Pensacola, Florida


Pensacola, Florida
Pensacola, Florida
—  City  —
The City of Pensacola
Upper Left: T. T. Wentworth, Jr. Florida State Museum, National Naval Aviation Museum, University of West Florida Library, William Dudley Chipley Obelisk, Artel Gallery

Flag

Seal
Nickname(s): P-Cola, The City of Five Flags, Capital of Red Snappers[citation needed], World's Whitest Beaches[citation needed], Cradle of Naval Aviation[citation needed], Bright Gate to the Sunshine State[citation needed]
Motto: Enhancing the Quality of Life for all Citizens
Location in Escambia County and the state of Florida
Coordinates: 30°26′N 87°12′W / 30.433°N 87.2°W / 30.433; -87.2Coordinates: 30°26′N 87°12′W / 30.433°N 87.2°W / 30.433; -87.2
Country  United States
State  Florida
County  Escambia
Settled 1538
Incorporated (city) 1667
Government
 - Type Mayor-council
 - Body Pensacola City Council
 - Mayor Ashton Hayward
 - Council President Maren DeWeese
 - Council Vice President P. C. Wu, Ph. D.
Area
 - City 39.7 sq mi (102.7 km2)
 - Land 22.7 sq mi (58.8 km2)
 - Water 17.0 sq mi (43.9 km2)
Elevation 102 ft (31 m)
Population (2010)
 - City 51,923
 - Density 2,303.5/sq mi (956.8/km2)
 Metro 437,125
 - Demonym Pensacolan, Pensacolian
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 - Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
Zip Code 32501, 32512, 32534, 32591, 32502, 32513, 32559, 32592, 32503, 32514, 32573, 32593, 32504, 32516, 32574, 32594, 32505, 32520, 32575, 32595, 32506, 32521, 32576, 32596, 32507, 32522, 32581, 32597, 32508, 32523, 32582, 32598, 32509, 32524, 32589, 32511, 32526, 32590
Area code(s) 850
FIPS code 12-55925[1]
GNIS feature ID 0294117[2]
Website pensacolacitygov.com

Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle and the county seat of Escambia County, Florida, United States of America.[3] As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 56,255 and as of 2009, the estimated population was 53,752.[4] Pensacola is the principal city of the Pensacola – Ferry Pass – Brent Metropolitan Statistical Area, an area with about 455,102 residents in 2009.[5]

Pensacola is a sea port on Pensacola Bay, which connects to the Gulf of Mexico. A large United States Naval Air Station, the first in the United States, is located southwest of Pensacola (near the community of Warrington) and is home to the Blue Angels flight demonstration team and the National Naval Aviation Museum. The main campus of the University of West Florida is situated north of the city center.

Pensacola is nicknamed "The City of Five Flags" due to the five governments that have flown flags over it during its history: the flags of Spain (Castile), France, Great Britain, the Confederate States of America, and the United States. Other nicknames include "World's Whitest Beaches" (due to the white sand prevalent along beaches in the Florida panhandle), "Cradle of Naval Aviation" (Naval Air Station Pensacola is the home of both the legendary Blue Angels and the National Museum of Naval Aviation), "Western Gate to the Sunshine State", "America's First Settlement", "Emerald Coast", "Redneck Riviera", "Red Snapper Capital of the World", and "P-Cola"

Contents

History

Pensacola was the site of one of the first European-inhabited settlements in what would later become the United States of America

The original inhabitants of the Pensacola Bay area were Native American peoples. At the time of European contact a Muskogean-speaking tribe known to the Spanish as the Pensacola lived in the region. This name is not recorded until 1677, but the tribe appear to be the source of the name "Pensacola" for the bay and thence the city.[6] The area's recorded history begins in the 16th century, when the first European explorers arrived. Pensacola Bay was visited by the expeditions of Pánfilo de Narváez in 1528 and Hernando de Soto in 1539, at which time it was known as the Bay of Ochuse.[7]

Pensacola: site of 1698 settlement near Fort Barrancas is marked "X" (above left end of Santa Rosa Island)
The Juan Sebastian de Elcano initiates a 21-gun salute in honor of Pensacola's 450th anniversary in 2009.

In 1559 Tristán de Luna y Arellano landed with over 1,400 people on 11 ships from VeraCruz, Mexico.[7][8][9] A notable early attempt to settle in Florida, the purpose of the expedition was to establish an outpost, called by de Luna Ochuse, from which to launch further efforts to colonize Santa Elena (present-day Parris Island, South Carolina.) However, the colony was decimated by a hurricane on September 19, 1559,[7][9] which killed hundreds, sank five ships, grounded a caravel, and ruined supplies. The 1,000 survivors divided to relocate/resupply the settlement, but due to famine and attacks, the effort was abandoned in 1561.[9] About 240 people sailed to Santa Elena, but another storm hit there, so they sailed to Cuba and scattered.[9] The remaining 50 at Pensacola were taken back to Mexico, and the Viceroy's advisers concluded northwest Florida was too dangerous to settle, a view which stood for 135 years.[9]

In the late 17th century, however, the French began exploring the lower Mississippi River with the intention of colonizing the region as part of Louisiana. Fearful that these overtures would threaten Spanish territory in both Florida and Mexico, the Spanish determined to found a new settlement to check the French. In 1698 they finally established a fortified town near what is now Fort Barrancas, laying the foundation for the modern city of Pensacola.[10] The Spanish built three presidios in Pensacola:[11]

  • Presidio Santa Maria de Galve (1698–1719): the presidio included fort San Carlos de Austria (east of present Fort Barrancas) and a village with church;[11]
  • Presidio Isla de Santa Rosa (1722–1752): this next presidio was on Santa Rosa Island near the site of present Fort Pickens, but hurricanes battered the island in 1741 and 1752, and the presidio was closed and moved to the mainland;[11]
  • Presidio San Miguel de Panzacola (1754–1763): the final presidio was about five miles east of the first presidio, over in the present-day historic district of downtown Pensacola, named from "Panzacola".[11]

The Spanish ceded Florida to the British in 1763 as a result of the French and Indian War, and Pensacola was made capital of the new British colony of West Florida. From 1763, the British went back to the mainland area of fort San Carlos de Barrancas, building the Royal Navy Redoubt. After Spain joined the American Revolution late, in 1779, the Spanish captured the city in the 1781 Battle of Pensacola, gaining control of West Florida.[8] After the war the British officially ceded both West Florida and East Florida to Spain. In 1819 Spain and the United States negotiated the Adams-Onis Treaty, in which Spain sold the Floridas to the United States for US$5 million.[8] In 1821, with Andrew Jackson as provisional governor, Pensacola became part of the United States.[8]

St. Michael's Cemetery was established in the 18th century at a location which was located in a south central part of the city that would become the Downtown area. Initially owned by the Church of St. Michael, it is now owned and managed by St. Michael's Cemetery Foundation of Pensacola, Inc.[12] Preliminary studies indicate that there are over 3200 marked burials as well as a large number unmarked.[citation needed]

Geography

Topography

Pensacola is located at 30°26′13″N 87°12′33″W / 30.43694°N 87.20917°W / 30.43694; -87.20917 (30.436988, -87.209277).[13] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 39.7 square miles (102.8 km2), consisting of 22.7 square miles (59 km2) of land and 17.0 square miles (44.0 km2) (42.77%) water.

Climate

The climate of Pensacola is humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa), with short, mild winters and hot, humid summers. Typical summer conditions have highs in the low 90s °F (32-34 °C) and lows in the mid 70s (23-24 °C).[14] Afternoon or evening thunderstorms are common during the summer months. Due partly to the coastal location, temperatures above 100 °F (37.8 °C) are rare, and last occurred in June 2011, when two of the first four days of the month recorded highs of over 100 °F.[15] The hottest temperature ever recorded in the city was 106 °F (41.1 °C) on July 14, 1980.[14]

The average high in January is 61.2 °F (16.2 °C), and the low is 42.8 °F (6.0 °C), though freezing temperatures occur on an average fifteen nights per season.[16] Temperatures below 20 °F (−6.7 °C) rarely occur, and last occurred in January 2003, when a low of 18 °F (−7.8 °C) was seen.[17] The coldest temperature ever recorded in the city was 5 °F (−15 °C) on January 21, 1985.[14]

Snow is rare in Pensacola, but does occasionally fall. The most recent snow event occurred on February 12, 2010.[18]

The city receives 64.28 inches (1,630 mm) of precipitation per year, with a rainy season in the summer. The rainiest month is July, with 8.02 inches (204 mm), with April being the driest month at 3.89 inches (99 mm).[14]

Hurricanes

Pensacola's location on the Florida Panhandle makes it vulnerable to hurricanes. Major hurricanes which have made landfall at or near Pensacola include Eloise (1975), Frederic (1979), Juan (1985), Erin (1995), Opal (1995), Georges (1998), Ivan (2004), and Dennis (2005).

Pensacola and several surrounding areas were devastated by Hurricane Ivan. Pensacola found itself on the eastern side of the eyewall, which sent a large storm surge into Escambia Bay that eventually destroyed most of the I-10 Escambia Bay Bridge and completely destroyed the fishing bridge that spanned Pensacola Bay alongside the Phillip Beale Memorial Bridge or locally known as The Three Mile Bridge.[19] The storm heavily damaged the bridge. It knocked 58 spans off of the eastbound and westbound bridges and misaligned another 66 spans causing the bridge to close to traffic in both directions.[20] Over six billion dollars in damage occurred in the metro area and more than 10,000 homes were destroyed, with another 27,000 heavily damaged. NASA created a comparison image to illustrate the massive damage. Hurricane Ivan drove up the cost of housing in the area, leading to a severe shortage of affordable housing. In July 2005, Hurricane Dennis made landfall just east of the city, sparing it the blow it had received from Ivan the year before. However, hurricane and near-hurricane force winds were recorded in downtown, causing moderate damage.

Although Pensacola only received a glancing blow from 2005's devastating Hurricane Katrina, light to moderate damage was reported in the area. Katrina also undermined a large percentage of Pensacola's tourist base from Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.

Statistics

Cantonment Clinch began providing meteorological observations in the 1830s. Observations from the Pensacola area continued intermittently over the next several decades.[citation needed] Weather statistics today originate at the airport.

Climate data for Pensacola, Florida
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 81
(27)
82
(28)
86
(30)
96
(36)
102
(39)
103
(39)
106
(41)
104
(40)
98
(37)
95
(35)
87
(31)
81
(27)
106
(41)
Average high °F (°C) 61.2
(16.2)
64.4
(18.0)
70.2
(21.2)
76.2
(24.6)
83.4
(28.6)
89.0
(31.7)
90.7
(32.6)
90.1
(32.3)
87.0
(30.6)
79.3
(26.3)
70.3
(21.3)
63.4
(17.4)
77.1
Average low °F (°C) 42.8
(6.0)
45.4
(7.4)
51.7
(10.9)
57.6
(14.2)
65.8
(18.8)
72.1
(22.3)
74.5
(23.6)
74.2
(23.4)
70.4
(21.3)
59.6
(15.3)
51.1
(10.6)
44.7
(7.1)
59.2
Record low °F (°C) 5
(−15)
13
(−11)
22
(−6)
33
(1)
45
(7)
56
(13)
61
(16)
62
(17)
43
(6)
32
(0)
22
(−6)
11
(−12)
5
(−15)
Precipitation inches (mm) 5.34
(135.6)
4.68
(118.9)
6.40
(162.6)
3.89
(98.8)
4.40
(111.8)
6.39
(162.3)
8.02
(203.7)
6.85
(174)
5.75
(146.1)
4.13
(104.9)
4.46
(113.3)
3.97
(100.8)
64.28
(1,632.7)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.5 8.4 8.7 6.5 7.5 10.2 13.4 11.9 9.5 4.8 7.8 8.9 107.1
Source: NOAA [16]

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1850 2,164
1860 2,876 32.9%
1870 3,347 16.4%
1880 6,845 104.5%
1890 11,750 71.7%
1900 17,747 51.0%
1910 22,982 29.5%
1920 31,035 35.0%
1930 31,579 1.8%
1940 37,449 18.6%
1950 43,479 16.1%
1960 56,752 30.5%
1970 59,507 4.9%
1980 57,619 −3.2%
1990 58,165 0.9%
2000 56,255 −3.3%
Est. 2009 54,169 −3.7%
Population 1850-2000.[21]

As of the census[1] of 2000, there were 56,255 people, 24,524 households, and 14,665 families residing in the city, and 402,000 people in the Pensacola MSA. The population density was 2,478.7 people per square mile (956.8/km²). There were 26,995 housing units at an average density of 1,189.4 per square mile (459.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city is 64.91% European American, 30.58% African American, 1.77% Asian, 0.52% Native American, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.54% from other races, and 1.61% from two or more races. 2.07% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 24,524 households out of which 24.6% had children living with them, 39.7% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.2% were non-families. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.92.

Of the people in Pensacola, 45.9% identify with a religion, slightly lower than the national average of 48.34%.[22] Over 48% of Pensacolians who do practice a religion consider themselves Baptists (22.14% of all city residents).[22] Other Christian denominations include Roman Catholics (9.22% of city residents), Pentecostal (3.82%), Methodist (3.77%), Episcopalian (1.11%) and Presbyterian (1.08%).[22]

Pensacola is home to a small (0.15% of city residents)[22] but significant Jewish community, whose roots stretch back to the mid-to-late 19th century. The first Florida chapter of B'nai Brith was founded downtown in 1874, as well as the first temple, Beth-El, in 1876. Paula Ackerman, the first woman who performed rabbinical functions in the United States, was a Pensacola native and led services at Beth-El. Apart from the Reform Beth-El, Pensacola is also served by the Conservative B'nai Israel Synagogue.

Longtime opposition to annexation in the areas surrounding the city has held its 2000 Census population figure at 56,255.

Architecture

Pensacola has over 20 tall buildings, but because of a height restriction law put in place in 1990, the buildings can no longer be over 100 feet. The Crowne Plaza Grand Hotel, the cities tallest building is 155 feet tall but was built before the law. Pensacola Beach has numerous high rises but also has a height law stating the buildings can not go over 20 floors.

Economy

Personal income

The median income for a household in the city was $34,779, and the median income for a family was $42,868. Males had a median income of $32,258 versus $23,582 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,438. About 12.7% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.2% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.

Military

The city has been referred to as "The Cradle of Naval Aviation".[citation needed] Naval Air Station Pensacola (NASP) was the first Naval Air Station commissioned by the U.S. Navy in 1914. Tens of thousands Naval Aviators have received their training there including John H. Glenn, USMC who became the first American to orbit the earth in 1962 and Neil Armstrong who became the first man to set foot on the moon in 1969. The Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron, the Blue Angels, is stationed there.

The National Museum of Naval Aviation is located on the Naval Air Station and is free to the public. The museum cares for and exhibits hundreds of vintage Naval Aviation aircraft and preserves the history of Naval Aviation through displays, symposiums, IMAX movies and tours.

Corry Station Naval Technical Training Center serves as an annex for the main base and the Center for Information Dominance.[clarification needed] CW03 Gary R. Schuetz Memorial Health Clinic is at Corry Station, Naval Hospital Pensacola, as is the main Navy Exchange and Defense Commissary Agency commissary complex for both Corry Station and NAS Pensacola. The Army National Guard B Troop 1-153 Cavalry is stationed in Pensacola.

Hospitals

  • Baptist Health Care[23]
  • Gulf Breeze Hospital[24] – Baptist Health Care
  • Naval Hospital[25] – United States Navy
  • Sacred Heart Hospital[26] – Sacred Heart Health System
  • Santa Rosa Medical Center[27]
  • West Florida Hospital[28] – West Florida Healthcare
  • Nemours Children's Clinic[29]

Tourism

There are a number of annual festivals, events, historic tours, and landmarks. The Pensacola Seafood Festival and The Pensacola Crawfish Festival held in the heart of historic Downtown has been held for nearly 30 years with live music acts. The Great Gulfcoast Arts Festival is held annually in November in Seville Square often drawing more than 200 regional and international artists as well as The Children's Art Festival which is held in the same park featuring art by children from local area schools.

There are several walking tours of the historic 18th century era restored neighborhoods.

Pensacola is the site of The Vietnam Veteran's Wall South. There are a number of historical military installations from the Civil War including Fort Barrancas. Fort Pickens served as a temporary prison for Geronimo. There is the National Naval Aviation Museum at NAS Pensacola.

Law and government

Council Members
District Council Member
1 P.C. Wu
2 Sam Hall
3 Maren DeWeese
4 Larry B. Johnson
5 John Jerralds
6 Jewel Canada-Wynn
7 Ronald Townsend
8 (at large) Diane Mack
9 (at large) Megan B. Pratt

The City of Pensacola is governed by an elected City Council with nine seats, two of which are considered "at large." The city government also has an elected mayor; Ashton Hayward.

Politics

Like other parts of the South during Reconstruction, Pensacola was solidly Republican for years after the Civil War. The Republican government had numerous African American politicians, including several county commissioners, city aldermen, constables, state representatives, and even one African American Mayor—Salvador Pons. However, with the 1884 election of native Pensacolan and former Confederate General Edward Perry, a dramatic shift occurred. Perry, a Democrat who actually lost the Escambia County vote during the state-wide election, acted to dissolve the Republican city government of Pensacola and in 1885 replaced this government with hand-picked successors, including railroad magnate William D. Chipley. The only African American to remain in city government was George Washington Witherspoon, a pastor with the African Methodist Episcopal Church who was previously a Republican and switched parties to the Democrats. Following Governor Perry's dissolution of the Republican government, the city remained Democratic for more than a century after the Civil War with no African Americans serving in an elected capacity for nearly a century. Until the 1970s, most local elections were determined by the Democratic primary. However, from the 1960s onward, the staunchly conservative military and Bible Belt city became increasingly Republican. However, Democrats continued to win most elections at the state and local level well into the 1990s, though most of them were very conservative even by Southern Democratic standards.

This changed in 1994, when Republican attorney Joe Scarborough defeated Vinnie Whibbs, the son of popular former Democratic mayor Vince Whibbs, in a landslide to represent Florida's 1st congressional district, which is based in Pensacola. Republicans also swept all of the area's seats in the state legislature, the majority of which were held by Democrats. Since then, Republicans have dominated every level of government, although municipal elections are officially nonpartisan. In August 2005, registered Republicans outnumbered Democrats for the first time in the area's history. As of August 2005, in Escambia County, 44% of the residents are registered Republicans compared to 39.91% of the population having registered as Democrats with another 13.21% having no party affiliation.[30]

In the 2004 presidential election, 65% of Escambia County residents voted for George W. Bush over John Kerry. The Pensacola area has not supported a Democrat for President since John Kennedy in 1960. In 1968, Pensacola and the rest of North Florida supported American Independent Party candidate George Wallace.

Chuck Baldwin, the 2008 presidential nominee of the Constitution Party, is the pastor of Crossroad Baptist Church in Pensacola.

Regional representatives

Pensacola is currently represented in the U.S. House of Representatives by Jeff Miller (R), in the state senate by Don Gaetz (R) and Durell Peaden (R), and in the state house by Clay Ford (R), Dave Murzin (R), and Greg Evers (R).[31]

Libraries

The West Florida Regional Library is a system of libraries with five locations throughout the Pensacola area. They offer fiction and non-fiction books, magazines, books on cassette or CD, DVD and VHS films and music. Each library offers public access computers, children's materials, and a variety of reading materials.

Genealogy and local history resources are available at the geneaology branch near the Pensacola State College. Library staff and various volunteers from the West Florida Genealogy Society are available to help start the research process. The Friends of the Library hold periodic book sales where donated and discarded items are sold to the public. Donations of books or audio-video items in good condition are welcome at the main library on Gregory Street.

Sister cities

According to Sister City International, Pensacola has the following sister cities:[32]

Transportation

ECAT bus, June 2006.

Pensacola is served by Interstate 10 and the Interstate 110 spur connecting I-10 with downtown Pensacola. Major air traffic in the Pensacola and greater northwest Florida area is handled by Pensacola International Airport. Airlines currently serving Pensacola Regional Airport are Air Tran Airways, American Eagle, ASA, Comair, Continental Airlines, Continental Express, Delta Air Lines, SkyWest Airlines, United Express, and US Airways. Greyhound bus service is also available. From early 1993 through August 2005 Pensacola was served by the tri-weekly Amtrak Sunset Limited, but service east of New Orleans to Jacksonville and Orlando was suspended due to damage to the rail line of CSX during Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Attempts are being made to have service restored. This was previously the route of the Gulf Wind operated by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad.[33][34]

The local bus service is the Escambia County Rosa Parks Transit System.[35] In December 2007, ECAT announced that it would cut many of its routes citing poor rider frequency. However in January 2008, ECAT announced that it would expand service to neighboring Gulf Breeze and change existing routes to more convenient locations.[36]

Education

Public primary and secondary education schools in Pensacola are administered by the Escambia County School District. The current superintendent of schools for Escambia County is Malcolm Thomas. The University of West Florida, which resides north of the city, is the primary tertiary school in the area. UWF also has the largest library in the region, the John C. Pace Library.

Universities and colleges

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University-NAS Pensacola

High schools in the City of Pensacola


Elementary schools

  • Allie Yniestra Elementary School
  • Bellview Elementary School
  • Beulah Elementary School
  • Blue Angels Elementary School[1]
  • Bratt Elementary School
  • Brownsville Elementary School
  • C.A. Weis Elementary School
  • Carver Century
  • Cordova Park Elementary School
  • Edgewater Elementary School
  • Ensley Elementary School
  • Ferry Pass Elementary School
  • George S. Hallmark Elementary School
  • Hellen Caro Elementary School
  • Holm Elementary School
  • Jim Allen Elementary School
  • Lincoln Park Elementary School
  • Longleaf Elementary School
  • McArthur Elementary School
  • Molino Park Elementary School
  • Montclair Elementary School
  • Myrtle Grove Elementary School
  • N.B. Cook Elementary School
  • Navy Point Elementary School
  • O.J. Semmes Elementary School
  • Oakcrest Elementary School
  • Pine Meadow Elementary School
  • Pleasant Grove Elementary School
  • R.C. Lipscomb Elementary School
  • Scenic Heights Elementary School
  • Sherwood Elementary School
  • Spencer Bibbs Elementary School
  • Warrington Elementary School
  • West Pensacola Elementary School
  • A.K. Suter Elementary School

Culture

Music scene and subculture

The Arts and Theatre

There are a number of different performance venues in the Pensacola Area, including the Pensacola Civic Center, often used for big ticket events, and the Saenger Theater, used for performances and mid level events. Other theatres used for live performances, plays and musicals include the Pensacola Little Theatre, Pensacola Junior College, University of West Florida and Loblolly Theatre. Pensacola is also home to the Pensacola Opera, Pensacola Children's Chorus, Pensacola Symphony Orchestra, and the Choral Society of Pensacola.

Sports

There are several semiprofessional sports teams, including the Pensacola Lightning NAFL team, the Pensacola Pelicans of the American Association (of Independent Baseball) (AA), the Pensacola Ice Flyers , and the Pensacola Blue Wahoos Double-A Southern League Baseball Team.

Media

The largest daily newspaper in the area is the Pensacola News Journal, with offices on Romana Street in downtown; the News Journal is owned by the Gannett Company. There is an alternative weekly newspaper, the Pensacola Independent News.

Pensacola is also home to WEAR-TV, the ABC affiliate for Pensacola, Fort Walton Beach, and Mobile, Alabama, and WSRE-TV, the local PBS member station, which is operated by Pensacola State College. Other television stations in the market include WALA-TV, the Fox affiliate; WKRG, the CBS affiliate; and WPMI, the NBC affiliate, which all are located in Mobile. Cable service in the city is provided by Cox Communications and AT&T U-Verse. WUWF is the area's NPR affiliate and is based at the University of West Florida.

Pensacola Magazine, the city's monthly glossy magazine, and Northwest Florida's Business Climate, the only business magazine devoted to the region, are published locally. The News Journal also publishes Home & Garden Weekly magazine as well as the monthly Bella, devoted to women.

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  2. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  4. ^ Pensacola, Florida (FL) Detailed Profile - relocation, real estate, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, news, sex offenders
  5. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009 (CBSA-EST2009-01)" (CSV). 2009 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2009. http://www.census.gov/popest/metro/tables/2007/CBSA-EST2007-01.csv. Retrieved March 1, 2011. 
  6. ^ Swanton, John Reed (2003). The Indian tribes of North America. Genealogical Publishing. pp. 136–137. ISBN 0806317302. http://books.google.com/books?id=Xpx6WoPz7xIC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved September 23, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c ""History" (Luna colony at Ochuse/Pensacola)". MyFlorida.com. State of Florida, Office of Cultural & Historical Programs. 2007. http://www.flheritage.com/archaeology/projects/shipwrecks/emanuelpoint/history.cfm. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  8. ^ a b c d Johnson, Jane. "Santa Rosa Island - a History (Part 1)" (PDF). http://www.navarrebeach.org/History/History%20in%20Acrobat.PDF. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Pinson, Steve. "The Tristan de Luna Expedition". Pensacola Archeology Lab. http://www.de-luna.com/pal.html. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  10. ^ "Floripedia: Pensacola, Florida". University of South Florida. 2005. http://fcit.usf.edu/FLORIDA/docs/p/pensac2.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  11. ^ a b c d "Presidio Isla de Santa Rosa". University of West Florida. 2003. Archived from the original on 2007-03-19. http://web.archive.org/web/20070319030901/http://uwf.edu/anthropology/research/SantaRosa.cfm. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  12. ^ "St. Michael's Cemetery Foundation of Pensacola, Inc". http://www.stmichaelscemetery.org/. Retrieved 2008-08-06. 
  13. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  14. ^ a b c d "Monthly Averages for Pensacola, Fla.". The Weather Channel. http://www.weather.com/outlook/recreation/outdoors/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USFL0399?from=search. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  15. ^ "History for Pensacola, Florida on Wednesday, June 1, 2011". Weather Underground. http://www.wunderground.com/history/airport/KPNS/2011/6/1/MonthlyHistory.html. Retrieved 2011-06-05. 
  16. ^ a b "Climatography of the United States No. 20: 1971-2000". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://cdo.ncdc.noaa.gov/climatenormals/clim20/fl/086997.pdf. Retrieved 2010-05-06. 
  17. ^ "History for Pensacola, Florida on Friday, January 24, 2003". Weather Underground. http://www.wunderground.com/history/airport/KPNS/2003/1/24/DailyHistory.html. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  18. ^ "What's with these snowstorms?". Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/2010/0212/What-s-with-these-snowstorms-Natural-patterns-plus-randomness. Retrieved 2010-10-31. 
  19. ^ "Bridge Replacement over Escambia Bya". Florida Department of Transportation. http://www.escambiabaybridge.com/. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  20. ^ "Repairing Florida's Escambia Bay Bridge". ACP Construction. http://www.cookescarpetcleaning.com/. Retrieved 2007-08-14. [dead link]
  21. ^ "Census Of Population And Housing". U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/prod/www/abs/decennial/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-13. 
  22. ^ a b c d Pensacola, Florida - Religion
  23. ^ Baptist Hospital
  24. ^ Gulf Breeze Hospital
  25. ^ Naval Hospital
  26. ^ Sacred Heart Hospital
  27. ^ Santa Rosa Medical Center
  28. ^ West Florida Hospital
  29. ^ Nemours Children's Clinic
  30. ^ Stafford, David H. "Voter Statistics". EscambiaVotes.com. Escambia County Supervisor of Elections. http://www.escambiavotes.com/votertrends.php. 
  31. ^ "Representatives, Regular Session 2007". Florida House of Representatives. http://www.myfloridahouse.gov/Sections/Representatives/representatives.aspx?MemberId=4187&SessionId=42. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  32. ^ "Online Directory: Florida, USA". Sister Cities International. http://www.sister-cities.org/icrc/directory/usa/FL. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  33. ^ http://www.amtrak.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=Amtrak/am2Station/Station_Page&code=PNS
  34. ^ Greyhound.com : Locations : Pensacola, Florida
  35. ^ "About ECAT". ECAT. http://www.goecat.com/about/. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  36. ^ "ECAT to expand service in Gulf Breeze". Pensacola News Journal. http://www.pensacolanewsjournal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2008801060332. Retrieved 2008-01-11. 
  37. ^ Berrett, Dan. "The Complete List of the 1,000 Top U.S. Schools". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 2007-03-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20070303191650/http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7723397/site/newsweek/. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pensacola (Florida) — Pensacola Spitzname: The City of Five Flags Pensacola US Courthouse Lage in Florida …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • History of Pensacola, Florida — Pensacola, Florida has had an impressive history, being the first European settlement in the continental United States, founded by the Spanish in 1559 Floripedia: Pensacola, Florida (history from source The Founding of Pensacola 1904), University …   Wikipedia

  • Museum of Industry (Pensacola, Florida) — Coordinates: 30°24′32″N 87°12′42″W / 30.40902°N 87.21166°W / 30.40902; 87.21166 …   Wikipedia

  • Old Christ Church (Pensacola, Florida) — Old Christ Church U.S. National Register of Historic Places …   Wikipedia

  • West Pensacola (Florida) — West Pensacola Lugar designado por el censo de los Estados Unidos …   Wikipedia Español

  • West Pensacola, Florida — Infobox Settlement official name = West Pensacola, Florida other name = native name = nickname = settlement type = CDP motto = imagesize = image caption = flag size = image seal size = image shield = shield size = image blank emblem = blank… …   Wikipedia

  • List of mayors of Pensacola, Florida — This is a list of mayors of Pensacola, Florida. The mayor is the chief executive of the Pensacola city government. This list is from 1820 through present day, and includes Spanish, Confederate and United States mayors. See History of Pensacola,… …   Wikipedia

  • Temple Beth-El (Pensacola, Florida) — Infobox religious building building name=Temple Beth El caption=The Temple Beth El on Palafox Street location=Pensacola, Florida, United States geo= religious affiliation=Reform Judaism district= status=Active Synagogue leadership= website=… …   Wikipedia

  • Fort George (Pensacola, Florida) — Infobox nrhp name = Fort George site caption = Fort reconstruction location = Pensacola, Florida area = added = July 8, 1974 visitation num = visitation year = governing body = City of PensacolaFort George was a British fort built in 1778 for the …   Wikipedia

  • American National Bank Building (Pensacola, Florida) — Infobox nrhp | name =American National Bank Building nrhp type = imagesize = 200px caption = location= Pensacola, Florida lat degrees = 30 lat minutes = 24 lat seconds = 33.53 lat direction = N long degrees = 87 long minutes = 12 long seconds =… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.