Wildlife of Togo


Wildlife of Togo

The Wildlife of Togo includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats. It has 169 species of mammals and 670 species of birds.

ubclass: Theria

Infraclass: Eutheria

Order: Hyracoidea (hyraxes)

----The hyraxes are any of four species of fairly small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea. About the size of a domestic cat they are well-furred, with rounded bodies and a stmpy tail. They are native to Africa and the Middle East.

**Family: Procaviidae (hylaxes)
***Genus: Dendrohyrax
**** Western Tree Hyrax "Dendrohyrax dorsalis" LC
***Genus: Procavia
**** Cape Hyrax "Procavia capensis" LC

Order: Proboscidea (elephants)

----The elephants comprise three living species and are the largest living land animals.

**Family: Elephantidae (elephants)
***Genus: Loxodonta
**** African Bush Elephant "Loxodonta africana" VU

Order: Sirenia (manatees and dugongs)

----
[
African Manatee] Sirenia is an order of fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit rivers, estuaries, coastal marine waters, swamps, and marine wetlands. All four species are endangered.

**Family: Trichechidae
***Genus: Trichechus
**** African Manatee "Trichechus senegalensis" VU

Order: Primates

----The order Primates contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. It is divided informally into three main groupings: prosimians, monkeys of the New World, and monkeys and apes of the Old World.

*Suborder: Strepsirrhini
**Infraorder: Lorisiformes
***Family: Lorisidae (lorises, bushbabies)
****Genus: Perodicticus
***** Potto "Perodicticus potto" LR/lc
***Family: Galagidae
****Genus: Galago
***** Demidoff's Dwarf Galago "Galago demidoff" LR/lc
***** Senegal Bushbaby "Galago senegalensis" LR/lc
*Suborder: Haplorrhini
**Infraorder: Simiiformes
***Parvorder: Catarrhini
****Superfamily: Cercopithecoidea
*****Family: Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys)
******Genus: Erythrocebus
******* Patas Monkey "Erythrocebus patas" LR/lc
******Genus: Cercopithecus
******* Chlorocebus "Cercopithecus aethiops" LR/lc
******* Diana Monkey "Cercopithecus diana" EN
******* White-throated Guenon "Cercopithecus erythrogaster" EN
******* Mona Monkey "Cercopithecus mona" LR/lc
******* Greater Spot-nosed Monkey "Cercopithecus nictitans" LR/lc
******* Lesser Spot-nosed Guenon "Cercopithecus petaurista" LR/lc
******Genus: Papio
******* Olive Baboon "Papio anubis" LR/lc
******Subfamily: Colobinae
*******Genus: Colobus
******** King Colobus "Colobus polykomos" LR/nt
******** Geoffroy's Black-and-white Colobus "Colobus vellerosus" VU
*******Genus: Procolobus
******** Van Beneden's Colobus "Procolobus verus" LR/nt
****Superfamily: Hominoidea
*****Family: Hominidae (humans)
******Subfamily: Homininae
*******Tribe: Hominini
********Genus: Pan
********* Common Chimpanzee "Pan troglodytes" EN

Order: Rodentia (rodents)

----Rodents make up the largest order of mammals, with over 40 percent of mammalian species. They have two incisors in the upper and lower jaw which grow continually and must be keep short by gnawing. Most rodents are small though the capybara can weigh up to 45 kg (100 lb).

*Suborder: Hystricognathi
**Family: Hystricidae (Old World porcupines)
***Genus: Atherurus
**** African Brush-tailed Porcupine "Atherurus africanus" LC
***Genus: Hystrix
**** Crested Porcupine "Hystrix cristata" LC
**Family: Thryonomyidae (cane rats)
***Genus: Thryonomys
**** Greater Cane Rat "Thryonomys swinderianus" LC
*Suborder: Sciurognathi
**Family: Anomaluridae
***Subfamily: Anomalurinae
****Genus: Anomalurops
***** Beecroft's Scaly-tailed Squirrel "Anomalurops beecrofti" LC
**Family: Sciuridae (squirrels)
***Subfamily: Xerinae
****Tribe: Xerini
*****Genus: Xerus
****** Striped ground squirrel "Xerus erythropus" LC
****Tribe: Protoxerini
*****Genus: Funisciurus
****** Red-cheeked Rope Squirrel "Funisciurus leucogenys" DD
****** Kintampo Rope Squirrel "Funisciurus substriatus" DD
*****Genus: Heliosciurus
****** Gambian Sun Squirrel "Heliosciurus gambianus" LC
****** Red-legged Sun Squirrel "Heliosciurus rufobrachium" LC
*****Genus: Protoxerus
****** Forest Giant Squirrel "Protoxerus stangeri" LC
**Family: Gliridae (dormice)
***Subfamily: Graphiurinae
****Genus: Graphiurus
***** Jentink's Dormouse "Graphiurus crassicaudatus" DD
**Family: Nesomyidae
***Subfamily: Dendromurinae
****Genus: Dendromus
***** Banana Climbing Mouse "Dendromus messorius" LC
****Genus: Steatomys
***** Northwestern Fat Mouse "Steatomys caurinus" LC
***Subfamily: Cricetomyinae
****Genus: Cricetomys
***** "Cricetomys emini" LC
***** Gambian Pouch Rat "Cricetomys gambianus" LC
**Family: Muridae (mice, rats, voles, gerbils, hamsters, etc.)
***Subfamily: Leimacomyinae
****Genus: Leimacomys
***** Togo Mouse "Leimacomys buettneri" DD
***Subfamily: Deomyinae
****Genus: Acomys
***** Johan's Spiny Mouse "Acomys johannis" LC
****Genus: Lophuromys
***** Rusty-bellied Brush-furred Rat "Lophuromys sikapusi" LC
****Genus: Uranomys
***** Rudd's Mouse "Uranomys ruddi" LC
***Subfamily: Gerbillinae
****Genus: Tatera
***** Kemp's Gerbil "Tatera kempi" LC
****Genus: Taterillus
***** Slender Gerbil "Taterillus gracilis" LC
***Subfamily: Murinae
****Genus: Arvicanthis
***** Sudanian Arvicanthis "Arvicanthis ansorgei" LC
***** African Grass Rat "Arvicanthis niloticus" LC
***** Guinean Arvicanthis "Arvicanthis rufinus" LC
****Genus: Dasymys
***** West African Shaggy Rat "Dasymys rufulus" LC
****Genus: Hylomyscus
***** Allen's Wood Mouse "Hylomyscus alleni" LC
****Genus: Lemniscomys
***** Typical Striped Grass Mouse "Lemniscomys striatus" LC
***** Heuglin's Lemniscomys "Lemniscomys zebra" LC
****Genus: Mastomys
***** Guinea Multimammate Mouse "Mastomys erythroleucus" LC
***** Natal Multimammate Mouse "Mastomys natalensis" LC
****Genus: Mus
***** Matthey's Mouse "Mus mattheyi" LC
***** African Pygmy Mouse "Mus minutoides" LC
***** Peter's Mouse "Mus setulosus" LC
****Genus: Praomys
***** Dalton's Praomys "Praomys daltoni" LC
***** Deroo's Praomys "Praomys derooi" LC
***** Tullberg's Soft-furred Mouse "Praomys tullbergi" LC
****Genus: Stochomys
***** Target Rat "Stochomys longicaudatus" LC

Order: Lagomorpha (lagomorphs)

----

The lagomorphs comprise two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). Though they can resemble rodents, and were classified as a superfamily in that order until the early twentieth century, they have since been considered a separate order. They differ from rodents in a number of physical characteristics, such as having four incisors in the upper jaw rather than two.

*Family: Leporidae (rabbits, hares)
**Genus: Lepus
*** Cape Hare "Lepus capensis" LR/lc

Order: Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures)

----

The order Erinaceomorpha contains a single family, Erinaceidae, which comprise the hedgehogs and gymnures. The hedgehogs are easily recognised by their spines while gymnures look more like large rats.

*Family: Erinaceidae (hedgehogs)
**Subfamily: Erinaceinae
***Genus: Atelerix
**** Four-toed Hedgehog "Atelerix albiventris" LR/lc

Order: Soricomorpha (shrews, moles, and soledons)

----The "shrew-forms" are insectivorous mmmals. The shrews and soledons closely resemble mice while the moles are stout bodied burrowers.

*Family: Soricidae (shrews)
**Subfamily: Crocidurinae
***Genus: Crocidura
**** Crosse's Shrew "Crocidura crossei" LC
**** Fox's Shrew "Crocidura foxi" LC
**** Tiny Musk Shrew "Crocidura fuscomurina" LC
**** Large-headed Shrew "Crocidura grandiceps" NT
**** Lamotte's Shrew "Crocidura lamottei" LC
**** Nigerian Shrew "Crocidura nigeriae" LC
**** Olivier's Shrew "Crocidura olivieri" LC
**** Fraser's Musk Shrew "Crocidura poensis" LC
**** Voi Shrew "Crocidura voi" LC
***Genus: Sylvisorex
**** Climbing Shrew "Sylvisorex megalura" LC

Order: Chiroptera (bats)

----The bats' most distinguishing feature is that their forelimbs are developed as wings, making them the only mammals in the world naturally capable of flight. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals.

*Family: Pteropodidae (flying foxes, Old World fruit bats)
**Subfamily: Pteropodinae
***Genus: Eidolon
**** Straw-coloured Fruit Bat "Eidolon helvum" LC
***Genus: Epomophorus
**** Gambian Epauletted Fruit Bat "Epomophorus gambianus" LC
***Genus: Epomops
**** Franquet's Epauletted Fruit Bat "Epomops franqueti" LC
***Genus: Hypsignathus
**** Hammer-headed bat "Hypsignathus monstrosus" LC
***Genus: Lissonycteris
**** Smith's Fruit Bat "Lissonycteris smithi" LC
***Genus: Micropteropus
**** Peter's Dwarf Epauletted Fruit Bat "Micropteropus pusillus" LC
***Genus: Myonycteris
**** Little Collared Fruit Bat "Myonycteris torquata" LC
***Genus: Nanonycteris
**** Veldkamp's Bat "Nanonycteris veldkampi" LC
***Genus: Rousettus
**** Egyptian fruit bat "Rousettus aegyptiacus" LC
**Subfamily: Macroglossinae
***Genus: Megaloglossus
**** Woermann's Fruit Bat "Megaloglossus woermanni" LC
*Family: Vespertilionidae
**Subfamily: Myotinae
***Genus: Myotis
**** Rufous Mouse-eared Bat "Myotis bocagii" LC
**Subfamily: Vespertilioninae
***Genus: Glauconycteris
**** Abo Bat "Glauconycteris poensis" LC
**** Butterfly Bat "Glauconycteris variegata" LC
***Genus: Mimetillus
**** Moloney's Flat-headed Bat "Mimetillus moloneyi" LC
***Genus: Neoromicia
**** Cape Serotine "Neoromicia capensis" LC
**** Tiny Serotine "Neoromicia guineensis" LC
**** Banana Pipistrelle "Neoromicia nanus" LC
**** Somali Serotine "Neoromicia somalicus" LC
***Genus: Nycticeinops
**** Schlieffen's Twilight Bat "Nycticeinops schlieffeni" LC
***Genus: Scotophilus
**** African Yellow Bat "Scotophilus dinganii" LC
**** White-bellied Yellow Bat "Scotophilus leucogaster" LC
**** Schreber's Yellow Bat "Scotophilus nigrita" NT
**** Greenish Yellow Bat "Scotophilus viridis" LC
*Family: Molossidae
**Genus: Chaerephon
*** Lappet-eared Free-tailed Bat "Chaerephon major" LC
*** Nigerian Free-tailed Bat "Chaerephon nigeriae" LC
*** Little Free-tailed Bat "Chaerephon pumila" LC
**Genus: Mops
*** Sierra Leone Free-tailed Bat "Mops brachypterus" LC
*** Angolan Free-tailed Bat "Mops condylurus" LC
*** Midas Free-tailed Bat "Mops midas" LC
*** Spurrell's Free-tailed Bat "Mops spurrelli" LC
*Family: Emballonuridae
**Genus: Coleura
*** African Sheath-tailed Bat "Coleura afra" LC
**Genus: Taphozous
*** Mauritian Tomb Bat "Taphozous mauritianus" LC
*** Naked-rumped Tomb Bat "Taphozous nudiventris" LC
*Family: Nycteridae
**Genus: Nycteris
*** Bate's Slit-Faced Bat "Nycteris arge" LC
*** Gambian Slit-faced Bat "Nycteris gambiensis" LC
*** Large Slit-Faced Bat "Nycteris grandis" LC
*** Hairy Slit-Faced Bat "Nycteris hispida" LC
*** Large-Eared Slit-Faced Bat "Nycteris macrotis" LC
*** Dwarf Slit-Faced Bat "Nycteris nana" LC
*** Egyptian Slit-Faced Bat "Nycteris thebaica" LC
*Family: Megadermatidae
**Genus: Lavia
*** Yellow-winged bat "Lavia frons" LC
*Family: Rhinolophidae
**Subfamily: Rhinolophinae
***Genus: Rhinolophus
**** Halcyon Horseshoe Bat "Rhinolophus alcyone" LC
**** RÜppell's Horseshoe Bat "Rhinolophus fumigatus" LC
**** Lander's Horseshoe Bat "Rhinolophus landeri" LC
**Subfamily: Hipposiderinae
***Genus: Hipposideros
**** Aba Roundleaf Bat "Hipposideros abae" NT
**** Benito Roundleaf Bat "Hipposideros beatus" LC
**** Sundevall's Roundleaf Bat "Hipposideros caffer" LC
**** Cyclops Roundleaf Bat "Hipposideros cyclops" LC
**** nopage "Hipposideros gigas" LC
**** Noack's Roundleaf Bat "Hipposideros ruber" LC

Order: Pholidota (pangolins)

----The order Philodota comprises the eight species of pangolin. Pangolins are anteaters and have the powerful claws, elongated snout and long tongue seen in the other unrelated anteater species.

*Family: Manidae
**Genus: Manis
*** Giant Pangolin "Manis gigantea" LR/lc
*** Long-tailed Pangolin "Manis tetradactyla" LR/lc
*** Tree Pangolin "Manis tricuspis" LR/lc

Order: Cetacea (whales)

----The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. They are the mammals most fully adapted to aquatic life with a spindle-shaped nearly hairless body, protected by a thick layer of blubber, and forelimbs and tail modified to provide propulsion underwater.

*Suborder: Odontoceti
**Superfamily: Platanistoidea
***Family: Delphinidae (marine dolphins)
****Genus: Sousa
***** Humpback dolphin "Sousa teuszii" DD
****Genus: Stenella
***** Clymene Dolphin "Stenella clymene" DD
****Genus: Lagenodelphis
***** Fraser's Dolphin "Lagenodelphis hosei" DD
****Genus: Feresa
***** Pygmy Killer Whale "Feresa attenuata" DD

Order: Carnivora (carnivores)

----

The carnivores include over 260 species, the majority of which eat meat as their primary dietary item. Carnivores have a characteristic skull shape and dentition.

*Suborder: Feliformia
**Family: Felidae (cats)
***Subfamily: Felinae
****Genus: Acinonyx
***** Cheetah "Acinonyx jubatus" VU
****Genus: Caracal
***** Caracal "Caracal caracal" LC
****Genus: Felis
***** Wildcat "Felis silvestris" LC
****Genus: Leptailurus
***** Serval "Leptailurus serval" LC
****Genus: Profelis
***** African Golden Cat "Profelis aurata" VU
***Subfamily: Pantherinae
****Genus: Panthera
***** Lion "Panthera leo" VU
***** Leopard "Panthera pardus" LC
**Family: Viverridae (civets, mongooses, etc.)
***Subfamily: Viverrinae
****Genus: Genetta
***** Common Genet "Genetta genetta" LR/lc
***** Rusty-spotted Genet "Genetta maculata" LR/lc
***** Haussa Genet "Genetta thierryi" LR/lc
**Family: Nandiniidae
***Genus: Nandinia
**** African Palm Civet "Nandinia binotata" LR/lc
**Family: Herpestidae (mongooses)
***Genus: Galerella
**** Slender Mongoose "Galerella sanguinea" LR/lc
***Genus: Herpestes
**** Egyptian Mongoose "Herpestes ichneumon" LR/lc
***Genus: Mungos
**** Gambian Mongoose "Mungos gambianus" DD
**Family: Hyaenidae (hyaenas)
***Genus: Crocuta
**** Spotted Hyena "Crocuta crocuta" LR/cd
*Suborder: Caniformia
**Family: Canidae (dogs, foxes)
***Genus: Canis
**** Side-striped Jackal "Canis adustus" LC
***Genus: Lycaon
**** African Wild Dog "Lycaon pictus" EN
**Family: Mustelidae (mustelids)
***Genus: Ictonyx
**** Striped Polecat "Ictonyx striatus" LR/lc
***Genus: Mellivora
**** Ratel "Mellivora capensis" LR/lc
***Genus: Lutra
**** Speckle-throated Otter "Lutra maculicollis" LC

Order: Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates)

----The even-toed ungulates are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. There are about 220 artiodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans.

*Family: Suidae (pigs)
**Subfamily: Phacochoerinae
***Genus: Phacochoerus
**** Warthog "Phacochoerus africanus" LR/lc
**Subfamily: Suinae
***Genus: Potamochoerus
**** Red River Hog "Potamochoerus porcus" LR/lc
*Family: Hippopotamidae (hippopotamuses)
**Genus: Hippopotamus
*** Hippopotamus "Hippopotamus amphibius" VU
*Family: Tragulidae
**Genus: Hyemoschus
*** "Hyemoschus aquaticus" DD
*Family: Bovidae (cattle, antelope, sheep, goats)
**Subfamily: Alcelaphinae
***Genus: Alcelaphus
**** Hartebeest "Alcelaphus buselaphus" LR/cd
***Genus: Damaliscus
**** Topi "Damaliscus lunatus" LR/cd
**Subfamily: Antilopinae
***Genus: Gazella
**** Red-fronted Gazelle "Gazella rufifrons" VU
***Genus: Ourebia
**** Oribi "Ourebia ourebi" LR/cd
**Subfamily: Bovinae
***Genus: Syncerus
**** African Buffalo "Syncerus caffer" LR/cd
***Genus: Tragelaphus
**** Giant Eland "Tragelaphus derbianus" LR/nt
**** Bongo (antelope) "Tragelaphus eurycerus" LR/nt
**** Bushbuck "Tragelaphus scriptus" LR/lc
**** Sitatunga "Tragelaphus spekii" LR/nt
**Subfamily: Cephalophinae
***Genus: Cephalophus
**** Bay Duiker "Cephalophus dorsalis" LR/nt
**** Maxwell's Duiker "Cephalophus maxwellii" LR/nt
**** Blue Duiker "Cephalophus monticola" LR/lc
**** Black Duiker "Cephalophus niger" LR/nt
**** Red-flanked Duiker "Cephalophus rufilatus" LR/cd
**** Yellow-backed Duiker "Cephalophus silvicultor" LR/nt
***Genus: Sylvicapra
**** Common Duiker "Sylvicapra grimmia" LR/lc
**Subfamily: Hippotraginae
***Genus: Hippotragus
**** Roan Antelope "Hippotragus equinus" LR/cd
**Subfamily: Reduncinae
***Genus: Kobus
**** Waterbuck "Kobus ellipsiprymnus" LR/cd
**** Kob "Kobus kob" LR/cd
***Genus: Redunca
**** Bohor Reedbuck "Redunca redunca" LR/cd

Birds

Grebes

Order: PodicipediformesFamily: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*Little Grebe "Tachybaptus ruficollis"

hearwaters and Petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with a medium septum, and a long outer functional primary. There are 75 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*Sooty Shearwater "Puffinus griseus"

torm-Petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Hydrobatidae

The storm-petrels are relatives of the petrels, and are the smallest of sea-birds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 21 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*European Storm-Petrel "Hydrobates pelagicus" (A)

Pelicans

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Togo.

*Great White Pelican "Pelecanus onocrotalus"
*Pink-backed Pelican "Pelecanus rufescens" (A)

Boobies and Gannets

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups comprise medium-to-large coastal sea-birds that plunge-dive for fish. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Togo.

*Cape Gannet "Morus capensis" (A)
*Brown Booby "Sula leucogaster" (A)

Cormorants

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phalacrocoracidae

The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating sea-birds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black and white, and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*Long-tailed Cormorant "Phalacrocorax africanus"

Darters

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Anhingidae

Darters are frequently referred to as "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged.The males have black and dark brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have a much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet, and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving. There are 4 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*Darter "Anhinga melanogaster"

Bitterns, Herons and Egrets

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds suck as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Togo.

*Gray Heron "Ardea cinerea"
*Black-headed Heron "Ardea melanocephala"
*Goliath Heron "Ardea goliath"
*Purple Heron "Ardea purpurea"
*Great Egret "Ardea alba"
*Black Heron "Egretta ardesiaca"
*Intermediate Egret "Egretta intermedia"
*Western Reef-Heron "Egretta gularis"
*Little Egret "Egretta garzetta"
*Squacco Heron "Ardeola ralloides"
*Cattle Egret "Bubulcus ibis"
*Striated Heron "Butorides striata"
*Black-crowned Night-Heron "Nycticorax nycticorax"
*White-backed Night-Heron "Gorsachius leuconotus"
*White-crested Bittern "Tigriornis leucolophus"
*Dwarf Bittern "Ixobrychus sturmii"

Hammerkop

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Scopidae

The Hammerkop is a medium-sized bird with a long shaggy crest. The shape of its head with a curved bill and crest at the back is reminiscent of a hammer, hence its name. Its plumage is a drab brown all over.

*Hamerkop "Scopus umbretta"

torks

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute; bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Togo.

*Yellow-billed Stork "Mycteria ibis"
*African Openbill "Anastomus lamelligerus"
*Black Stork "Ciconia nigra"
*Abdim's Stork "Ciconia abdimii"
*Woolly-necked Stork "Ciconia episcopus"
*White Stork "Ciconia ciconia"
*Saddle-billed Stork "Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis"
*Marabou Stork "Leptoptilos crumeniferus"

Ibises and Spoonbills

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Threskiornithidae

The Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Togo.

*Sacred Ibis "Threskiornis aethiopicus"
*Hadada Ibis "Bostrychia hagedash"
*Glossy Ibis "Plegadis falcinellus"
*African Spoonbill "Platalea alba"

Flamingos

Order: PhoenicopteriformesFamily: Phoenicopteridae

Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet high, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly-shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*Lesser Flamingo "Phoenicopterus minor"

Ducks, Geese and Swans

Order: AnseriformesFamily: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Togo.

*Fulvous Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna bicolor"
*White-faced Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna viduata"
*White-backed Duck "Thalassornis leuconotus" (A)
*Egyptian Goose "Alopochen aegyptiacus" (A)
*Spur-winged Goose "Plectropterus gambensis"
*Comb Duck "Sarkidiornis melanotos"
*Hartlaub's Duck "Pteronetta hartlaubii"
*African Pygmy-goose "Nettapus auritus"
*African Black Duck "Anas sparsa"
*Northern Pintail "Anas acuta"
*Garganey "Anas querquedula"
*Northern Shoveler "Anas clypeata"
*Ferruginous Pochard "Aythya nyroca" (A)

Osprey

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Pandionidae

The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the Osprey. The Osprey is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

*Osprey "Pandion haliaetus"

Hawks, Kites and Eagles

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Accipitridae

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 46 species which occur in Togo.

*African Cuckoo-Hawk "Aviceda cuculoides"
*European Honey-buzzard "Pernis apivorus"
*Bat Hawk "Macheiramphus alcinus"
*Black-shouldered Kite "Elanus caeruleus"
*Scissor-tailed Kite "Chelictinia riocourii"
*Black Kite "Milvus migrans"
*African Fish-Eagle "Haliaeetus vocifer"
*Palm-nut Vulture "Gypohierax angolensis"
*Hooded Vulture "Necrosyrtes monachus"
*Egyptian Vulture "Neophron percnopterus" (A)
*White-backed Vulture "Gyps africanus"
*Rueppell's Griffon "Gyps rueppellii"
*Eurasian Griffon "Gyps fulvus" (A)
*Lappet-faced Vulture "Torgos tracheliotus" (A)
*White-headed Vulture "Trigonoceps occipitalis" (A)
*Beaudouin's Snake-Eagle "Circaetus beaudouini"
*Brown Snake-Eagle "Circaetus cinereus"
*Banded Snake-Eagle "Circaetus cinerascens"
*Bateleur "Terathopius ecaudatus"
*Congo Serpent-Eagle "Dryotriorchis spectabilis"
*Western Marsh-Harrier "Circus aeruginosus"
*Pallid Harrier "Circus macrourus"
*Montagu's Harrier "Circus pygargus"
*African Harrier-Hawk "Polyboroides typus"
*Lizard Buzzard "Kaupifalco monogrammicus"
*Dark Chanting-Goshawk "Melierax metabates"
*Gabar Goshawk "Micronisus gabar"
*Red-chested Goshawk "Accipiter toussenelii"
*Shikra "Accipiter badius"
*Red-thighed Sparrowhawk "Accipiter erythropus"
*Ovampo Sparrowhawk "Accipiter ovampensis"
*Black Goshawk "Accipiter melanoleucus"
*Long-tailed Hawk "Urotriorchis macrourus"
*Grasshopper Buzzard "Butastur rufipennis"
*Eurasian Buzzard "Buteo buteo"
*Long-legged Buzzard "Buteo rufinus" (A)
*Red-necked Buzzard "Buteo auguralis"
*Tawny Eagle "Aquila rapax"
*Wahlberg's Eagle "Aquila wahlbergi"
*African Hawk-Eagle "Aquila spilogaster"
*Booted Eagle "Aquila pennatus"
*Ayres's Hawk-Eagle "Aquila ayresii"
*Martial Eagle "Polemaetus bellicosus"
*Long-crested Eagle "Lophaetus occipitalis"
*Cassin's Hawk-Eagle "Spizaetus africanus"
*Crowned Hawk-Eagle "Stephanoaetus coronatus"

ecretary-bird

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Sagittariidae

The Secretary-bird is a bird of prey in the order Falconiformes but is easily distinguished from other raptors by it long crane-like legs.

*Secretary-bird "Sagittarius serpentarius"

Caracaras and Falcons

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Togo.

*Lesser Kestrel "Falco naumanni"
*Eurasian Kestrel "Falco tinnunculus"
*Fox Kestrel "Falco alopex"
*Gray Kestrel "Falco ardosiaceus"
*Red-necked Falcon "Falco chicquera"
*Red-footed Falcon "Falco vespertinus"
*Eurasian Hobby "Falco subbuteo"
*African Hobby "Falco cuvierii"
*Lanner Falcon "Falco biarmicus"
*Peregrine Falcon "Falco peregrinus"

Pheasants and Partridges

Order: GalliformesFamily: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they may vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Togo.

*Coqui Francolin "Francolinus coqui"
*White-throated Francolin "Francolinus albogularis"
*Forest Francolin "Francolinus lathami"
*Ahanta Francolin "Francolinus ahantensis"
*Double-spurred Francolin "Francolinus bicalcaratus"
*Blue Quail "Coturnix adansonii"
*Stone Partridge "Ptilopachus petrosus"

Guineafowl

Order: GalliformesFamily: Numididae

Guineafowl are a group of African, seed-eating, ground-nesting birds that resemble partridges, but with featherless heads and spangled grey plumage. There are 6 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Togo.

*Helmeted Guineafowl "Numida meleagris"
*Crested Guineafowl "Guttera pucherani"

Buttonquails

Order: GruiformesFamily: Turnicidae

The buttonquails are small, drab, running birds which resemble the true quails. The female is the brighter of the sexes, and initiates courtship. The male incubates the eggs and tends the young. There are 16 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Togo.

*Small Buttonquail "Turnix sylvatica"
*Hottentot Buttonquail "Turnix hottentotta" (A)
*Quail-plover "Ortyxelos meiffrenii" (A)

Cranes

Order: GruiformesFamily: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*Black Crowned-Crane "Balearica pavonina"

Rails, Crakes, Gallinules, and Coots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Togo.

*White-spotted Flufftail "Sarothrura pulchra"
*Red-chested Flufftail "Sarothrura rufa"
*Nkulengu Rail "Himantornis haematopus"
*African Crake "Crecopsis egregia"
*Black Crake "Amaurornis flavirostris"
*Little Crake "Porzana parva"
*Baillon's Crake "Porzana pusilla"
*Striped Crake "Aenigmatolimnas marginalis" (A)
*Purple Swamphen "Porphyrio porphyrio"
*Allen's Gallinule "Porphyrio alleni"
*Common Moorhen "Gallinula chloropus"
*Lesser Moorhen "Gallinula angulata"

ungrebe and Finfoots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Heliornithidae

The Heliornithidae are small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*African Finfoot "Podica senegalensis"

Bustards

Order: GruiformesFamily: Otididae

Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips, and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays. There are 26 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Togo.

*Stanley Bustard "Neotis denhami"
*White-bellied Bustard "Eupodotis senegalensis"
*Black-bellied Bustard "Lissotis melanogaster"

Jacanas

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Jacanidae

The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide in the Tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There 8 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*African Jacana "Actophilornis africanus"

Painted snipe

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Rostratulidae

Painted snipe are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*Greater Painted-snipe "Rostratula benghalensis"

Oystercatchers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are 11 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*Eurasian Oystercatcher "Haematopus ostralegus"

Avocets and Stilts

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Togo.

*Black-winged Stilt "Himantopus himantopus"
*Pied Avocet "Recurvirostra avosetta"

Thick-knees

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Burhinidae

The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There are 9 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Togo.

*Water Thick-knee "Burhinus vermiculatus"
*Senegal Thick-knee "Burhinus senegalensis"
*Spotted Thick-knee "Burhinus capensis"

Pratincoles and Coursers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Glareolidae

Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Togo.

*Egyptian Plover "Pluvianus aegyptius"
*Temminck's Courser "Cursorius temminckii"
*Bronze-winged Courser "Rhinoptilus chalcopterus" (A)
*Collared Pratincole "Glareola pratincola"
*Black-winged Pratincole "Glareola nordmanni" (A)
*Rock Pratincole "Glareola nuchalis"
*Gray Pratincole "Glareola cinerea" (A)

Plovers and Lapwings

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in Togo.

*Spur-winged Plover "Vanellus spinosus"
*Black-headed Lapwing "Vanellus tectus"
*White-headed Lapwing "Vanellus albiceps"
*Senegal Lapwing "Vanellus lugubris"
*Wattled Lapwing "Vanellus senegallus"
*Brown-chested Lapwing "Vanellus superciliosus"
*Pacific Golden-Plover "Pluvialis fulva" (A)
*American Golden-Plover "Pluvialis dominica"
*Black-bellied Plover "Pluvialis squatarola"
*Common Ringed Plover "Charadrius hiaticula"
*Little Ringed Plover "Charadrius dubius"
*Kittlitz's Plover "Charadrius pecuarius" (A)
*Forbes's Plover "Charadrius forbesi"
*White-fronted Plover "Charadrius marginatus"
*Snowy Plover "Charadrius alexandrinus"

andpipers and allies

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 24 species which occur in Togo.

*Jack Snipe "Lymnocryptes minimus"
*Great Snipe "Gallinago media"
*Common Snipe "Gallinago gallinago"
*Black-tailed Godwit "Limosa limosa"
*Bar-tailed Godwit "Limosa lapponica"
*Whimbrel "Numenius phaeopus"
*Eurasian Curlew "Numenius arquata"
*Spotted Redshank "Tringa erythropus"
*Common Redshank "Tringa totanus"
*Marsh Sandpiper "Tringa stagnatilis"
*Common Greenshank "Tringa nebularia"
*Green Sandpiper "Tringa ochropus"
*Wood Sandpiper "Tringa glareola"
*Terek Sandpiper "Xenus cinereus"
*Common Sandpiper "Actitis hypoleucos"
*Ruddy Turnstone "Arenaria interpres"
*Red Knot "Calidris canutus"
*Sanderling "Calidris alba"
*Little Stint "Calidris minuta"
*Temminck's Stint "Calidris temminckii"
*Curlew Sandpiper "Calidris ferruginea"
*Dunlin "Calidris alpina"
*Ruff "Philomachus pugnax"
*Red Phalarope "Phalaropus fulicarius"

kuas and Jaegers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Stercorariidae

The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and Arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Togo.

*Pomarine Jaeger "Stercorarius pomarinus"
*Parasitic Jaeger "Stercorarius parasiticus"
*Long-tailed Jaeger "Stercorarius longicaudus"

Gulls

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Togo.

*Lesser Black-backed Gull "Larus fuscus"
*Gray-headed Gull "Larus cirrocephalus"
*Black-headed Gull "Larus ridibundus" (A)
*Sabine's Gull "Xema sabini"

Terns

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Sternidae

Terns are a group of generally general medium to large sea-birds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25 to 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Togo.

*Gull-billed Tern "Sterna nilotica"
*Caspian Tern "Sterna caspia"
*Sandwich Tern "Sterna sandvicensis"
*Royal Tern "Sterna maxima"
*Roseate Tern "Sterna dougallii"
*Common Tern "Sterna hirundo"
*Arctic Tern "Sterna paradisaea"
*Little Tern "Sterna albifrons"
*Damara Tern "Sterna balaenarum"
*Bridled Tern "Sterna anaethetus" (A)
*Sooty Tern "Sterna fuscata" (A)
*Whiskered Tern "Chlidonias hybridus"
*White-winged Tern "Chlidonias leucopterus"
*Black Tern "Chlidonias niger"
*Black Noddy "Anous minutus" (A)
*Brown Noddy "Anous stolidus" (A)

kimmers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Rynchopidae

Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*African Skimmer "Rynchops flavirostris" (A)

andgrouse

Order: PterocliformesFamily: Pteroclidae

Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. There are 16 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Togo.

*Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse "Pterocles exustus"
*Four-banded Sandgrouse "Pterocles quadricinctus"

Pigeons and Doves

Order: ColumbiformesFamily: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Togo.

*Rock Pigeon "Columba livia"
*Speckled Pigeon "Columba guinea"
*Bronze-naped Pigeon "Columba iriditorques"
*Eurasian Turtle-Dove "Streptopelia turtur"
*Adamawa Turtle-Dove "Streptopelia hypopyrrha"
*African Mourning Dove "Streptopelia decipiens"
*Red-eyed Dove "Streptopelia semitorquata"
*Vinaceous Dove "Streptopelia vinacea"
*Laughing Dove "Streptopelia senegalensis"
*Black-billed Wood-Dove "Turtur abyssinicus"
*Blue-spotted Wood-Dove "Turtur afer"
*Tambourine Dove "Turtur tympanistria"
*Blue-headed Wood-Dove "Turtur brehmeri"
*Namaqua Dove "Oena capensis"
*Bruce's Green-Pigeon "Treron waalia"
*African Green-Pigeon "Treron calva"

Parrots, Macaws and allies

Order: PsittaciformesFamily: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and the have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. There are 335 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Togo.

*Rose-ringed Parakeet "Psittacula krameri"
*Red-headed Lovebird "Agapornis pullarius"
*Gray Parrot "Psittacus erithacus"
*Brown-necked Parrot "Poicephalus robustus"
*Senegal Parrot "Poicephalus senegalus"

Turacos

Order: CuculiformesFamily: Musophagidae

The turacos, plantain eaters and go-away birds make up the bird family Musophagidae. They are medium-sized arboreal birds. The turacos and plantain eaters are brightly coloured birds, usually blue, green or purple. The go-away birds are mostly grey and white. There are 23 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Togo.

*Great Blue Turaco "Corythaeola cristata"
*Guinea Turaco "Tauraco persa"
*Violet Turaco "Musophaga violacea"
*Western Plantain-eater "Crinifer piscator"

Cuckoos and Anis

Order: CuculiformesFamily: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 18 species which occur in Togo.

*Pied Cuckoo "Clamator jacobinus"
*Levaillant's Cuckoo "Clamator levaillantii"
*Great Spotted Cuckoo "Clamator glandarius"
*Thick-billed Cuckoo "Pachycoccyx audeberti"
*Red-chested Cuckoo "Cuculus solitarius"
*Black Cuckoo "Cuculus clamosus"
*Common Cuckoo "Cuculus canorus"
*African Cuckoo "Cuculus gularis"
*Dusky Long-tailed Cuckoo "Cercococcyx mechowi"
*Yellow-throated Cuckoo "Chrysococcyx flavigularis"
*Klaas's Cuckoo "Chrysococcyx klaas"
*African Emerald Cuckoo "Chrysococcyx cupreus"
*Dideric Cuckoo "Chrysococcyx caprius"
*Yellowbill "Ceuthmochares aereus"
*Black Coucal "Centropus grillii"
*Black-throated Coucal "Centropus leucogaster"
*Blue-headed Coucal "Centropus monachus"
*Senegal Coucal "Centropus senegalensis"

Barn owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*Barn Owl "Tyto alba"

Typical owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Togo.

*African Scops-Owl "Otus senegalensis"
*European Scops-Owl "Otus scops"
*Northern White-faced Owl "Ptilopsis leucotis"
*Grayish Eagle-Owl "Bubo cinerascens"
*Verreaux's Eagle-Owl "Bubo lacteus"
*Akun Eagle-Owl "Bubo leucostictus"
*Pel's Fishing-Owl "Scotopelia peli"
*African Wood-Owl "Strix woodfordii"
*Pearl-spotted Owlet "Glaucidium perlatum"

Nightjars

Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Togo.

*Egyptian Nightjar "Caprimulgus aegyptius"
*Black-shouldered Nightjar "Caprimulgus nigriscapularis"
*Fiery-necked Nightjar "Caprimulgus pectoralis" (A)
*Swamp Nightjar "Caprimulgus natalensis"
*Plain Nightjar "Caprimulgus inornatus"
*Freckled Nightjar "Caprimulgus tristigma"
*Long-tailed Nightjar "Caprimulgus climacurus"
*Pennant-winged Nightjar "Macrodipteryx vexillarius" (A)
*Standard-winged Nightjar "Macrodipteryx longipennis"

wifts

Order: ApodiformesFamily: Apodidae

Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Togo.

*Mottled Spinetail "Telacanthura ussheri"
*Black Spinetail "Telacanthura melanopygia"
*Sabine's Spinetail "Rhaphidura sabini"
*Cassin's Spinetail "Neafrapus cassini" (A)
*African Palm-Swift "Cypsiurus parvus"
*Alpine Swift "Tachymarptis melba"
*Mottled Swift "Tachymarptis aequatorialis" (A)
*Common Swift "Apus apus"
*Pallid Swift "Apus pallidus"
*Little Swift "Apus affinis"
*White-rumped Swift "Apus caffer"

Trogons and Quetzals

Order: TrogoniformesFamily: Trogonidae

The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage. There are 33 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*Narina Trogon "Apaloderma narina"

Kingfishers

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Togo.

*Shining-blue Kingfisher "Alcedo quadribrachys"
*Malachite Kingfisher "Alcedo cristata"
*White-bellied Kingfisher "Alcedo leucogaster"
*African Pygmy-Kingfisher "Ispidina picta"
*Gray-headed Kingfisher "Halcyon leucocephala"
*Woodland Kingfisher "Halcyon senegalensis"
*Blue-breasted Kingfisher "Halcyon malimbica"
*Striped Kingfisher "Halcyon chelicuti"
*Giant Kingfisher "Megaceryle maximus"
*Pied Kingfisher "Ceryle rudis"

Bee-eaters

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Meropidae

The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colorful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Togo.

*Black Bee-eater "Merops gularis"
*Red-throated Bee-eater "Merops bulocki"
*Little Bee-eater "Merops pusillus"
*Swallow-tailed Bee-eater "Merops hirundineus"
*White-throated Bee-eater "Merops albicollis"
*Blue-cheeked Bee-eater "Merops persicus"
*European Bee-eater "Merops apiaster"
*Rosy Bee-eater "Merops malimbicus"
*Northern Carmine Bee-eater "Merops nubicus"

Typical Rollers

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Coraciidae

Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Togo.

*Abyssinian Roller "Coracias abyssinica"
*Rufous-crowned Roller "Coracias naevia"
*Blue-bellied Roller "Coracias cyanogaster"
*Broad-billed Roller "Eurystomus glaucurus"
*Blue-throated Roller "Eurystomus gularis"

Hoopoes

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Upupidae

Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*Hoopoe "Upupa epops"

Woodhoopoes

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Phoeniculidae

The woodhoopoes are related to the kingfishers, rollers and hoopoe. They most resemble the last species with their long curved bills, used for probing for insects, and short rounded wings. However, they differ in that they have metallic plumage, often blue, green or purple, and lack an erectile crest. There are 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Togo.

*Green Woodhoopoe "Phoeniculus purpureus"
*Black Scimitar-bill "Rhinopomastus aterrimus"

Hornbills

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Bucerotidae

Hornbills are a group of birds whose bill is shaped like a cow's horn, but without a twist, sometimes with a casque on the upper mandible. Frequently, the bill is brightly coloured. There are 57 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Togo.

*White-crested Hornbill "Tockus albocristatus"
*Black Dwarf Hornbill "Tockus hartlaubi"
*Red-billed Hornbill "Tockus erythrorhynchus"
*African Pied Hornbill "Tockus fasciatus"
*African Gray Hornbill "Tockus nasutus"
*Piping Hornbill "Ceratogymna fistulator"
*Black-and-white-casqued Hornbill "Ceratogymna subcylindricus"
*Brown-cheeked Hornbill "Ceratogymna cylindricus"
*Black-casqued Hornbill "Ceratogymna atrata" (A)
*Yellow-casqued Hornbill "Ceratogymna elata"
*Abyssinian Ground-Hornbill "Bucorvus abyssinicus"

Barbets

Order: PiciformesFamily: Capitonidae

The barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured. There are 84 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Togo.

*Naked-faced Barbet "Gymnobucco calvus"
*Bristle-nosed Barbet "Gymnobucco peli"
*Speckled Tinkerbird "Pogoniulus scolopaceus"
*Red-rumped Tinkerbird "Pogoniulus atroflavus"
*Yellow-throated Tinkerbird "Pogoniulus subsulphureus"
*Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird "Pogoniulus bilineatus"
*Yellow-fronted Tinkerbird "Pogoniulus chrysoconus"
*Yellow-spotted Barbet "Buccanodon duchaillui"
*Hairy-breasted Barbet "Tricholaema hirsuta"
*Vieillot's Barbet "Lybius vieilloti"
*Double-toothed Barbet "Lybius bidentatus"
*Bearded Barbet "Lybius dubius"
*Yellow-billed Barbet "Trachyphonus purpuratus"

Honeyguides

Order: PiciformesFamily: Indicatoridae

Honeyguides are among the few birds that feed on wax. They are named for the behaviour of the Greater Honeyguide which leads large animals to bees' nests and then feeds on the wax once the animal has broken the nest open to get at the honey. There are 17 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Togo.

*Spotted Honeyguide "Indicator maculatus"
*Greater Honeyguide "Indicator indicator"
*Lesser Honeyguide "Indicator minor"
*Willcock's Honeyguide "Indicator willcocksi"
*Least Honeyguide "Indicator exilis"
*Cassin's Honeyguide "Prodotiscus insignis"
*Wahlberg's Honeyguide "Prodotiscus regulus"

Woodpeckers and allies

Order: PiciformesFamily: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium sized birds with chisel like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Togo.

*Eurasian Wryneck "Jynx torquilla"
*Fine-spotted Woodpecker "Campethera punctuligera"
*Green-backed Woodpecker "Campethera cailliautii"
*Buff-spotted Woodpecker "Campethera nivosa"
*Cardinal Woodpecker "Dendropicos fuscescens"
*Gabon Woodpecker "Dendropicos gabonensis"
*Fire-bellied Woodpecker "Dendropicos pyrrhogaster"
*Gray Woodpecker "Dendropicos goertae"
*Brown-backed Woodpecker "Dendropicos obsoletus"

Broadbills

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Eurylaimidae

The broadbills are small, brightly coloured birds that feed on fruit and also take insects in flycatcher fashion, snapping their broad bills. Their habitat is canopies of wet forests. There are 15 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Togo.

*African Broadbill "Smithornis capensis" (A)
*Rufous-sided Broadbill "Smithornis rufolateralis"

Pittas

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Pittidae

Pittas are medium-sized by passerine standards, and stocky, with fairly long, strong legs, short tails and stout bills. Many, but not all, are brightly coloured. They are spend the majority of their time on wet forest floors, eating snails, insects and similar invertebrate prey which they find there. There are 32 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*African Pitta "Pitta angolensis"

Larks

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Togo.

*Singing Bushlark "Mirafra cantillans"
*Flappet Lark "Mirafra rufocinnamomea"
*Rusty Lark "Mirafra rufa" (A)
*Rufous-rumped Lark "Pinarocorys erythropygia"
*Chestnut-backed Sparrow-Lark "Eremopterix leucotis"
*Crested Lark "Galerida cristata"
*Sun Lark "Galerida modesta"

wallows and Martins

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 19 species which occur in Togo.

*Bank Swallow "Riparia riparia"
*Plain Martin "Riparia paludicola" (A)
*Banded Martin "Riparia cincta"
*Rock Martin "Ptyonoprogne fuligula"
*Barn Swallow "Hirundo rustica"
*Red-chested Swallow "Hirundo lucida"
*Ethiopian Swallow "Hirundo aethiopica" (A)
*Wire-tailed Swallow "Hirundo smithii"
*White-throated Blue Swallow "Hirundo nigrita"
*Pied-winged Swallow "Hirundo leucosoma"
*Lesser Striped-Swallow "Cecropis abyssinica"
*Rufous-chested Swallow "Cecropis semirufa"
*Mosque Swallow "Cecropis senegalensis"
*Red-rumped Swallow "Cecropis daurica"
*Preuss's Swallow "Petrochelidon preussi"
*Red-throated Swallow "Petrochelidon rufigula"
*Common House-Martin "Delichon urbica"
*Square-tailed Sawwing "Psalidoprocne nitens" (A)
*Fanti Sawwing "Psalidoprocne obscura"

Wagtails and Pipits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Togo.

*White Wagtail "Motacilla alba"
*African Pied Wagtail "Motacilla aguimp"
*Yellow Wagtail "Motacilla flava"
*Yellow-throated Longclaw "Macronyx croceus"
*Plain-backed Pipit "Anthus leucophrys"
*Tawny Pipit "Anthus campestris"
*Long-billed Pipit "Anthus similis"
*Tree Pipit "Anthus trivialis"
*Red-throated Pipit "Anthus cervinus"

Cuckoo-shrikes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Campephagidae

The cuckoo-shrikes are small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although some species are brightly coloured. There are 82 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Togo.

*White-breasted Cuckoo-shrike "Coracina pectoralis"
*Blue Cuckoo-shrike "Coracina azurea"
*Red-shouldered Cuckoo-shrike "Campephaga phoenicea"
*Purple-throated Cuckoo-shrike "Campephaga quiscalina"

Bulbuls

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Pycnonotidae

Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red or orange vents, cheeks, throat or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests. There are 130 species worldwide and 21 species which occur in Togo.

*Common Bulbul "Pycnonotus barbatus"
*Cameroon Mountain Greenbul "Andropadus montanus"
*Little Greenbul "Andropadus virens"
*Gray Greenbul "Andropadus gracilis"
*Ansorge's Greenbul "Andropadus ansorgei"
*Plain Greenbul "Andropadus curvirostris"
*Slender-billed Greenbul "Andropadus gracilirostris"
*Yellow-whiskered Bulbul "Andropadus latirostris"
*Golden Greenbul "Calyptocichla serina" (A)
*Honeyguide Greenbul "Baeopogon indicator"
*Simple Greenbul "Chlorocichla simplex"
*Yellow-throated Greenbul "Chlorocichla flavicollis"
*Swamp Greenbul "Thescelocichla leucopleura"
*Leaf-love "Phyllastrephus scandens"
*Baumann's Greenbul "Phyllastrephus baumanni"
*White-throated Greenbul "Phyllastrephus albigularis"
*Icterine Greenbul "Phyllastrephus icterinus"
*Gray-headed Bristlebill "Bleda canicapilla"
*Yellow-spotted Nicator "Nicator chloris"
*Red-tailed Greenbul "Criniger calurus"
*Western Bearded-Greenbul "Criniger barbatus"

Thrushes and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Togo.

*Finsch's Flycatcher-Thrush "Neocossyphus finschii" (A)
*White-tailed Ant-Thrush "Neocossyphus poensis" (A)
*Rufous-tailed Rock-Thrush "Monticola saxatilis"
*Blue Rock-Thrush "Monticola solitarius"
*Olive Thrush "Turdus olivaceus"
*African Thrush "Turdus pelios"
*Fire-crested Alethe "Alethe diademata"

Cisticolas and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cisticolidae

The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub. There are 111 species worldwide and 20 species which occur in Togo.

*Red-faced Cisticola "Cisticola erythrops"
*Singing Cisticola "Cisticola cantans"
*Whistling Cisticola "Cisticola lateralis"
*Rock-loving Cisticola "Cisticola aberrans"
*Red-pate Cisticola "Cisticola ruficeps"
*Winding Cisticola "Cisticola galactotes"
*Croaking Cisticola "Cisticola natalensis"
*Siffling Cisticola "Cisticola brachypterus"
*Rufous Cisticola "Cisticola rufus"
*Zitting Cisticola "Cisticola juncidis"
*Black-necked Cisticola "Cisticola eximius"
*Tawny-flanked Prinia "Prinia subflava"
*Red-winged Prinia "Prinia erythroptera"
*Black-capped Apalis "Apalis nigriceps"
*Yellow-breasted Apalis "Apalis flavida"
*Sharpe's Apalis "Apalis sharpii" (A)
*Oriole Warbler "Hypergerus atriceps"
*Green-backed Camaroptera "Camaroptera brachyura"
*Yellow-browed Camaroptera "Camaroptera superciliaris"
*Olive-green Camaroptera "Camaroptera chloronota"

Old World warblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sylviidae

The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. The Sylviidae mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs. There are 291 species worldwide and 26 species which occur in Togo.

*Moustached Grass-Warbler "Melocichla mentalis"
*Sedge Warbler "Acrocephalus schoenobaenus"
*Eurasian Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus scirpaceus"
*Great Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus arundinaceus"
*Greater Swamp-Warbler "Acrocephalus rufescens"
*Eastern Olivaceous Warbler "Hippolais pallida"
*Western Olivaceous Warbler "Hippolais opaca"
*Melodious Warbler "Hippolais polyglotta"
*Icterine Warbler "Hippolais icterina"
*Senegal Eremomela "Eremomela pusilla"
*Rufous-crowned Eremomela "Eremomela badiceps"
*Green Crombec "Sylvietta virens"
*Lemon-bellied Crombec "Sylvietta denti" (A)
*Northern Crombec "Sylvietta brachyura"
*Kemp's Longbill "Macrosphenus kempi"
*Gray Longbill "Macrosphenus concolor"
*Green Hylia "Hylia prasina"
*Willow Warbler "Phylloscopus trochilus"
*Western Bonelli's Warbler "Phylloscopus bonelli"
*Wood Warbler "Phylloscopus sibilatrix"
*Yellow-bellied Hyliota "Hyliota flavigaster"
*Violet-backed Hyliota "Hyliota violacea"
*Blackcap "Sylvia atricapilla"
*Garden Warbler "Sylvia borin"
*Greater Whitethroat "Sylvia communis"
*Western Orphean Warbler "Sylvia hortensis"

Old World flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Muscicapidae

Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is very varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. There 274 species worldwide and 30 species which occur in Togo.

*Pale Flycatcher "Bradornis pallidus"
*Northern Black-Flycatcher "Melaenornis edolioides"
*African Forest-Flycatcher "Fraseria ocreata"
*White-browed Forest-Flycatcher "Fraseria cinerascens" (A)
*Spotted Flycatcher "Muscicapa striata"
*Gambaga Flycatcher "Muscicapa gambagae"
*Ussher's Flycatcher "Muscicapa ussheri" (A)
*Swamp Flycatcher "Muscicapa aquatica"
*Little Gray Flycatcher "Muscicapa epulata" (A)
*Dusky-blue Flycatcher "Muscicapa comitata" (A)
*Tessmann's Flycatcher "Muscicapa tessmanni"
*Cassin's Flycatcher "Muscicapa cassini"
*Ashy Flycatcher "Muscicapa caerulescens"
*Gray Tit-Flycatcher "Myioparus plumbeus"
*European Pied Flycatcher "Ficedula hypoleuca"
*Forest Robin "Stiphrornis erythrothorax"
*Thrush Nightingale "Luscinia luscinia"
*Common Nightingale "Luscinia megarhynchos"
*Bluethroat "Luscinia svecica" (A)
*Blue-shouldered Robin-Chat "Cossypha cyanocampter"
*Snowy-crowned Robin-Chat "Cossypha niveicapilla"
*White-crowned Robin-Chat "Cossypha albicapilla"
*Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin "Cercotrichas galactotes" (A)
*Common Redstart "Phoenicurus phoenicurus"
*Whinchat "Saxicola rubetra"
*Northern Wheatear "Oenanthe oenanthe"
*Heuglin's Wheatear "Oenanthe heuglini"
*Familiar Chat "Cercomela familiaris"
*White-fronted Black-Chat "Myrmecocichla albifrons"
*Mocking Cliff-Chat "Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris"

Wattle-eyes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Platysteiridae

The wattle-eyes or puffback flycatchers are small stout passerine birds of the African tropics. They get their name from the brightly coloured fleshy eye decorations found in most species in this group. There are 31 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Togo.

*African Shrike-flycatcher "Megabyas flammulatus"
*Black-and-white Shrike-flycatcher "Bias musicus"
*Brown-throated Wattle-eye "Platysteira cyanea"
*Chestnut Wattle-eye "Platysteira castanea"
*Red-cheeked Wattle-eye "Platysteira blissetti"
*Senegal Batis "Batis senegalensis"
*West African Batis "Batis occulta"

Monarch flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Monarchidae

The monarch flycatchers are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines, which hunt by flycatching. There are 99 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Togo.

*Chestnut-capped Flycatcher "Erythrocercus mccallii"
*African Blue-Flycatcher "Elminia longicauda"
*Blue-headed Crested-Flycatcher "Trochocercus nitens" (A)
*Black-headed Paradise-Flycatcher "Terpsiphone rufiventer"
*African Paradise-Flycatcher "Terpsiphone viridis"

Rockfowl

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Picathartidae

The rockfowl are lanky birds with crow-like bills, long neck, tail and legs, and strong feet adapted to terrestrial feeding. They are similar in size and structure to the completely unrelated roadrunners, but they hop rather than walk. They also have brightly coloured unfeathered heads. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*White-necked Rockfowl "Picathartes gymnocephalus"

Babblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Timaliidae

The babblers or timaliids are somewhat diverse in size and coloration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage. There are 270 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Togo.

*Blackcap Illadopsis "Illadopsis cleaveri"
*Rufous-winged Illadopsis "Illadopsis rufescens"
*Puvel's Illadopsis "Illadopsis puveli" (A)
*Pale-breasted Illadopsis "Illadopsis rufipennis"
*Brown Illadopsis "Illadopsis fulvescens"
*Blackcap Babbler "Turdoides reinwardtii"
*Brown Babbler "Turdoides plebejus"
*Capuchin Babbler "Phyllanthus atripennis"

Chickadees and Titmice

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are species 59 worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*White-shouldered Black-Tit "Melaniparus guineensis"

Treecreepers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Certhiidae

Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*Spotted Creeper "Salpornis spilonotus" (A)

Penduline tits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Remizidae

The penduline tits are a group of small passerine birds, related to the true tits. They are insectivores. There are 13 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Togo.

*Yellow Penduline-Tit "Anthoscopus parvulus" (A)
*Tit-hylia "Pholidornis rushiae" (A)

unbirds and Spiderhunters

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Nectariniidae

The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. Flight is fast and direct on their short wings. Most species can take nectar by hovering like a hummingbird, but usually perch to feed. There are 131 species worldwide and 22 species which occur in Togo.

*Scarlet-tufted Sunbird "Deleornis fraseri"
*Mouse-brown Sunbird "Anthreptes gabonicus"
*Western Violet-backed Sunbird "Anthreptes longuemarei"
*Little Green Sunbird "Anthreptes seimundi"
*Collared Sunbird "Hedydipna collaris"
*Pygmy Sunbird "Hedydipna platura"
*Reichenbach's Sunbird "Anabathmis reichenbachii" (A)
*Green-headed Sunbird "Cyanomitra verticalis"
*Blue-throated Brown Sunbird "Cyanomitra cyanolaema"
*Eastern Olive-Sunbird "Cyanomitra olivacea"
*Western Olive-Sunbird "Cyanomitra obscura"
*Buff-throated Sunbird "Chalcomitra adelberti"
*Carmelite Sunbird "Chalcomitra fuliginosa"
*Scarlet-chested Sunbird "Chalcomitra senegalensis"
*Olive-bellied Sunbird "Cinnyris chloropygius"
*Tiny Sunbird "Cinnyris minullus"
*Beautiful Sunbird "Cinnyris pulchellus"
*Splendid Sunbird "Cinnyris coccinigaster"
*Johanna's Sunbird "Cinnyris johannae"
*Superb Sunbird "Cinnyris superbus"
*Variable Sunbird "Cinnyris venustus"
*Copper Sunbird "Cinnyris cupreus"

White-eyes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Zosteropidae

The white-eyes are small and are mostly of undistinguished appearance, the plumage above being generally either some dull color like greenish olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As their name suggests many species have a white ring around the eyes. There are 96 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*African Yellow White-eye "Zosterops senegalensis"

Old World Orioles

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Oriolidae

The Old World Orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Togo.

*Eurasian Golden Oriole "Oriolus oriolus"
*African Golden Oriole "Oriolus auratus"
*Western Black-headed Oriole "Oriolus brachyrhynchus"
*Black-winged Oriole "Oriolus nigripennis"

hrikes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Togo.

*Common Fiscal "Lanius collaris"
*Woodchat Shrike "Lanius senator"
*Yellow-billed Shrike "Corvinella corvina"

Bushshrikes and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Malaconotidae

Bushshrikes are similar in habits to shrikes, hunting insects and other small prey from a perch on a bush. Although similar in build to the shrikes, these tend to be either colourful species or largely black; some species are quite secretive. There are 46 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Togo.

*Brubru "Nilaus afer" (A)
*Northern Puffback "Dryoscopus gambensis"
*Large-billed Puffback "Dryoscopus sabini" (A)
*Marsh Tchagra "Tchagra minuta"
*Black-crowned Tchagra "Tchagra senegala"
*Brown-crowned Tchagra "Tchagra australis"
*Tropical Boubou "Laniarius aethiopicus"
*Common Gonolek "Laniarius barbarus"
*Sooty Boubou "Laniarius leucorhynchus" (A)
*Sulphur-breasted Bushshrike "Telophorus sulfureopectus"
*Many-colored Bushshrike "Telophorus multicolor"
*Fiery-breasted Bushshrike "Malaconotus cruentus"
*Lagden's Bushshrike "Malaconotus lagdeni" (A)
*Gray-headed Bushshrike "Malaconotus blanchoti"

Helmetshrikes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Prionopidae

The helmetshrikes are similar in build to the shrikes, but tend to be colourful species with distinctive crests or other head ornaments, such as wattles, from which they get their name. There are 12 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Togo.

*White Helmetshrike "Prionops plumatus"
*Chestnut-bellied Helmetshrike "Prionops caniceps"

Drongos

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Dicruridae

The drongos are mostly are black or dark grey in colour, sometimes with metallic tints. They have long forked tails, and some Asian species have elaborate tail decorations. They have short legs and sit very upright whilst perched, like a shrike. They flycatch or take prey from the ground. There are 24 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Togo.

*Square-tailed Drongo "Dicrurus ludwigii"
*Shining Drongo "Dicrurus atripennis"
*Fork-tailed Drongo "Dicrurus adsimilis"
*Velvet-mantled Drongo "Dicrurus modestus"

Crows, Jays, Ravens and Magpies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behavior. There are 120 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Togo.

*Piapiac "Ptilostomus afer"
*Pied Crow "Corvus albus"

tarlings

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Togo.

*Greater Blue-eared Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis chalybaeus"
*Lesser Blue-eared Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis chloropterus"
*Bronze-tailed Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis chalcurus"
*Splendid Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis splendidus"
*Purple Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis purpureus"
*Long-tailed Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis caudatus"
*Chestnut-bellied Starling "Lamprotornis pulcher"
*Copper-tailed Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis cupreocauda" (A)
*Violet-backed Starling "Cinnyricinclus leucogaster"
*Chestnut-winged Starling "Onychognathus fulgidus" (A)
*Narrow-tailed Starling "Poeoptera lugubris" (A)
*Yellow-billed Oxpecker "Buphagus africanus"

Weavers and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Ploceidae

The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 29 species which occur in Togo.

*White-billed Buffalo-Weaver "Bubalornis albirostris"
*Speckle-fronted Weaver "Sporopipes frontalis"
*Chestnut-crowned Sparrow-Weaver "Plocepasser superciliosus"
*Slender-billed Weaver "Ploceus pelzelni"
*Little Weaver "Ploceus luteolus"
*Black-necked Weaver "Ploceus nigricollis"
*Orange Weaver "Ploceus aurantius"
*Heuglin's Masked-Weaver "Ploceus heuglini"
*Vitelline Masked-Weaver "Ploceus vitellinus"
*Village Weaver "Ploceus cucullatus"
*Vieillot's Weaver "Ploceus nigerrimus"
*Black-headed Weaver "Ploceus melanocephalus"
*Yellow-mantled Weaver "Ploceus tricolor"
*Maxwell's Black Weaver "Ploceus albinucha"
*Preuss's Weaver "Ploceus preussi"
*Compact Weaver "Pachyphantes superciliosus"
*Red-vented Malimbe "Malimbus scutatus" (A)
*Gray's Malimbe "Malimbus nitens"
*Crested Malimbe "Malimbus malimbicus"
*Red-headed Malimbe "Malimbus rubricollis"
*Red-headed Weaver "Anaplectes rubriceps"
*Red-headed Quelea "Quelea erythrops"
*Red-billed Quelea "Quelea quelea"
*Yellow-crowned Bishop "Euplectes afer"
*Black-winged Bishop "Euplectes hordeaceus"
*Orange Bishop "Euplectes franciscanus"
*Yellow-shouldered Widowbird "Euplectes macrourus"
*Red-collared Widowbird "Euplectes ardens"
*Grosbeak Weaver "Amblyospiza albifrons"

Waxbills and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Estrildidae

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have a wide variation in plumage colours and pattern. There are 141 species worldwide and 28 species which occur in Togo.

*Chestnut-breasted Negrofinch "Nigrita bicolor"
*Pale-fronted Negrofinch "Nigrita luteifrons" (A)
*Gray-headed Negrofinch "Nigrita canicapilla"
*Gray-headed Oliveback "Nesocharis capistrata"
*Red-winged Pytilia "Pytilia phoenicoptera"
*Green-winged Pytilia "Pytilia melba" (A)
*Red-faced Pytilia "Pytilia hypogrammica"
*Green-backed Twinspot "Mandingoa nitidula"
*Black-bellied Seedcracker "Pyrenestes ostrinus"
*Western Bluebill "Spermophaga haematina"
*Dybowski's Twinspot "Euschistospiza dybowskii"
*Bar-breasted Firefinch "Lagonosticta rufopicta"
*Red-billed Firefinch "Lagonosticta senegala"
*Black-bellied Firefinch "Lagonosticta rara"
*African Firefinch "Lagonosticta rubricata"
*Black-faced Firefinch "Lagonosticta larvata"
*Red-cheeked Cordonbleu "Uraeginthus bengalus"
*Lavender Waxbill "Estrilda caerulescens"
*Orange-cheeked Waxbill "Estrilda melpoda"
*Black-rumped Waxbill "Estrilda troglodytes"
*Common Waxbill "Estrilda astrild"
*Zebra Waxbill "Sporaeginthus subflavus"
*Black-faced Quailfinch "Ortygospiza atricollis"
*African Silverbill "Euodice cantans"
*Bronze Mannikin "Spermestes cucullatus"
*Black-and-white Mannikin "Spermestes bicolor"
*Magpie Mannikin "Spermestes fringilloides"
*Cut-throat "Amadina fasciata"

Indigobirds

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Viduidae

The indigobirds are finch-like species which usually have black or indigo predominating in their plumage. All are brood parasites, which lay their eggs in the nests of estrildid finch species. There are 20 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Togo.

*Village Indigobird "Vidua chalybeata"
*Jambandu Indigobird "Vidua raricola"
*Baka Indigobird "Vidua larvaticola" (A)
*Variable Indigobird "Vidua funerea" (A)
*Pale-winged Indigobird "Vidua wilsoni"
*Cameroon Indigobird "Vidua camerunensis"
*Pin-tailed Whydah "Vidua macroura"
*Togo Paradise-Whydah "Vidua togoensis"
*Long-tailed Paradise-Whydah "Vidua interjecta"

Weavers and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Ploceidae

The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Togo.

*Parasitic Weaver "Anomalospiza imberbis"

Buntings, Sparrows, Seedeaters and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Emberizidae

The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are species 275 worldwide and 3 species which occur in Togo.

*Cinnamon-breasted Bunting "Emberiza tahapisi"
*Brown-rumped Bunting "Emberiza affinis"
*Cabanis's Bunting "Emberiza cabanisi"

iskins, Crossbills and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Togo.

*White-rumped Seedeater "Serinus leucopygius"
*Yellow-fronted Canary "Serinus mozambicus"
*Streaky-headed Seedeater "Serinus gularis"

parrows

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Passeridae

Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Togo.

*Gray-headed Sparrow "Passer griseus"
*Bush Petronia "Petronia dentata"

ee also

*List of birds
*Lists of birds by region

Notes

References

*cite web
url=http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/search.php?kingname=ANIMALIA&phyname=CHORDATA&claname=MAMMALIA&freetext=&modifier=phrase&criteria=wholedb&taxa_species=1&redlistCategory%5B0%5D=all&redlistAssessyear%5B0%5D=all&country%5B0%5D=TG&aquatic%5B0%5D=all&regions%5B0%5D=all&habitats%5B0%5D=all&threats%5B0%5D=all&Submit_x=34&Submit_y=9&extendedResults=0&terrestrial=0&marine=0&freshwater=0&offset=0&sortorder%5B0%5D=spcscientificname&sortorder%5B1%5D=genname&sortorder%5B2%5D=spcname&sortorder%5B3%5D=spcauthor&sortorder%5B4%5D=spcinfrarank&sortorder%5B5%5D=spcinfraepithet&sortorder%5B6%5D=spcinfrarankauthor&sortorder%5B7%5D=spcstockname&sortorder%5B8%5D=comname_comp&sortorder%5B9%5D=rlcabb&sortorder%5B10%5D=rlscriteria&sortorder%5B11%5D=poptrend_code&sortorder%5B12%5D=rlcatcrit2001&sortorder%5B13%5D=spcrecid&sortorder%5B14%5D=kingname&debug=0&taxa_subspc=0&taxa_stock=0&newsort=Genus
title=The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Mammals of Togo
publisher=IUCN
date=2001
accessdaymonth = 22 May
accessyear=2007

*cite web
url=http://nmnhgoph.si.edu/msw/
title=Mammal Species of the World
publisher=Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
date=2005
accessdaymonth = 22 May
accessyear=2007

*cite web
url=http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/index.html
title=Animal Diversity Web
publisher=University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
date=1995-2006
accessdaymonth = 22 May
accessyear=2007

*cite web
last = Lepage
first = Denis
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =
url = http://www.bsc-eoc.org/avibase/avibase.jsp?region=tg&pg=checklist&list=clements
title = Checklist of birds of Togo
format =
work = Bird Checklists of the World
publisher = Avibase
accessdate = 27 April
accessyear = 2007

*cite book
title=Birds of the World: a Checklist
first= James F.
last = Clements
publisher = Cornell University Press
date = 2000
id = ISBN 0934797161
pages = 880
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