Callitriche hamulata"
*"Callitriche hermaphroditica"
*"Callitriche palustris"
*"Callitriche stagnalis"
*"Cardamine lyrata" (Chinese ivy, Japanese cress)
*"Cardamine rotundifolia"
*"Ceratophyllum demersum" (hornwort)
*"Ceratophyllum submersum" (tropical hornwort)
*"Ceratopteris cornuta"
*"Ceratopteris pteridoides"
*"Ceratopteris thalictroides" (water sprite)
*"Cladophora aegagropila"
*"Crassula aquatica"
*"Crassula helmsii"
*"Crinum calamistratum"
*"Crinum natans" (African onion plant)
*"Crinum purpurascens"
*"Crinum thaianum" (water onion)
*"Cryptocoryne affinis"
*"Cryptocoryne alba"
*"Cryptocoryne albida"
*"Cryptocoryne aponogetifolia"
*"Cryptocoryne auriculata"
*"Cryptocoryne axelrodii"
*"Cryptocoryne balansae"
*"Cryptocoryne beckettii" (Beckett's Cryptocoryne)
*"Cryptocoryne blassii"
*"Cryptocoryne bogneri"
*"Cryptocoryne bullosa"
*"Cryptocoryne ciliata"
*"Cryptocoryne cognata"
*"Cryptocoryne cordata" (Giant cryptocoryne)
*"Cryptocoryne crispatula"
*"Cryptocoryne cruddasiana"
*"Cryptocoryne diderici"
*"Cryptocoryne elliptica"
*"Cryptocoryne ferruginea"
*"Cryptocoryne fusca"
*"Cryptocoryne grabowskii"
*"Cryptocoryne gracilis"
*"Cryptocoryne griffithii"
*"Cryptocoryne huegelii"
*"Cryptocoryne legroi"
*"Cryptocoryne longicauda"
*"Cryptocoryne lucens"
*"Cryptocoryne lutea"
*"Cryptocoryne minima"
*"Cryptocoryne moehlmannii" (Moehlmann's cryptocoryne)
*"Cryptocoryne nevillii"
*"Cryptocoryne nurii"
*"Cryptocoryne parva" (Tiny cryptocoryne)
*"Cryptocoryne petchii"
*"Cryptocoryne pontederiifolia"
*"Cryptocoryne purpurea"
*"Cryptocoryne retrospiralis"
*"Cryptocoryne siamensis"
*"Cryptocoryne spiralis"
*"Cryptocoryne thwaitesii"
*"Cryptocoryne tonkinensis"
*"Cryptocoryne undulata" (Undulate cryptocoryne)
*"Cryptocoryne usteriana"
*"Cryptocoryne venemae"
*"Cryptocoryne versteegii"
*"Cryptocoryne walkeri"
*"Cryptocoryne wendtii 'Tropica'"
*"Cryptocoryne x willisii"
*"Cryptocoryne zewaldiae"
*"Cryptocoryne zonata"
*"Cryptocoryne zukalii"
*"Cyperus alternifolius"
*"Cyperus helferi"
*"Cyperus papyrus"
*"Damasonium alisma"
*"Didiplis diandra" (Water hedge)
*"Echinodorus africanus"
*"Echinodorus amazonicus" (Amazon sword)
*"Echinodorus andrieuxii"
*"Echinodorus angustifolius"
*"Echinodorus argentinensis"
*"Echinodorus aschersonianus"
*"Echinodorus barthii"
*"Echinodorus berteroi"
*"Echinodorus bleheri" (Broadleaved amazon)
*"Echinodorus bolivianus" (Bolivian sword)
*"Echinodorus brevipedicellatus"
*"Echinodorus cordifolius" (Radicans sword, spade leaf sword)
*"Echinodorus fluitans"
*"Echinodorus grandiflorus" (Large-flowered amazon)
*"Echinodorus horemanii" (Black-red amazon)
*"Echinodorus horizontalis"
*"Echinodorus humilis"
*"Echinodorus latifolius"
*"Echinodorus longiscapus"
*"Echinodorus macrophyllus" (Large-leaved amazon sword)
*"Echinodorus martii"
*"Echinodorus major" (Ruffled amazon sword)
*"Echinodorus opacus" (Opaque amazon sword)
*"Echinodorus osiris" (Red amazon sword)
*"Echinodorus 'Ozelot'"
*"Echinodorus palaefolius"
*"Echinodorus paniculatus"
*"Echinodorus parviflorus" (Black amazon sword)
*"Echinodorus pelliscidus"
*"Echinodorus quadricostatus" (Dwarf sword)
*"Echinodorus radicans"
*"Echinodorus rigidifolius"
*"Echinodorus 'Rubin'"
*"Echinodorus rubra"
*"Echinodorus schlueteri"
*"Echinodorus subalatus"
*"Echinodorus tenellus" (Pygmy chain sword)
*"Echinodorus tunicatus"
*"Echinodorus uruguayensis" (Uruguay amazon sword)
*"Egeria densa" (Elodea, pondweed)
*"Egeria naias"
*"Eichhornia crassipes" (Water hyacinth)
*"Eichhornia diversifolia"
*"Elatine hydropiper"
*"Elatine macropoda"
*"Eleocharis acicularis" (Hairgrass)
*"Eleocharis dulcis"
*"Eleocharis minima"
*"Eleocharis obtusa"
*"Eleocharis parvula"
*"Eleocharis vivipare"
*"Elodea canadensis" (Canadian pondweed)
*"Elodea nuttallii"
*"Elodea occidentalis"
*"Eriocaulon" sp.
*"Eusteralis stellata" (Star rotala)
*"Fittonia argyroneura"
*"Fontinalis antipyretica" (Willow moss)
*"Glossadelphus zollingeri"
*"Glossostigma diandrum"
*"Glossostigma elatinoides"
*"Gymnocoronis spilanthoides" (Spadeleaf plant)
*"Hemianthus callitrichoides" (Dwarf helzine)
*"Hemianthus micranthemoides" (Pearlweed)
*"Heteranthera dubia"
*"Heteranthera reniformis"
*"Heteranthera zosterifolia" (Stargrass)
*"Hippuris vulgaris"
*"Hottonia inflata"
*"Hottonia palustris" (Water violet)
*"Hydrilla verticillata"
*"Hydrocharis morsus-ranae"
*"Hydrocleis nymphoides"
*"Hydrocotyle leucocephala" (Brazilian pennywort)
*"Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides"
*"Hydrocotyle verticillata" (Whorled umbrella plant)
*"Hydrocotyle vulgaris"
*"Hydrothrix gardneri"
*"Hydrotriche hottoniiflora"
*"Hygrophila angustifolia"
*"Hygrophila corymbosa 'crispa'"
*"Hygrophila corymbosa 'glabra'" (Broadlead giant stricta)
*"Hygrophila corymbosa 'gracilis'"
*"Hygrophila corymbosa 'siamensis'"
*"Hygrophila corymbosa 'strigosa'"
*"Hygrophila difformis" (Water wisteria)
*"Hygrophila guianensis"
*"Hygrophila lacustris"
*"Hygrophila lancea"
*"Hygrophila natalis"
*"Hygrophila polysperma" (Dwarf hygrophilia)
*"Hygrophila salicifolia"
*"Hygrophila stricta" (Thai stricta, green stricta)
*"Hygroryza aristata"
*"Isoetes lacustris" (quillwort)
*"Isoetes malinverniana"
*"Isoetes velata"
*"Isolepis setracea"
*"Juncus repens"
*"Lagarosiphon madagascariensis"
*"Lagarosiphon major" (Elodea crispa)
*"Lagenandra dewitii"
*"Lagenandra insignis"
*"Lagenandra koenigii"
*"Lagenandra lancifolia"
*"Lagenandra nairii"
*"Lagenandra ovata"
*"Lagenandra thwaitesii"
*"Lemna gibba"
*"Lemna minor" (Duckweed)
*"Lemna paucicostata"
*"Lemna perpusilla"
*"Lemna trisulca"
*"Lilaeopsis brasiliensis"
*"Lilaeopsis carolinensis"
*"Lilaeopsis macloviana"
*"Lilaeopsis mauritiana"
*"Lilaeopsis novae-zelandiae" (New Zealand grassplant)
*"Lilaeopsis ruthiana"
*"Limnobium laevigatum" (Amazon frogbit)
*"Limnobium spongia"
*"Limnocharis flava"
*"Limnophila aquatica" (Giant ambulia)
*"Limnophila aromatica"
*"Limnophila glabra"
*"Limnophila heterophylla"
*"Limnophila indica" (Indian ambulia)
*"Limnophila sessiflora"
*"Limnophila sessiliflora" (Dwarf ambulia)
*"Lindernia crustacea" F. Muell.
*"Lindernia rotundifolia"
*"Littorella uniflora"
*"Lobelia cardinalis" (Cardinal flower, scarlet lobelia)
*"Lobelia dortmanna"
*"Ludwigia alternifolia"
*"Ludwigia arcuata"
*"Ludwigia glandulosa" (Glandular ludwigia, red star ludwigia)
*"Ludwigia helminthorrhiza"
*"Ludwigia inclinata"
*"Ludwigia inclinata var. verticellata 'Cuba'"
*"Ludwigia mullertii"
*"Ludwigia natans"
*"Ludwigia palustris"
*"Ludwigia pulvinaris"
*"Ludwigia repens" (Creeping ludwigia, narrow-leaf ludwigia)
*"Luronium natans"
*"Lycopodiella inundata (Lycopodium inundatum)"
*"Lysimachia nummularia" (creeping Jenny, moneywort)
*"Marsilea crenata"
*"Marsilea drummondii"
*"Marsilea hirsuta"
*"Marsilea pubescens"
*"Marsilea quadrifolia" (water-clover)
*"Mayaca fluviatilis"
*"Mayaca vandellii"
*"Micranthemum umbrosum" (Helzine)
*"Microsorum pteropus" (Java fern)
*"Monosolenium tenerum" (commercial name; plants sold under this name are probably "Metzgeria sp.")
*"Myriophyllum alterniflorum"
*"Myriophyllum aquaticum" (Brazilian milfoil, milfoil)
*"Myriophyllum elatinoides"
*"Myriophyllum heterophyllum"
*"Myriophyllum hippuroides" (Green milfoil, water milfoil)
*"Myriophyllum matogrossense"
*"Myriophyllum proserpinacoides"
*"Myriophyllum scabratum" (Foxtail)
*"Myriophyllum spicatum"
*"Myriophyllum tuberculatum" (Red myriophyllum)
*"Myriophyllum ussuriense"
*"Myriophyllum verticillatum"
*"Myriophylumm oguraense"
*"Najas graminea"
*"Najas guadelupensis"
*"Najas indica"
*"Najas marina"
*"Najas minor"
*"Najas pectinata"
*"Nesaea crassicaulis"
*"Nitella capillaris"
*"Nitella flexilis"
*"Nitella gracilis"
*"Nomaphila siamensis"
*"Nomaphila stricta"
*"Nuphar advenum"
*"Nuphar japonica" (Spatterdock)
*"Nuphar luteum"
*"Nuphar pumilum"
*"Nuphar sagittifolium"
*"Nymphaea alba"
*"Nymphaea lotus" (Tiger lotus)
*"Nymphaea lotus var. rubra"
*"Nymphaea micrantha"
*"Nymphaea pubescens"
*"Nymphaea pygmea"
*"Nymphaea stellata" (Red and blue water lily)
*"Nymphaea zenkeri 'Red'" (Red tiger lotus)
*"Nymphoides aquatica" (Banana plant)
*"Nymphoides humboldtiana"
*"Nymphoides indica"
*"Nymphoides peltata"
*"Orontium aquaticum"
*"Ottelia alismoides"
*"Ottelia mesenterum"
*"Ottelia ulvifolia"
*"Phyllanthus fluitans"
*"Pilularia americana"
*"Pilularia globulifera"
*"Pistia stratiotes" (Water lettuce)
*"Pogostemon helferi"
*"Pogostemon stellatus"
*"Pontederia cordata"
*"Potamogeton coloratus"
*"Potamogeton crispus"
*"Potamogeton densus"
*"Potamogeton filiformis"
*"Potamogeton gayi"
*"Potamogeton gramineus"
*"Potamogeton lucens"
*"Potamogeton malaianus"
*"Potamogeton natans"
*"Potamogeton perfoliatus"
*"Proserpinaca palustris"
*"Ranunculus aquatilis"
*"Ranunculus limosella"
*"Regnellidium diphyllum"
*"Riccia fluitans" (Crystalwort)
*"Ricciocarpus natans"
*"Rorippa aquatica"
*"Rotala indica"
*"Rotala macrandra" (Giant red rotala)
*"Rotala rotundifolia" (Dwarf rotala)
*"Rotala wallichii" (Whorly rotala)
*"Ruellia difformis" (out of date synonym)
*"Ruppia maritima"
*"Sagittaria chapmani"
*"Sagittaria eatonii"
*"Sagittaria filiformis"
*"Sagittaria graminea"
*"Sagittaria guyanensis"
*"Sagittaria isoëtiformis"
*"Sagittaria latifolia"
*"Sagittaria microfila"
*"Sagittaria montevidensis"
*"Sagittaria natans"
*"Sagittaria papillosa"
*"Sagittaria platyphylla" (giant sagittaria)
*"Sagittaria pusilla" (dwarf sagittaria)
*"Sagittaria sagittifolia"
*"Sagittaria subulata" (needle sagittaria, floating arrowhead)
*"Salvinia auriculata"
*"Salvinia cucullata"
*"Salvinia minima"
*"Salvinia natans" (water spangles)
*"Salvinia oblongifolia"
*"Salvinia rotundifolia"
*"Samolus valerandi" (Water cabbage)
*"Saururus cernuus" (Lizard's tail)
*"Selaginella" sp.
*"Shinnersia rivularis" (Mexican oak leaf)
*"Spathiphyllum tasson" (Brazilian Sword)
*"Spathiphyllum wallisii" (Peace lily)
*"Spiranthes romanzoffiana"
*"Spirodela polyrhiza"
*"Stratiotes aloides"
*"Subularia aquatica"
*"Synnema triflorum" (out of date synonym)
*"Taxiphyllum barbieri"
*"Tonina fluviatilis"
*"Trapa natans" (Water chestnut)
*"Triglochin maritima"
*"Triglochin palustre"
*"Triglochin striata"
*"Typha angustifolia"
*"Typha latifolia"
*"Utricularia gibba"
*"Utricularia graminifolia"
*"Utricularia minor"
*"Utricularia vulgaris"
*"Vallisneria americana" (Dwarf vallisneria)
*"Vallisneria asiatica"
*"Vallisneria asiatica var. biwaensis" (Corkscrew vallisneria)
*"Vallisneria gigantea" (Giant vallisneria)
*"Vallisneria neotropicalis"
*"Vallisneria rubra"
*"Vallisneria spiralis" (Straight vallisneria)
*"Vallisneria tortifolia" (Twisted vallisneria, dwarf vallisneria)
*"Vallisneria tortissima"
*"Versicularia dubyana" (Java moss)
*"Wolffia arrhiza"
*"Wolffia microscopica"
*"Wolffiella floridana"
*"Zannichellia palustris"

False aquatics or pseudo-aquarium plants

Several species of terrestrial plants are frequently sold as "aquarium plants". While such plants are beautiful and can survive and even flourish for months under water, they will eventually die and must be removed so their decay does not contaminate the aquarium water.

*"Acorus gramineus var. pusilus (Dwarf sedge, Japanese rush)
*"Acorus gramineus var. variegatus (Dwarf sedge, Japanese rush)
*"Chlorophytum bichetii" (Pongol sword)
*"Dracaena sanderiana" (Striped dragonplant)
*"Hemigraphis colorata" (Crimson ivy)
*"Ophiopogon japonicus" (Fountain plant)
*"Pilea cadairei" (Aluminum plant)
*"Sciadopitys verticillata)" (Umbrella pine, Koyamaki)
*"Syngonium podophyllum" (Stardust ivy)

Freshwater Plant Images Gallery

Photos

Illustrations

References

*cite book | author= Hiscock, Peter | title=Encyclopedia of Aquarium Plants| location= United States and Canada| publisher=Interpret Publishing| year=2003 | id=ISBN 0-7641-5521-0
*cite book | title=Simon & Schuster's Guide to Freshwater and Marine Aquarium Fishes| location= New York, New York, United States| publisher=Simon & Schuster, Inc. | year=1976 | id=ISBN 0-671-22809-9

See also

* List of freshwater aquarium fish species


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