Ancient Jat Kingdoms

Ancient Jat Kingdoms

The Jat people of the Indian subcontinent had many kingdoms in ancient times.

Jat rulers in Kaikan

Kaikan was a province in Sind. Kikania is the name of a mountain. When the Arab invaders first time came to Kaikan mountains, the Jats repelled them. K.R.Kanungo [K.R.Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed. dr Vir Singh, 2003, p.17] writes that when Muhammad bin Qasim invaded Sind, Kaikan country was in independent possession of Jats. The country of Kaikan was supposed to be in south-eastern Afghanistan [Elliot, I, 383] , which was conquered from Jats by the Arab general Amran Bin Musa in the reign of the Khalifa Al-Mutasim-bi-llah, (833-881 AD) [Elliot, I, 448] . During the same reign another expedition was sent against the Jats who had seized upon the roads of Hajar (?)...and spread terror over the roads and planted posts in all directions towards the desert. They were overcome after a bloody conflict of twenty five days. 27000 of them were led in captivity to grace the triumph of victor. It was a custom among these people to blow their horns when Marshalled for battle. [Elliot, II, 247] , Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 702. ] , [Sindh Ka itihas, p.30] H.C.Verma wrote [ H.C.Verma : Mediewal History [Part-1] [Delhi University Publication] that the Jats of Kikkan fought very bravely and defeated the Arabs very badly again & again.So Arab could not attack on India by Kikkan route.

Panwar rulers in Omarkot

Umerkot or Omarkot (Urdu: عمرکوٹ) is town in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. It is also referred to as Amar Kot as per old histories, "Amar Kot Itehas" by Tej Singh Solanki. Once, it has been Capital of Greater Sindh Province, including some parts of present Rajasthan state of India. According to Thakur Deshraj, Panwar clan Jats were rulers here prior to Mughal ruler Humayun. Jame Todd tells it to be a Rajput state confusing Panwar with Rajputs, but it was denied by Cunningham, who wrote it to be a Panwar Jat state referring to the author of 'Humayun Nama'. [Memoirs of Humayun, p. 45] , [Tahkur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.705]

Other Jat rulers in Sind

Thakur Deshraj mentions about rule of other Jat named Chandra Ram of Hala clan. He was ruler of Susthan but he lost it to Muslims. He wandered for some time but later he attacked the fort and occupied it. When Muhammad bin Qasim learnt it he sent 1000 sawar and 2000 footsoldiers to suppress Chandra Ram. He fought bravely but killed. His state was known as Halakhandi. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 702. ] , [Sindh Ka itihas, p.30]

Maharaja Shalinder

After the fall of Kushan Empire country was divided in to small states. There is no information of any important Jat state in a period of two centuries following Kushan rule. In the beginning of fifth century we find Jat ruler Maharaja Shalinder with his rule extending from Punjab to Malwa and Rajasthan. This is proved from the Pali inscription obtained from village Kanswa in Kota state in year 1820 AD. We get following information from this inscription: [Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.208-211]

Shalinder was the ruler Shalpur, known in the present by the name Sialkot. He established this state on his own power, which indicates that he was a monarch emerged from chieftain ship of a republic state. He had a powerful army full of strong warriors amongst whom he felt proud of glory of his caste. He had many small states under him and a rich treasury. He was a Kashyapvanshi (Suryavanshi) Taxak clan Jat. He had left Buddhism and adopted puranic religion and started vedic culture like performing yagyas etc. [Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.208-211]

He married with a lady of other caste as he has been mentioned as having a "dogla" issue from him. His descendant Degali had married with daughters of Yaduvanshi. One of these queens gave birth to Veer Narendra. The chronology derived from this inscription is as under: 1. Maharaja Shalinder, 2. Dogla, 3. Sambuk, 4. Degali, 5. Veer Narendra 6. Veerchandra 7. Shalichandra

In samvat 597 (540 AD) a temple was built on the bank of river Taveli in Kota state and a close relative of Jit Shalinder had written the inscription. Probably the writer of the inscription was Shalichandra (son of Veerchandra and grandson of Veer Narendra), who left Shalivahanpur in samvat 597 (540 AD) due to attack of Huns and came to Malwa. Maharaja Shalinder had probably sought the help of his own clan ruler Maharaja Yasodharman of Malwa. In the first attempt of combined Jat power, they defeated Huns and repulsed them from Punjab which is clear from the Chandra’s grammar ‘Ajaya jarto Hunan’. [Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.208-211]

Kartik Jat ruler of Bundi

James Todd obtained a Pali inscription about Jit or Jat tribe at village Ramchandrapura 3 "kos" (6 miles) east of Bundi state, which he sent to Asiatic Society London. The inscription reveals that there was a king Thot born in Uti vansha. His son was Raja Chandrasain, a powerful and beloved of his subject. The son of Chandrasain was Kartik, renowned for his prowess. His wife was Gunaniwas, who gave birth to two sons Mukund and Daruk. Daruk produced son named Kuhal. Kuhal produced son named Dhunak, who achieved great works. He had war with Hill Meenas and defeated them Fact|date=May 2008. He along with his brother Dok worshipped gods and brahmanas. They founded a temple. Kuhal had founded this temple and a Maheshwar temple in east. The popularity of this was spread by Achal son of Mahabali Maharaja Yashovarma. [James Todd, Appedix 1] , [Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.588-589]

The period of war of this dynasty with Parihar Meenas or Pratihar Meenas is difficult to asses. If we assume that Jat ruler Kartik had war with Menander then the period of this comes about 150 BC. Menander had attacked areas up to Chittor. It is very likely that Kartik had a war with Menander. This way the period of his descendant becomes the first century. If we look into the period of Achal who made this temple popular it comes around third or fourth century or beyond it, as ruler Yashovarman was in Maukhari vansha in eighth century in Kannauj. He had sent a delegation to China in 731 AD. [Bharat Ke Prachin Rajvansh, II] Lack of records and history prior to sixth century prevents prom determining the exact period of the rule of Kartik and his descendants. According to Thakur Deshraj, We can presume their rule from fourth to sixth century. [Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.589-590]

Jat republics in Rajasthan

Jat republics in Jangladesh

Jangladesh was the name of a region of northern Rajasthan state in India. It included the present-day districts of Bikaner, Churu, Ganganagar, and Hanumangarh. These districts are predominant districts of the Jats. It corresponds to the former princely state of Bikaner, which was founded in the 15th century and persisted until shortly after India's Independence in 1947. The principal towns of Jangladesh at present are Bikaner, Churu, Rajgarh, Ratangarh and Reni.

According to James Todd as mentioned in his book "Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan (1829)" the Jangladesh region was inhabited by Jats, who had for ages been established in these arid abodes, ["Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan". (1829-1832) James Tod and William Crooke, Reprint: Low Price Publications, Delhi (1990), Vol.II, Appendix. p. 1126.] prior to Bika Rathor annexed these small republics. At every stage of invasion to India the foreign invaders had to encounter with the Jats of this region. At what period the Jats established themselves in the Indian desert is not known. By the 4th century they had spread up to Punjab in India.

The north-eastern and north-western Rajasthan, known by the name Jangladesh in ancient times, was inhabited by Jat clans ruled by their own chiefs and largely governed by their own customary law. [Dashrath Sharma, Rajasthan through the ages, Jodhpur, 1966, Vol.I, p. 287-288] Whole of the region was possessed by six or seven cantons namely Punia, Godara, Saran, Sihag, Beniwal, Johiya [James Todd, Annals and Antiquities, Vol.II, p. 1126=27] and Kaswan [Ibid., Seventh clan of Jats] . Besides these cantons there were several sub-castes of Jats, simultaneously wrested from Rajput proprietors for instance Bagor, Kharipatta, Mohila or Mehila, [James Todd, Annals and Antiquities, Vol.II, p. 1126=27] Bhukar, Bhadu, Chahar. [Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, Delhi, 2002, p. 269-285] According to History of Bikaner State and by the scholars, the region was occupied by Jats with their seven territories. It is said about Jat territories that "Saat Patti Sattavan Majh" (means seven long and fifty-seven small territories). [G.S.L.Devra, op. cit., Cf. Dayaldas ri Khyat, Part II, p. 7-10] Following are the main clans and their heads with capital and number of villages in each territory. [Jibraeil: "Position of Jats in Churu Region", The Jats - Vol. II, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006, p. 222] , [Dr Brahma Ram Chaudhary: The Jats - Vol. II, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006, p. 250]

Table of Jat republics in Jangladesh:

According to James Todd, during the period of Rathor domination ("intermediate between Timur's and Babur's invasion of India", i.e. sometime between 1398 and 1526) out of total 2670 villages in the Jangladesh, 2200 villages were under the rule of Jats. ["Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan". (1829-1832) James Tod and William Crooke, Reprint: Low Price Publications, Delhi (1990), Vol.II, Appendix. pp. 1126-1127.] Each canton bore the name of the community, and was subdivided into districts. After Chauhans, Jats completely established their supremacy and hold over administration in their own traditional fashion, which continued till the conquest of the region by Rathores. [Ibid., p.103] The Jats claimed their right over the land which was under their possession, before the Rathores occupied it and this claim was inherited by their descendants, who used to divide the land among themselves for cultivation. It appears probable that in the early period of their conquest the Rathores could not exercise any definite claim on the land as landlords. However, it was possible only in the 17th century, [Ibid, p.203] due to internal rivalries among Jats, primarily Godaras surrendered, later on all Jat clans accepted Rathor's suzerainty. [G.S.L. Devra, op. cit., 7-8, Cf. Dayaldas ri Khyat, part 2, p. 4-5] , [Jibraeil: "Position of Jats in Churu Region", The Jats - Vol. II, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006, p. 223]

Other republics in Jangladesh
*Bhadu - Bhadus were rulers in Jangladesh where they established an important city Bhadra. Samantraj was a popular ruler of Bhadus. Bhadus had a war with 'Bhagore' people and after capturing it they moved to Marwar area. Bhadus also occupied many villages in Ajmer-Merwara. [Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Delhi, 1934, p. 597]

*Bhati - Jat Bhatis ruled Bhatner, presently Hanumangarh, and Bhatinda. Bhatner was historically important because it was situated on route of invaders from Central Asia to India. [Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Delhi, 1934, p. 601]

*Bhukar - Bhukars were initially settled at Sambhar in Rajasthan. They were the rulers in this area and their ruling method was that of 'Bhomia-chor'. Gothra Bhukaran was their capital.
*Chahar - In the thirteenth century, a Chahar Jat, Raja Maldeo ruled at Sidhmukh in Jangladesh.

*Jakhar - The king of the Jakhar clan, Jakhbhadra, settled in Jangladesh and made his capital at Reni (modern-day Taranagar). Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 594-95. ] At a later date, the Jakhars established a kingdom, the ruins of which are found at Madhauli, which was in the princely state of Jaipur. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 594-95. ]

*Sangwan - The Sangwan jats ruled at Sarsu in Jangladesh region of Rajasthan in 8th to 10th century.

*Sahu - They have been the rulers of a small republic in Jangladesh. Their capital was at village Dhansia, situated at a distance of 65 km in northwest of Churu town. [Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p.282 ] There were 84 villages in their territory. [GSL Devra, op. cit., Cf. Dayaldas ri Khyat, Part II, pp. 7-10] , [Jibraeil: "Position of Jats in Churu Region", The Jats - Vol. II, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006, p. 222]

Jat republics in Marwar


Jat republics in Matsya region



*Vijayrania - Mentioned as Varetatae people of Greek language by Megasthenes were rulers in Khandelawati. Vijayranias founded a village called 'Vijarna' in 1078 and constructed a fort at 'Ladhana' in 1178. One chieftain Jagsingh of this clan founded his rule in Palsana of Shekhawati region in year 1255.

Jat republics in southern Rajasthan

*Jatrana - This is an ancient gotra. According to Kautilya they fought against Alexander the Great. According to Alberuni this hilly place called Chittor ( Jattaur) was the capital of the Jatrana clan. They call themselves descendants of Tur.
*Gora - In ancient times ruled in Ajmer-Merwara, Mewar, and Bundi-Sirohi areas in Rajasthan. They are descendants of Pingala Nagavanshi. [Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, Page 237 ]

*Ranthambore - It was founded by Ran Mal Jat, by putting a stambh (pillar) at the location of present Ranthambore. He challenged the neighbouring rulers for battle. The area around Ranthambore was ruled by Gora and Nagil jats till two centuries prior to the rule of Prithvi Raj Chauhan. [Thakur Deshraj : Jat - Itihas, 1934, p. 593]

* Sheoran - A branch of Shivi Jats ruled in Malwa and Rajasthan.

* Chandlai - A small republic founded by Jat chieftain 'Chandla'. He got constructed a pucca pond near the village in the name of her daughter ‘Bhala’ and put an inscription on it on baisakh sudi 15 samvat 1027 (970 AD). Chandla was ruler of Tonk at that time. [Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, p.603-604] , [Rajasthan Sandesh, Year 1, Vol 2]

Jat republics in United province

*Garhwal - the rulers of Garhmukteshwar

*Kaliramna - A king of this gotra was the ruler near Mathura, on the banks of Yamuna River. The ancient fort of Kaliramna is in ruins near Mathura. His fort was known as fort of Kalidheh.

*Khirwar - "Raja Khir" was the son of "Aniruddha", the grandson of Sri Krishna. Khirwars are the descendants of Raja Khir. Khirwar Jats were the rulers of the Brij area of Uttar Pradesh. From here they moved to Madhya Pradesh, where they occupied good land for cultivation on the banks of the Narmada and founded the city of Narsinghpur in Madhya Pradesh where they ruled for a long period.

* Nauhwar - Rulers in ancient times at Noh lake area near Mathura.

* Koīl - In the ancient times the people of Kampilya were later known as Koil. The Koīl people came from Kampilya and founded the city known as Kampilgarh, situated south east of Ganges. The town of Kampilgarh later became popular as Koil which is now Aligarh.





*Thakurele - [Aligarh,In 18th century they defeat the Hada Rajputs & have a strong hold on Khair,Inglash tahsil]

Jat republics in Malwa


Jats in the pre-Aurangzeb period

We do not have the means to form an accurate and comprehensive view of their past, from the early medieval times to commencement of the reign of Aurangzeb when their brethren of Mathura and Bharatpur step by step rose to political prominence. Our sources contain incidental and meager information about the Jats. [G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 7]

The lack of any systematic and complete history from the Jat side causes difficulties. The non-Jat sources do provide facts about the Jat activities. The sources consulted include such as Majmal-ut-Tawarikh, Tabkai-i-Akbari, Kamil-ut-Tawarikh, Tarikh-us-Subuktigin, Malfuzat-i-Timuri, "Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi" etc.

The history of pre-Aurangzeb period reveals that they (the Jats) have shown in all times – whether against Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, or against Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali – the same propensity to fall upon the rear of a retreating army undeterred by the heaviest odds, or the terror-inspiring fame of great conquerors. When encountered they showed the same obstinate and steady courage unmindful of the carnage on the field or of the miseries that were in store for them after defeat". [Qanungo, Jats,30] , [G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.11-12]


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