Wildlife of Senegal


Wildlife of Senegal

The Wildlife of Senegal includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats.Senegal has 188 species of mammals and 664 species of bird.

Fauna

Mammals

ubclass: Theria

Infraclass: Eutheria

Order: Tubulidentata (aardvarks)

----The order Tubulidentata consists of a single species, the Aardvark. Tubulidentata are characterised by their teeth which lack a pulp cavity and form thin tubes which are continuously worn down and replaced.

*Family: Orycteropodidae
**Genus: "Orycteropus"
** Aardvark "Orycteropus afer" LC

Order: Hyracoidea (hyraxes)

----The hyraxes are any of four species of fairly small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea. About the size of a domestic cat they are well-furred, with rounded bodies and a stumpy tail. They are native to Africa and the Middle East.

*Family: Procaviidae (hylaxes)
**Genus: "Dendrohyrax"
*** Western Tree Hyrax "Dendrohyrax dorsalis" LC
**Genus: "Procavia"
*** Cape Hyrax "Procavia capensis" LC

Order: Proboscidea (elephants)

----The elephants comprise three living species and are the largest living land animals.

*Family: Elephantidae (elephants)
**Genus: "Loxodonta"
**** African Bush Elephant "Loxodonta africana" VU

Order: Sirenia (manatees and dugongs)

----
[
African Manatee] Sirenia is an order of fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit rivers, estuaries, coastal marine waters, swamps, and marine wetlands. All four species are endangered.

*Family: Trichechidae
**Genus: "Trichechus"
*** African Manatee "Trichechus senegalensis" VU

Order: Primates

----The order Primates contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. It is divided informally into three main groupings: prosimians, monkeys of the New World, and monkeys and apes of the Old World.

*Suborder: Strepsirrhini
**Infraorder: Lorisiformes
***Family: Lorisidae (lorises, bushbabies)
****Genus: "Perodicticus"
***** Potto "Perodicticus potto" LR/lc
***Family: Galagidae
****Genus: "Galago"
***** Senegal Bushbaby "Galago senegalensis" LR/lc
*Suborder: Haplorrhini
**Infraorder: Simiiformes
***Parvorder: Catarrhini
****Superfamily: Cercopithecoidea
*****Family: Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys)
******Genus: "Erythrocebus"
******* Patas Monkey "Erythrocebus patas" LR/lc
******Genus: "Cercopithecus"
******* Chlorocebus "Cercopithecus aethiops" LR/lc
******* Campbell's Guenon "Cercopithecus campbelli" LR/lc
******* Lesser Spot-nosed Guenon "Cercopithecus petaurista" LR/lc
******Genus: "Papio"
******* Guinea Baboon "Papio papio" LR/nt
******Genus: "Cercocebus"
******* Sooty Mangabey "Cercocebus atys" LR/nt
******* Collared Mangabey "Cercocebus torquatus" LR/nt
******Subfamily: Colobinae
*******Genus: "Colobus"
******** King Colobus "Colobus polykomos" LR/nt
*******Genus: "Procolobus"
******** Red colobus "Procolobus badius" EN
****Superfamily: Hominoidea
*****Family: Hominidae (humans)
******Subfamily: Homininae
*******Tribe: Hominini
********Genus: "Pan"
********* Common Chimpanzee "Pan troglodytes" EN

Order: Rodentia (rodents)

----Rodents make up the largest order of mammals, with over 40 percent of mammalian species. They have two incisors in the upper and lower jaw which grow continually and must be kept short by gnawing. Most rodents are small though the capybara can weigh up to 45 kg (100 lb).

*Suborder: Hystricomorpha
**Family: Hystricidae (Old World porcupines)
***Genus: "Hystrix"
**** Crested Porcupine "Hystrix cristata" LC
**Family: Ctenodactylidae
***Genus: "Felovia"
**** Felou Gundi "Felovia vae" DD
**Family: Thryonomyidae (cane rats)
***Genus: "Thryonomys"
**** Greater Cane Rat "Thryonomys swinderianus" LC
*Suborder: Sciurognathi
**Family: Anomaluridae
***Subfamily: Anomalurinae
****Genus: "Anomalurops"
***** Beecroft's Scaly-tailed Squirrel "Anomalurops beecrofti" LC
**Family: Sciuridae (squirrels)
***Subfamily: Xerinae
****Tribe: Xerini
*****Genus: "Xerus"
****** Striped ground squirrel "Xerus erythropus" LC
****Tribe: Protoxerini
*****Genus: "Funisciurus"
****** Fire-footed Rope Squirrel "Funisciurus pyrropus" LC
*****Genus: "Heliosciurus"
****** Gambian Sun Squirrel "Heliosciurus gambianus" LC
****** Red-legged Sun Squirrel "Heliosciurus rufobrachium" LC
**Family: Gliridae (dormice)
***Subfamily: Graphiurinae
****Genus: "Graphiurus"
***** Savanna Dormouse "Graphiurus parvus" LC
**Family: Dipodidae (jerboas)
***Subfamily: Dipodinae
****Genus: "Jaculus"
***** Lesser Egyptian Jerboa "Jaculus jaculus" LC
**Family: Nesomyidae
***Subfamily: Dendromurinae
****Genus: "Steatomys"
***** Northwestern Fat Mouse "Steatomys caurinus" LC
***** Dainty Fat Mouse "Steatomys cuppedius" LC
***Subfamily: Cricetomyinae
****Genus: "Cricetomys"
***** Gambian Pouch Rat "Cricetomys gambianus" LC
**Family: Muridae (mice, rats, voles, gerbils, hamsters, etc.)
***Subfamily: Deomyinae
****Genus: "Uranomys"
***** Rudd's Mouse "Uranomys ruddi" LC
***Subfamily: Gerbillinae
****Genus: "Desmodilliscus"
***** Pouched Gerbil "Desmodilliscus braueri" LC
****Genus: "Gerbillus"
***** Pygmy Gerbil "Gerbillus henleyi" LC
***** Tarabul's Gerbil "Gerbillus tarabuli" LC
****Genus: "Tatera"
***** nopage "Tatera gambiana" LC
***** Guinea Gerbil "Tatera guineae" LC
****Genus: "Taterillus"
***** Slender Gerbil "Taterillus gracilis" LC
***** Senegal Tateril "Taterillus pygargus" LC
***Subfamily: Murinae
****Genus: "Arvicanthis"
***** Sudanian Arvicanthis "Arvicanthis ansorgei" LC
***** African Grass Rat "Arvicanthis niloticus" LC
****Genus: "Dasymys"
***** West African Shaggy Rat "Dasymys rufulus" LC
****Genus: "Grammomys"
***** Bunting's Thicket Rat "Grammomys buntingi" DD
****Genus: "Lemniscomys"
***** Senegal Lemniscomys "Lemniscomys linulus" DD
***** Heuglin's Lemniscomys "Lemniscomys zebra" LC
****Genus: "Mastomys"
***** Guinea Multimammate Mouse "Mastomys erythroleucus" LC
***** Hubert's Mastomys "Mastomys huberti" LC
***** Natal Multimammate Mouse "Mastomys natalensis" LC
****Genus: "Mus"
***** Hausa Mouse "Mus haussa" LC
***** Matthey's Mouse "Mus mattheyi" LC
***** African Pygmy Mouse "Mus minutoides" LC
****Genus: "Praomys"
***** Dalton's Praomys "Praomys daltoni" LC
***** Tullberg's Soft-furred Mouse "Praomys tullbergi" LC

Order: Lagomorpha (lagomorphs)

----

The lagomorphs comprise two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). Though they can resemble rodents, and were classified as a superfamily in that order until the early twentieth century, they have since been considered a separate order. They differ from rodents in a number of physical characteristics, such as having four incisors in the upper jaw rather than two.

*Family: Leporidae (rabbits, hares)
**Genus: "Lepus"
*** Cape Hare "Lepus capensis" LR/lc
*** African Savanna Hare "Lepus microtis" LR/lc

Order: Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures)

----

The order Erinaceomorpha contains a single family, Erinaceidae, which comprise the hedgehogs and gymnures. The hedgehogs are easily recognised by their spines while gymnures look more like large rats.

*Family: Erinaceidae (hedgehogs)
**Subfamily: Erinaceinae
***Genus: "Atelerix"
**** Four-toed Hedgehog "Atelerix albiventris" LR/lc

Order: Soricomorpha (shrews, moles, and soledons)

----The "shrew-forms" are insectivorous mammals. The shrews and soledons closely resemble mice while the moles are stout bodied burrowers.

*Family: Soricidae (shrews)
**Subfamily: Crocidurinae
***Genus: "Crocidura"
**** Cinderella Shrew "Crocidura cinderella" LC
**** Fox's Shrew "Crocidura foxi" LC
**** Tiny Musk Shrew "Crocidura fuscomurina" LC
**** Lamotte's Shrew "Crocidura lamottei" LC
**** Mauritanian Shrew "Crocidura lusitania" LC
**** Tiny White-toothed Shrew "Crocidura nanilla" LC
**** Olivier's Shrew "Crocidura olivieri" LC
**** Desert Musk Shrew "Crocidura smithii" LC
**** Savanna Path Shrew "Crocidura viaria" LC

Order: Chiroptera (bats)

----The bats' most distinguishing feature is that their forelimbs are developed as wings, making them the only mammals in the world naturally capable of flight. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals.

*Family: Pteropodidae (flying foxes, Old World fruit bats)
**Subfamily: Pteropodinae
***Genus: "Eidolon"
**** Straw-coloured Fruit Bat "Eidolon helvum" LC
***Genus: "Epomophorus"
**** Gambian Epauletted Fruit Bat "Epomophorus gambianus" LC
***Genus: "Epomops"
**** Buettikofer's Epauletted Fruit Bat "Epomops buettikoferi" LC
***Genus: "Lissonycteris"
**** Smith's Fruit Bat "Lissonycteris smithi" LC
***Genus: "Micropteropus"
**** Peter's Dwarf Epauletted Fruit Bat "Micropteropus pusillus" LC
***Genus: "Rousettus"
**** Egyptian fruit bat "Rousettus aegyptiacus" LC
*Family: Vespertilionidae
**Subfamily: Myotinae
***Genus: "Myotis"
**** Rufous Mouse-eared Bat "Myotis bocagii" LC
**Subfamily: Vespertilioninae
***Genus: "Barbastella"
**** Barbastelle "Barbastella barbastellus" VU
***Genus: "Eptesicus"
**** Lagos Serotine "Eptesicus platyops" DD
***Genus: "Glauconycteris"
**** Abo Bat "Glauconycteris poensis" LC
**** Butterfly Bat "Glauconycteris variegata" LC
***Genus: "Neoromicia"
**** Tiny Serotine "Neoromicia guineensis" LC
**** Banana Pipistrelle "Neoromicia nanus" LC
**** Rendall's Serotine "Neoromicia rendalli" LC
**** Somali Serotine "Neoromicia somalicus" LC
**** White-winged Serotine "Neoromicia tenuipinnis" LC
***Genus: "Nycticeinops"
**** Schlieffen's Twilight Bat "Nycticeinops schlieffeni" LC
***Genus: "Pipistrellus"
**** Egyptian Pipistrelle "Pipistrellus deserti" LC
**** Tiny Pipistrelle "Pipistrellus nanulus" LC
**** Rüppel's Pipistrelle "Pipistrellus rueppelli" LC
**** Rusty Pipistrelle "Pipistrellus rusticus" LC
***Genus: "Scotoecus"
**** Light-winged Lesser House Bat "Scotoecus albofuscus" DD
**** Dark-winged Lesser House Bat "Scotoecus hirundo" DD
***Genus: "Scotophilus"
**** African Yellow Bat "Scotophilus dinganii" LC
**** White-bellied Yellow Bat "Scotophilus leucogaster" LC
**** Schreber's Yellow Bat "Scotophilus nigrita" NT
**** Greenish Yellow Bat "Scotophilus viridis" LC
*Family: Rhinopomatidae
**Genus: "Rhinopoma"
*** Greater Mouse-tailed Bat "Rhinopoma microphyllum" LC
*Family: Molossidae
**Genus: "Chaerephon"
*** Gland-tailed Free-tailed Bat "Chaerephon bemmeleni" LC
*** Little Free-tailed Bat "Chaerephon pumila" LC
**Genus: "Mops"
*** Angolan Free-tailed Bat "Mops condylurus" LC
*** Midas Free-tailed Bat "Mops midas" LC
**Genus: "Myopterus"
*** Daubenton's Free-tailed Bat "Myopterus daubentonii" NT
*Family: Emballonuridae
**Genus: "Taphozous"
*** Mauritian Tomb Bat "Taphozous mauritianus" LC
*** Naked-rumped Tomb Bat "Taphozous nudiventris" LC
*** Egyptian Tomb Bat "Taphozous perforatus" LC
*Family: Nycteridae
**Genus: "Nycteris"
*** Gambian Slit-faced Bat "Nycteris gambiensis" LC
*** Large Slit-Faced Bat "Nycteris grandis" LC
*** Hairy Slit-Faced Bat "Nycteris hispida" LC
*** Large-Eared Slit-Faced Bat "Nycteris macrotis" LC
*** Egyptian Slit-Faced Bat "Nycteris thebaica" LC
*Family: Megadermatidae
**Genus: "Lavia"
*** Yellow-winged bat "Lavia frons" LC
*Family: Rhinolophidae
**Subfamily: Rhinolophinae
***Genus: "Rhinolophus"
**** Halcyon Horseshoe Bat "Rhinolophus alcyone" LC
**** Rüppell's Horseshoe Bat "Rhinolophus fumigatus" LC
**** Guinean Horseshoe Bat "Rhinolophus guineensis" VU
**** Lander's Horseshoe Bat "Rhinolophus landeri" LC
**Subfamily: Hipposiderinae
***Genus: "Asellia"
**** Trident Leaf-nosed Bat "Asellia tridens" LC
***Genus: "Hipposideros"
**** Aba Roundleaf Bat "Hipposideros abae" NT
**** Sundevall's Roundleaf Bat "Hipposideros caffer" LC
**** Cyclops Roundleaf Bat "Hipposideros cyclops" LC
**** nopage "Hipposideros gigas" LC
**** Noack's Roundleaf Bat "Hipposideros ruber" LC

Order: Pholidota (pangolins)

----The order Philodota comprises the eight species of pangolin. Pangolins are anteaters and have the powerful claws, elongated snout and long tongue seen in the other unrelated anteater species.

*Family: Manidae
**Genus: "Manis"
*** Giant Pangolin "Manis gigantea" LR/lc
*** Long-tailed Pangolin "Manis tetradactyla" LR/lc
*** Tree Pangolin "Manis tricuspis" LR/lc

Order: Cetacea (whales)

----

The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. They are the mammals most fully adapted to aquatic life with a spindle-shaped nearly hairless body, protected by a thick layer of blubber, and forelimbs and tail modified to provide propulsion underwater.

*Suborder: Mysticeti
**Family: Balaenopteridae
***Subfamily: Balaenopterinae
****Genus: "Balaenoptera"
***** Bryde's Whale "Balaenoptera edeni" DD
*Suborder: Odontoceti
**Superfamily: Platanistoidea
***Family: Phocoenidae
****Genus: "Phocoena"
***** Harbour Porpoise "Phocoena phocoena" VU
***Family: Kogiidae
****Genus: "Kogia"
***** Pygmy Sperm Whale "Kogia breviceps" LR/lc
***** Dwarf Sperm Whale "Kogia sima" LR/lc
***Family: Delphinidae (marine dolphins)
****Genus: "Steno"
***** Rough-toothed Dolphin "Steno bredanensis" DD
****Genus: "Sousa"
***** Humpback dolphin "Sousa teuszii" DD
****Genus: "Tursiops"
***** Bottlenose Dolphin "Tursiops truncatus" DD
****Genus: "Stenella"
***** Clymene Dolphin "Stenella clymene" DD
***** Striped Dolphin "Stenella coeruleoalba" LR/cd
***** Atlantic Spotted Dolphin "Stenella frontalis" DD
***** Spinner Dolphin "Stenella longirostris" LR/cd
****Genus: "Delphinus"
***** Common dolphin "Delphinus capensis" LR/lc
***** Common dolphin "Delphinus delphis" LR/lc
****Genus: "Lagenodelphis"
***** Fraser's Dolphin "Lagenodelphis hosei" DD
****Genus: "Peponocephala"
***** Melon-headed Whale "Peponocephala electra" LR/lc
****Genus: "Feresa"
***** Pygmy Killer Whale "Feresa attenuata" DD
****Genus: "Orcinus"
***** Orca "Orcinus orca" LR/cd
****Genus: "Globicephala"
***** Pilot whale "Globicephala macrorhynchus" LR/cd

Order: Carnivora (carnivores)

----

The carnivores include over 260 species, the majority of which eat meat as their primary dietary item. Carnivores have a characteristic skull shape and dentition.

*Suborder: Feliformia
**Family: Felidae (cats)
***Subfamily: Felinae
****Genus: "Acinonyx"
***** Cheetah "Acinonyx jubatus" VU
****Genus: "Caracal"
***** Caracal "Caracal caracal" LC
****Genus: "Felis"
***** Wildcat "Felis silvestris" LC
****Genus: "Leptailurus"
***** Serval "Leptailurus serval" LC
****Genus: "Profelis"
***** African Golden Cat "Profelis aurata" VU
***Subfamily: Pantherinae
****Genus: "Panthera"
***** Lion "Panthera leo" VU
***** Leopard "Panthera pardus" LC
**Family: Viverridae (civets, mongooses, etc.)
***Subfamily: Viverrinae
****Genus: "Civettictis"
***** African Civet "Civettictis civetta" LR/lc
****Genus: "Genetta"
***** Common Genet "Genetta genetta" LR/lc
***** Rusty-spotted Genet "Genetta maculata" LR/lc
***** Haussa Genet "Genetta thierryi" LR/lc
**Family: Nandiniidae
***Genus: "Nandinia"
**** African Palm Civet "Nandinia binotata" LR/lc
**Family: Herpestidae (mongooses)
***Genus: "Atilax"
**** Marsh Mongoose "Atilax paludinosus" LR/lc
***Genus: "Galerella"
**** Slender Mongoose "Galerella sanguinea" LR/lc
***Genus: "Herpestes"
**** Egyptian Mongoose "Herpestes ichneumon" LR/lc
***Genus: "Ichneumia"
**** White-tailed Mongoose "Ichneumia albicauda" LR/lc
***Genus: "Mungos"
**** Gambian Mongoose "Mungos gambianus" DD
**** Banded Mongoose "Mungos mungo" LR/lc
**Family: Hyaenidae (hyaenas)
***Genus: "Crocuta"
**** Spotted Hyena "Crocuta crocuta" LR/cd
***Genus: "Hyaena"
**** Striped Hyena "Hyaena hyaena" LR/nt
*Suborder: Caniformia
**Family: Canidae (dogs, foxes)
***Genus: "Vulpes"
**** Pale Fox "Vulpes pallida" DD
***Genus: "Canis"
**** Side-striped Jackal "Canis adustus" LC
**** Golden Jackal "Canis aureus" LC
***Genus: "Lycaon"
**** African Wild Dog "Lycaon pictus" EN
**Family: Mustelidae (mustelids)
***Genus: "Ictonyx"
**** Striped Polecat "Ictonyx striatus" LR/lc
***Genus: "Mellivora"
**** Ratel "Mellivora capensis" LR/lc
***Genus: "Aonyx"
**** African Clawless Otter "Aonyx capensis" LC

Order: Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates)

----The even-toed ungulates are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. There are about 220 artiodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans.

*Family: Suidae (pigs)
**Subfamily: Phacochoerinae
***Genus: "Phacochoerus"
**** Warthog "Phacochoerus africanus" LR/lc
**Subfamily: Suinae
***Genus: "Potamochoerus"
**** Red River Hog "Potamochoerus porcus" LR/lc
*Family: Hippopotamidae (hippopotamuses)
**Genus: "Hippopotamus"
*** Hippopotamus "Hippopotamus amphibius" VU
*Family: Tragulidae
**Genus: "Hyemoschus"
*** "Hyemoschus aquaticus" DD
*Family: Giraffidae (giraffe, okapi)
**Genus: "Giraffa"
*** Giraffe "Giraffa camelopardalis" LR/cd
*Family: Bovidae (cattle, antelope, sheep, goats)
**Subfamily: Alcelaphinae
***Genus: "Alcelaphus"
**** Hartebeest "Alcelaphus buselaphus" LR/cd
***Genus: "Damaliscus"
**** Topi "Damaliscus lunatus" LR/cd
**Subfamily: Antilopinae
***Genus: "Gazella"
**** Dama Gazelle "Gazella dama" CR
**** Dorcas Gazelle "Gazella dorcas" VU
**** Red-fronted Gazelle "Gazella rufifrons" VU
***Genus: "Ourebia"
**** Oribi "Ourebia ourebi" LR/cd
**Subfamily: Bovinae
***Genus: "Syncerus"
**** African Buffalo "Syncerus caffer" LR/cd
***Genus: "Tragelaphus"
**** Giant Eland "Tragelaphus derbianus" LR/nt
**** Bushbuck "Tragelaphus scriptus" LR/lc
**** Sitatunga "Tragelaphus spekii" LR/nt
**Subfamily: Cephalophinae
***Genus: "Cephalophus"
**** Maxwell's Duiker "Cephalophus maxwellii" LR/nt
**** Red-flanked Duiker "Cephalophus rufilatus" LR/cd
**** Yellow-backed Duiker "Cephalophus silvicultor" LR/nt
***Genus: "Sylvicapra"
**** Common Duiker "Sylvicapra grimmia" LR/lc
**Subfamily: Hippotraginae
***Genus: "Hippotragus"
**** Roan Antelope "Hippotragus equinus" LR/cd
***Genus: "Oryx"
**** Scimitar Oryx "Oryx dammah" EW
**Subfamily: Reduncinae
***Genus: "Kobus"
**** Waterbuck "Kobus ellipsiprymnus" LR/cd
**** Kob "Kobus kob" LR/cd
***Genus: "Redunca"
**** Bohor Reedbuck "Redunca redunca" LR/cd

Birds

Ostriches

Order: StruthioniformesFamily: Struthionidae

The Ostrich is a flightless bird native to Africa. It is the largest living species of bird. It is distinctive in its appearance, with a long neck and legs and the ability to run at high speeds.

*Ostrich "Struthio camelus"

Grebes

Order: PodicipediformesFamily: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Senegal.

*Little Grebe "Tachybaptus ruficollis"
*Great Crested Grebe "Podiceps cristatus"

hearwaters and Petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with a medium septum, and a long outer functional primary. There are 75 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Senegal.

*Fea's Petrel "Pterodroma feae"
*Madeira Petrel "Pterodroma madeira"
*Bulwer's Petrel "Bulweria bulwerii"
*Cory's Shearwater "Calonectris diomedea"
*Greater Shearwater "Puffinus gravis"
*Sooty Shearwater "Puffinus griseus"
*Manx Shearwater "Puffinus puffinus"
*Balearic Shearwater "Puffinus mauretanicus"
*Little Shearwater "Puffinus assimilis"

torm-Petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Hydrobatidae

The storm-petrels are relatives of the petrels, and are the smallest of sea-birds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 21 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Senegal.

*Wilson's Storm-Petrel "Oceanites oceanicus"
*White-faced Storm-Petrel "Pelagodroma marina"
*European Storm-Petrel "Hydrobates pelagicus"
*Band-rumped Storm-Petrel "Oceanodroma castro"
*Leach's Storm-Petrel "Oceanodroma leucorhoa"

Tropicbirds

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Senegal.

*Red-billed Tropicbird "Phaethon aethereus"

Pelicans

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Senegal.

*Great White Pelican "Pelecanus onocrotalus"
*Pink-backed Pelican "Pelecanus rufescens"

Boobies and Gannets

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups comprise medium-to-large coastal sea-birds that plunge-dive for fish. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Senegal.

*Northern Gannet "Morus bassanus"
*Brown Booby "Sula leucogaster"

Cormorants

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phalacrocoracidae

The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating sea-birds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black and white, and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Senegal.

*Great Cormorant "Phalacrocorax carbo"
*Long-tailed Cormorant "Phalacrocorax africanus"

Darters

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Anhingidae

Darters are frequently referred to as "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged.The males have black and dark brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have a much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet, and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving. There are 4 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Senegal.

*Darter "Anhinga melanogaster"

Frigatebirds

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black and white or completely black, with long wings and deeply-forked tails. The males have inflatable coloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan to body weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. There are 5 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Senegal.

*Magnificent Frigatebird "Fregata magnificens"

Bitterns, Herons and Egrets

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds suck as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species worldwide and 18 species which occur in Senegal.

*Gray Heron "Ardea cinerea"
*Black-headed Heron "Ardea melanocephala"
*Goliath Heron "Ardea goliath"
*Purple Heron "Ardea purpurea"
*Great Egret "Ardea alba"
*Black Heron "Egretta ardesiaca"
*Intermediate Egret "Egretta intermedia"
*Western Reef-Heron "Egretta gularis"
*Little Egret "Egretta garzetta"
*Squacco Heron "Ardeola ralloides"
*Cattle Egret "Bubulcus ibis"
*Striated Heron "Butorides striata"
*Black-crowned Night-Heron "Nycticorax nycticorax"
*White-backed Night-Heron "Gorsachius leuconotus"
*White-crested Bittern "Tigriornis leucolophus"
*Little Bittern "Ixobrychus minutus"
*Dwarf Bittern "Ixobrychus sturmii"
*Great Bittern "Botaurus stellaris"

Hammerkop

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Scopidae

The Hammerkop is a medium-sized bird with a long shaggy crest. The shape of its head with a curved bill and crest at the back is reminiscent of a hammer, hence its name. Its plumage is a drab brown all over.

*Hamerkop "Scopus umbretta"

torks

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute; bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Senegal.

*Yellow-billed Stork "Mycteria ibis"
*African Openbill "Anastomus lamelligerus"
*Black Stork "Ciconia nigra"
*Abdim's Stork "Ciconia abdimii"
*Woolly-necked Stork "Ciconia episcopus"
*White Stork "Ciconia ciconia"
*Saddle-billed Stork "Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis"
*Marabou Stork "Leptoptilos crumeniferus"

Ibises and Spoonbills

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Threskiornithidae

The Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Senegal.

*Sacred Ibis "Threskiornis aethiopicus"
*Waldrapp "Geronticus eremita" (Ex)
*Hadada Ibis "Bostrychia hagedash"
*Glossy Ibis "Plegadis falcinellus"
*Eurasian Spoonbill "Platalea leucorodia"
*African Spoonbill "Platalea alba"

Flamingos

Order: PhoenicopteriformesFamily: Phoenicopteridae

Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet high, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly-shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Senegal.

*Greater Flamingo "Phoenicopterus roseus"
*Lesser Flamingo "Phoenicopterus minor"

Ducks, Geese and Swans

Order: AnseriformesFamily: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 21 species which occur in Senegal.

*Fulvous Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna bicolor"
*White-faced Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna viduata"
*White-backed Duck "Thalassornis leuconotus"
*Egyptian Goose "Alopochen aegyptiacus"
*Common Shelduck "Tadorna tadorna"
*Spur-winged Goose "Plectropterus gambensis"
*Comb Duck "Sarkidiornis melanotos"
*African Pygmy-goose "Nettapus auritus"
*Eurasian Wigeon "Anas penelope"
*American Wigeon "Anas americana"
*Gadwall "Anas strepera"
*Eurasian Teal "Anas crecca"
*Mallard "Anas platyrhynchos"
*Northern Pintail "Anas acuta"
*Garganey "Anas querquedula"
*Blue-winged Teal "Anas discors" (A)
*Northern Shoveler "Anas clypeata"
*Marbled Teal "Marmaronetta angustirostris"
*Common Pochard "Aythya ferina"
*Ferruginous Pochard "Aythya nyroca"
*Tufted Duck "Aythya fuligula"

Osprey

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Pandionidae

The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the Osprey. The Osprey is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

*Osprey "Pandion haliaetus"

Hawks, Kites and Eagles

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Accipitridae

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 46 species which occur in Senegal.

*African Cuckoo-Hawk "Aviceda cuculoides"
*European Honey-buzzard "Pernis apivorus"
*Bat Hawk "Macheiramphus alcinus"
*Black-shouldered Kite "Elanus caeruleus"
*Scissor-tailed Kite "Chelictinia riocourii"
*Black Kite "Milvus migrans"
*African Fish-Eagle "Haliaeetus vocifer"
*Palm-nut Vulture "Gypohierax angolensis"
*Hooded Vulture "Necrosyrtes monachus"
*Egyptian Vulture "Neophron percnopterus"
*White-backed Vulture "Gyps africanus"
*Rueppell's Griffon "Gyps rueppellii"
*Eurasian Griffon "Gyps fulvus"
*Lappet-faced Vulture "Torgos tracheliotus"
*White-headed Vulture "Trigonoceps occipitalis"
*Beaudouin's Snake-Eagle "Circaetus beaudouini"
*Brown Snake-Eagle "Circaetus cinereus"
*Banded Snake-Eagle "Circaetus cinerascens"
*Bateleur "Terathopius ecaudatus"
*Western Marsh-Harrier "Circus aeruginosus"
*Northern Harrier "Circus cyaneus"
*Pallid Harrier "Circus macrourus"
*Montagu's Harrier "Circus pygargus"
*African Harrier-Hawk "Polyboroides typus"
*Lizard Buzzard "Kaupifalco monogrammicus"
*Dark Chanting-Goshawk "Melierax metabates"
*Gabar Goshawk "Micronisus gabar"
*Red-chested Goshawk "Accipiter toussenelii"
*Shikra "Accipiter badius"
*Red-thighed Sparrowhawk "Accipiter erythropus"
*Ovampo Sparrowhawk "Accipiter ovampensis"
*Eurasian Sparrowhawk "Accipiter nisus"
*Black Goshawk "Accipiter melanoleucus"
*Grasshopper Buzzard "Butastur rufipennis"
*Eurasian Buzzard "Buteo buteo" (A)
*Long-legged Buzzard "Buteo rufinus"
*Red-necked Buzzard "Buteo auguralis"
*Tawny Eagle "Aquila rapax"
*Wahlberg's Eagle "Aquila wahlbergi"
*Bonelli's Eagle "Aquila fasciatus"
*African Hawk-Eagle "Aquila spilogaster"
*Booted Eagle "Aquila pennatus"
*Ayres's Hawk-Eagle "Aquila ayresii"
*Martial Eagle "Polemaetus bellicosus"
*Long-crested Eagle "Lophaetus occipitalis"
*Crowned Hawk-Eagle "Stephanoaetus coronatus"

ecretary-bird

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Sagittariidae

The Secretary-bird is a bird of prey in the order Falconiformes but is easily distinguished from other raptors by it long crane-like legs.

*Secretary-bird "Sagittarius serpentarius"

Caracaras and Falcons

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Senegal.

*Lesser Kestrel "Falco naumanni"
*Eurasian Kestrel "Falco tinnunculus"
*Fox Kestrel "Falco alopex"
*Gray Kestrel "Falco ardosiaceus"
*Red-necked Falcon "Falco chicquera"
*Red-footed Falcon "Falco vespertinus"
*Merlin "Falco columbarius" (A)
*Eurasian Hobby "Falco subbuteo"
*African Hobby "Falco cuvierii"
*Lanner Falcon "Falco biarmicus"
*Barbary Falcon "Falco pelegrinoides"
*Peregrine Falcon "Falco peregrinus"

Pheasants and Partridges

Order: GalliformesFamily: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they may vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Senegal.

*White-throated Francolin "Francolinus albogularis"
*Ahanta Francolin "Francolinus ahantensis"
*Double-spurred Francolin "Francolinus bicalcaratus"
*Harlequin Quail "Coturnix delegorguei"
*Stone Partridge "Ptilopachus petrosus"

Guineafowl

Order: GalliformesFamily: Numididae

Guineafowl are a group of African, seed-eating, ground-nesting birds that resemble partridges, but with featherless heads and spangled grey plumage. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Senegal.

*Helmeted Guineafowl "Numida meleagris"

Buttonquails

Order: GruiformesFamily: Turnicidae

The buttonquails are small, drab, running birds which resemble the true quails. The female is the brighter of the sexes, and initiates courtship. The male incubates the eggs and tends the young. There are 16 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Senegal.

*Small Buttonquail "Turnix sylvatica"
*Hottentot Buttonquail "Turnix hottentotta"
*Quail-plover "Ortyxelos meiffrenii"

Cranes

Order: GruiformesFamily: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Senegal.

*Black Crowned-Crane "Balearica pavonina"
*Common Crane "Grus grus"

Rails, Crakes, Gallinules, and Coots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Senegal.

*White-spotted Flufftail "Sarothrura pulchra"
*African Crake "Crecopsis egregia"
*Black Crake "Amaurornis flavirostris"
*Little Crake "Porzana parva"
*Baillon's Crake "Porzana pusilla"
*Spotted Crake "Porzana porzana"
*Purple Swamphen "Porphyrio porphyrio"
*Allen's Gallinule "Porphyrio alleni"
*Common Moorhen "Gallinula chloropus"
*Lesser Moorhen "Gallinula angulata"
*Eurasian Coot "Fulica atra"

ungrebe and Finfoots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Heliornithidae

The Heliornithidae are small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Senegal.

*African Finfoot "Podica senegalensis"

Bustards

Order: GruiformesFamily: Otididae

Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips, and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays. There are 26 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Senegal.

*Arabian Bustard "Ardeotis Arabs"
*Stanley Bustard "Neotis denhami"
*White-bellied Bustard "Eupodotis senegalensis"
*Savile's Bustard "Eupodotis savilei"
*Black-bellied Bustard "Lissotis melanogaster"

Jacanas

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Jacanidae

The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide in the Tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There 8 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Senegal.

*African Jacana "Actophilornis africanus"

Painted snipe

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Rostratulidae

Painted snipe are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Senegal.

*Greater Painted-snipe "Rostratula benghalensis"

Oystercatchers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are 11 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Senegal.

*African Oystercatcher "Haematopus moquini"
*Eurasian Oystercatcher "Haematopus ostralegus"

Avocets and Stilts

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Senegal.

*Black-winged Stilt "Himantopus himantopus"
*Pied Avocet "Recurvirostra avosetta"

Thick-knees

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Burhinidae

The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There are 9 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Senegal.

*Water Thick-knee "Burhinus vermiculatus"
*Eurasian Thick-knee "Burhinus oedicnemus"
*Senegal Thick-knee "Burhinus senegalensis"
*Spotted Thick-knee "Burhinus capensis"

Pratincoles and Coursers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Glareolidae

Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Senegal.

*Egyptian Plover "Pluvianus aegyptius"
*Cream-colored Courser "Cursorius cursor"
*Temminck's Courser "Cursorius temminckii"
*Bronze-winged Courser "Rhinoptilus chalcopterus"
*Collared Pratincole "Glareola pratincola"

Plovers and Lapwings

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Senegal.

*Northern Lapwing "Vanellus vanellus"
*Spur-winged Plover "Vanellus spinosus"
*Black-headed Lapwing "Vanellus tectus"
*White-headed Lapwing "Vanellus albiceps"
*Senegal Lapwing "Vanellus lugubris"
*Wattled Lapwing "Vanellus senegallus"
*Pacific Golden-Plover "Pluvialis fulva" (A)
*American Golden-Plover "Pluvialis Dominica"
*European Golden-Plover "Pluvialis apricaria"
*Black-bellied Plover "Pluvialis squatarola"
*Common Ringed Plover "Charadrius hiaticula"
*Little Ringed Plover "Charadrius dubius"
*Kittlitz's Plover "Charadrius pecuarius"
*Forbes's Plover "Charadrius forbesi"
*White-fronted Plover "Charadrius marginatus"
*Snowy Plover "Charadrius alexandrinus"
*Greater Sandplover "Charadrius leschenaultii"

andpipers and allies

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 28 species which occur in Senegal.

*Jack Snipe "Lymnocryptes minimus"
*Great Snipe "Gallinago media"
*Common Snipe "Gallinago gallinago"
*Black-tailed Godwit "Limosa limosa"
*Bar-tailed Godwit "Limosa lapponica"
*Whimbrel "Numenius phaeopus"
*Eurasian Curlew "Numenius arquata"
*Spotted Redshank "Tringa erythropus"
*Common Redshank "Tringa totanus"
*Marsh Sandpiper "Tringa stagnatilis"
*Common Greenshank "Tringa nebularia"
*Green Sandpiper "Tringa ochropus"
*Wood Sandpiper "Tringa glareola"
*Terek Sandpiper "Xenus cinereus"
*Common Sandpiper "Actitis hypoleucos"
*Ruddy Turnstone "Arenaria interpres"
*Red Knot "Calidris canutus"
*Sanderling "Calidris alba"
*Little Stint "Calidris minuta"
*Temminck's Stint "Calidris temminckii"
*Baird's Sandpiper "Calidris bairdii" (A)
*Curlew Sandpiper "Calidris ferruginea"
*Dunlin "Calidris alpina"
*Broad-billed Sandpiper "Limicola falcinellus"
*Buff-breasted Sandpiper "Tryngites subruficollis"
*Ruff "Philomachus pugnax"
*Red-necked Phalarope "Phalaropus lobatus"
*Red Phalarope "Phalaropus fulicarius"

kuas and Jaegers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Stercorariidae

The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and Arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Senegal.

*Great Skua "Stercorarius skua"
*Pomarine Jaeger "Stercorarius pomarinus"
*Parasitic Jaeger "Stercorarius parasiticus"
*Long-tailed Jaeger "Stercorarius longicaudus"

Gulls

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Senegal.

*Mew Gull "Larus canus"
*Audouin's Gull "Larus audouinii"
*Ring-billed Gull "Larus delawarensis"
*Kelp Gull "Larus dominicanus"
*Lesser Black-backed Gull "Larus fuscus"
*Caspian Gull "Larus cachinnans"
*Gray-headed Gull "Larus cirrocephalus"
*Black-headed Gull "Larus ridibundus"
*Slender-billed Gull "Larus genei"
*Bonaparte's Gull "Larus philadelphia"
*Mediterranean Gull "Larus melanocephalus"
*Laughing Gull "Larus atricilla" (A)
*Franklin's Gull "Larus pipixcan" (A)
*Little Gull "Larus minutus"
*Sabine's Gull "Xema sabini"
*Black-legged Kittiwake "Rissa tridactyla"

Terns

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Sternidae

Terns are a group of generally general medium to large sea-birds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25 to 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Senegal.

*Gull-billed Tern "Sterna nilotica"
*Caspian Tern "Sterna caspia"
*Lesser Crested Tern "Sterna bengalensis"
*Sandwich Tern "Sterna sandvicensis"
*Royal Tern "Sterna maxima"
*Roseate Tern "Sterna dougallii"
*Common Tern "Sterna hirundo"
*Arctic Tern "Sterna paradisaea"
*Little Tern "Sterna albifrons"
*Bridled Tern "Sterna anaethetus"
*Sooty Tern "Sterna fuscata"
*Whiskered Tern "Chlidonias hybridus"
*White-winged Tern "Chlidonias leucopterus"
*Black Tern "Chlidonias Niger"
*Black Noddy "Anous minutus"
*Brown Noddy "Anous stolidus"

kimmers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Rynchopidae

Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Senegal.

*African Skimmer "Rynchops flavirostris"

andgrouse

Order: PterocliformesFamily: Pteroclidae

Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. There are 16 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Senegal.

*Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse "Pterocles exustus"
*Lichtenstein's Sandgrouse "Pterocles lichtensteinii"
*Four-banded Sandgrouse "Pterocles quadricinctus"

Pigeons and Doves

Order: ColumbiformesFamily: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Senegal.

*Rock Pigeon "Columba livia"
*Speckled Pigeon "Columba guinea"
*Eurasian Turtle-Dove "Streptopelia turtur"
*African Collared-Dove "Streptopelia roseogrisea"
*African Mourning Dove "Streptopelia decipiens"
*Red-eyed Dove "Streptopelia semitorquata"
*Vinaceous Dove "Streptopelia vinacea"
*Laughing Dove "Streptopelia senegalensis"
*Black-billed Wood-Dove "Turtur abyssinicus"
*Blue-spotted Wood-Dove "Turtur afer"
*Tambourine Dove "Turtur tympanistria"
*Namaqua Dove "Oena capensis"
*Bruce's Green-Pigeon "Treron waalia"
*African Green-Pigeon "Treron calva"

Parrots, Macaws and allies

Order: PsittaciformesFamily: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and the have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. There are 335 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Senegal.

*Rose-ringed Parakeet "Psittacula krameri"
*Brown-necked Parrot "Poicephalus robustus"
*Senegal Parrot "Poicephalus senegalus"

Turacos

Order: CuculiformesFamily: Musophagidae

The turacos, plantain eaters and go-away birds make up the bird family Musophagidae. They are medium-sized arboreal birds. The turacos and plantain eaters are brightly coloured birds, usually blue, green or purple. The go-away birds are mostly grey and white. There are 23 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Senegal.

*Guinea Turaco "Tauraco persa"
*Violet Turaco "Musophaga violacea"
*Western Plantain-eater "Crinifer piscator"

Cuckoos and Anis

Order: CuculiformesFamily: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in Senegal.

*Pied Cuckoo "Clamator jacobinus"
*Levaillant's Cuckoo "Clamator levaillantii"
*Great Spotted Cuckoo "Clamator glandarius"
*Red-chested Cuckoo "Cuculus solitarius"
*Black Cuckoo "Cuculus clamosus"
*Common Cuckoo "Cuculus canorus"
*African Cuckoo "Cuculus gularis"
*Klaas's Cuckoo "Chrysococcyx klaas"
*African Emerald Cuckoo "Chrysococcyx cupreus"
*Dideric Cuckoo "Chrysococcyx caprius"
*Yellowbill "Ceuthmochares aereus"
*Black Coucal "Centropus grillii"
*Black-throated Coucal "Centropus leucogaster"
*Blue-headed Coucal "Centropus monachus"
*Senegal Coucal "Centropus senegalensis"

Barn owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Senegal.

*Barn Owl "Tyto alba"

Typical owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Senegal.

*African Scops-Owl "Otus senegalensis"
*European Scops-Owl "Otus scops"
*Northern White-faced Owl "Ptilopsis leucotis"
*Eurasian Eagle-Owl "Bubo bubo"
*Pharaoh Eagle-Owl "Bubo ascalaphus"
*Grayish Eagle-Owl "Bubo cinerascens"
*Verreaux's Eagle-Owl "Bubo lacteus"
*Pel's Fishing-Owl "Scotopelia peli"
*African Wood-Owl "Strix woodfordii"
*Pearl-spotted Owlet "Glaucidium perlatum"
*Short-eared Owl "Asio flammeus"
*Marsh Owl "Asio capensis"

Nightjars

Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Senegal.

*Red-necked Nightjar "Caprimulgus ruficollis"
*Eurasian Nightjar "Caprimulgus europaeus"
*Egyptian Nightjar "Caprimulgus aegyptius"
*Golden Nightjar "Caprimulgus eximius"
*Black-shouldered Nightjar "Caprimulgus nigriscapularis"
*Fiery-necked Nightjar "Caprimulgus pectoralis"
*Plain Nightjar "Caprimulgus inornatus"
*Freckled Nightjar "Caprimulgus tristigma"
*Long-tailed Nightjar "Caprimulgus climacurus"
*Pennant-winged Nightjar "Macrodipteryx vexillarius"
*Standard-winged Nightjar "Macrodipteryx longipennis"

wifts

Order: ApodiformesFamily: Apodidae

Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Senegal.

*Mottled Spinetail "Telacanthura ussheri"
*African Palm-Swift "Cypsiurus parvus"
*Alpine Swift "Tachymarptis melba" (A)
*Mottled Swift "Tachymarptis aequatorialis"
*Common Swift "Apus apus"
*Pallid Swift "Apus pallidus"
*Little Swift "Apus affinis"
*White-rumped Swift "Apus caffer"

Mousebirds

Order: ColiiformesFamily: Coliidae

The mousebirds are slender greyish or brown birds with soft, hairlike body feathers and very long thin tails. They are arboreal and scurry through the leaves like rodents in search of berries, fruit and buds. They are acrobatic, and can feed upside down. All species have strong claws and reversible outer toes. They also have crests and stubby bills. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Senegal.

*Blue-naped Mousebird "Urocolius macrourus"

Kingfishers

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Senegal.

*Common Kingfisher "Alcedo atthis"
*Shining-blue Kingfisher "Alcedo quadribrachys"
*Malachite Kingfisher "Alcedo cristata"
*African Pygmy-Kingfisher "Ispidina picta"
*Gray-headed Kingfisher "Halcyon leucocephala"
*Woodland Kingfisher "Halcyon senegalensis"
*Blue-breasted Kingfisher "Halcyon malimbica"
*Striped Kingfisher "Halcyon chelicuti"
*Giant Kingfisher "Megaceryle maximus"
*Pied Kingfisher "Ceryle rudis"

Bee-eaters

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Meropidae

The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colorful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Senegal.

*Red-throated Bee-eater "Merops bulocki"
*Little Bee-eater "Merops pusillus"
*Swallow-tailed Bee-eater "Merops hirundineus"
*White-throated Bee-eater "Merops albicollis"
*Green Bee-eater "Merops orientalis"
*Blue-cheeked Bee-eater "Merops persicus"
*European Bee-eater "Merops apiaster"
*Northern Carmine Bee-eater "Merops nubicus"

Typical Rollers

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Coraciidae

Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Senegal.

*European Roller "Coracias garrulus"
*Abyssinian Roller "Coracias abyssinica"
*Rufous-crowned Roller "Coracias naevia"
*Blue-bellied Roller "Coracias cyanogaster"
*Broad-billed Roller "Eurystomus glaucurus"
*Blue-throated Roller "Eurystomus gularis"

Hoopoes

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Upupidae

Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Senegal.

*Hoopoe "Upupa epops"

Woodhoopoes

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Phoeniculidae

The woodhoopoes are related to the kingfishers, rollers and hoopoe. They most resemble the last species with their long curved bills, used for probing for insects, and short rounded wings. However, they differ in that they have metallic plumage, often blue, green or purple, and lack an erectile crest. There are 8 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Senegal.

*Green Woodhoopoe "Phoeniculus purpureus"
*White-headed Woodhoopoe "Phoeniculus bollei"
*Black Scimitar-bill "Rhinopomastus aterrimus"

Hornbills

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Bucerotidae

Hornbills are a group of birds whose bill is shaped like a cow's horn, but without a twist, sometimes with a casque on the upper mandible. Frequently, the bill is brightly coloured. There are 57 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Senegal.

*Red-billed Hornbill "Tockus erythrorhynchus"
*African Pied Hornbill "Tockus fasciatus"
*African Gray Hornbill "Tockus nasutus"
*Piping Hornbill "Ceratogymna fistulator"
*Yellow-casqued Hornbill "Ceratogymna elata"
*Abyssinian Ground-Hornbill "Bucorvus abyssinicus"

Barbets

Order: PiciformesFamily: Capitonidae

The barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured. There are 84 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Senegal.

*Red-rumped Tinkerbird "Pogoniulus atroflavus"
*Yellow-throated Tinkerbird "Pogoniulus subsulphureus"
*Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird "Pogoniulus bilineatus"
*Yellow-fronted Tinkerbird "Pogoniulus chrysoconus"
*Hairy-breasted Barbet "Tricholaema hirsuta"
*Vieillot's Barbet "Lybius vieilloti"
*Bearded Barbet "Lybius dubius"

Honeyguides

Order: PiciformesFamily: Indicatoridae

Honeyguides are among the few birds that feed on wax. They are named for the behaviour of the Greater Honeyguide which leads large animals to bees' nests and then feeds on the wax once the animal has broken the nest open to get at the honey. There are 17 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Senegal.

*Spotted Honeyguide "Indicator maculatus"
*Greater Honeyguide "Indicator indicator"
*Lesser Honeyguide "Indicator minor"
*Least Honeyguide "Indicator exilis"
*Cassin's Honeyguide "Prodotiscus insignis"

Woodpeckers and allies

Order: PiciformesFamily: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium sized birds with chisel like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Senegal.

*Eurasian Wryneck "Jynx torquilla"
*Fine-spotted Woodpecker "Campethera punctuligera"
*Golden-tailed Woodpecker "Campethera abingoni"
*Little Green Woodpecker "Campethera maculosa"
*Buff-spotted Woodpecker "Campethera nivosa"
*Little Gray Woodpecker "Dendropicos elachus"
*Cardinal Woodpecker "Dendropicos fuscescens"
*Gray Woodpecker "Dendropicos goertae"
*Brown-backed Woodpecker "Dendropicos obsoletus"

Larks

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Senegal.

*Singing Bushlark "Mirafra cantillans"
*Kordofan Lark "Mirafra cordofanica"
*Flappet Lark "Mirafra rufocinnamomea"
*Rufous-rumped Lark "Pinarocorys erythropygia"
*Chestnut-backed Sparrow-Lark "Eremopterix leucotis"
*Black-crowned Sparrow-Lark "Eremopterix nigriceps"
*Greater Hoopoe-Lark "Alaemon alaudipes"
*Thick-billed Lark "Ramphocoris clotbey"
*Greater Short-toed Lark "Calandrella brachydactyla"
*Crested Lark "Galerida cristata"
*Sun Lark "Galerida modesta"

wallows and Martins

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Senegal.

*Bank Swallow "Riparia riparia"
*Plain Martin "Riparia paludicola"
*Gray-rumped Swallow "Pseudhirundo griseopyga"
*Eurasian Crag-Martin "Ptyonoprogne rupestris"
*Rock Martin "Ptyonoprogne fuligula"
*Barn Swallow "Hirundo rustica"
*Red-chested Swallow "Hirundo lucida"
*Ethiopian Swallow "Hirundo aethiopica"
*Wire-tailed Swallow "Hirundo smithii"
*Pied-winged Swallow "Hirundo leucosoma"
*Lesser Striped-Swallow "Cecropis abyssinica"
*Rufous-chested Swallow "Cecropis semirufa"
*Mosque Swallow "Cecropis senegalensis"
*Red-rumped Swallow "Cecropis daurica"
*Common House-Martin "Delichon urbica"
*Fanti Sawwing "Psalidoprocne obscura"

Wagtails and Pipits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Senegal.

*White Wagtail "Motacilla alba"
*African Pied Wagtail "Motacilla aguimp"
*Yellow Wagtail "Motacilla flava"
*Gray Wagtail "Motacilla cinerea"
*Yellow-throated Longclaw "Macronyx croceus"
*Plain-backed Pipit "Anthus leucophrys"
*Tawny Pipit "Anthus campestris"
*Long-billed Pipit "Anthus similis"
*Tree Pipit "Anthus trivialis"
*Red-throated Pipit "Anthus cervinus"

Cuckoo-shrikes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Campephagidae

The cuckoo-shrikes are small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although some species are brightly coloured. There are 82 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Senegal.

*White-breasted Cuckoo-shrike "Coracina pectoralis"
*Red-shouldered Cuckoo-shrike "Campephaga phoenicea"

Bulbuls

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Pycnonotidae

Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red or orange vents, cheeks, throat or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests. There are 130 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Senegal.

*Common Bulbul "Pycnonotus barbatus"
*Little Greenbul "Andropadus virens"
*Slender-billed Greenbul "Andropadus gracilirostris"
*Yellow-whiskered Bulbul "Andropadus latirostris"
*Yellow-throated Greenbul "Chlorocichla flavicollis"
*Swamp Greenbul "Thescelocichla leucopleura"
*Leaf-love "Phyllastrephus scandens"
*White-throated Greenbul "Phyllastrephus albigularis"
*Gray-headed Bristlebill "Bleda canicapilla"
*Yellow-spotted Nicator "Nicator chloris"
*Red-tailed Greenbul "Criniger calurus"
*Yellow-bearded Greenbul "Criniger olivaceus"

Thrushes and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Senegal.

*Rufous-tailed Rock-Thrush "Monticola saxatilis"
*Blue Rock-Thrush "Monticola solitarius"
*Olive Thrush "Turdus olivaceus"
*African Thrush "Turdus pelios"
*Song Thrush "Turdus philomelos"
*Fire-crested Alethe "Alethe diademata"

Cisticolas and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cisticolidae

The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub. There are 111 species worldwide and 18 species which occur in Senegal.

*Red-faced Cisticola "Cisticola erythrops"
*Singing Cisticola "Cisticola cantans"
*Whistling Cisticola "Cisticola lateralis"
*Red-pate Cisticola "Cisticola ruficeps"
*Winding Cisticola "Cisticola galactotes"
*Croaking Cisticola "Cisticola natalensis"
*Siffling Cisticola "Cisticola brachypterus"
*Rufous Cisticola "Cisticola rufus"
*Zitting Cisticola "Cisticola juncidis"
*Desert Cisticola "Cisticola aridulus"
*Black-necked Cisticola "Cisticola eximius"
*Tawny-flanked Prinia "Prinia subflava"
*River Prinia "Prinia fluviatilis"
*Red-winged Prinia "Prinia erythroptera"
*Cricket Longtail "Spiloptila clamans"
*Oriole Warbler "Hypergerus atriceps"
*Green-backed Camaroptera "Camaroptera brachyura"
*Olive-green Camaroptera "Camaroptera chloronota"

Old World warblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sylviidae

The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. The Sylviidae mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs. There are 291 species worldwide and 33 species which occur in Senegal.

*Black-capped Rufous-Warbler "Bathmocercus cerviniventris"
*Moustached Grass-Warbler "Melocichla mentalis"
*Grasshopper Warbler "Locustella naevia"
*Savi's Warbler "Locustella luscinioides"
*Aquatic Warbler "Acrocephalus paludicola"
*Sedge Warbler "Acrocephalus schoenobaenus"
*Eurasian Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus scirpaceus"
*African Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus baeticatus"
*Great Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus arundinaceus"
*Greater Swamp-Warbler "Acrocephalus rufescens"
*Eastern Olivaceous Warbler "Hippolais pallida"
*Western Olivaceous Warbler "Hippolais opaca"
*Melodious Warbler "Hippolais polyglotta"
*Icterine Warbler "Hippolais icterina"
*Yellow-bellied Eremomela "Eremomela icteropygialis"
*Senegal Eremomela "Eremomela pusilla"
*Green Crombec "Sylvietta virens"
*Northern Crombec "Sylvietta brachyura"
*Green Hylia "Hylia prasina"
*Willow Warbler "Phylloscopus trochilus"
*Common Chiffchaff "Phylloscopus collybita"
*Western Bonelli's Warbler "Phylloscopus bonelli"
*Wood Warbler "Phylloscopus sibilatrix"
*Yellow-bellied Hyliota "Hyliota flavigaster"
*Blackcap "Sylvia atricapilla"
*Garden Warbler "Sylvia borin"
*Greater Whitethroat "Sylvia communis"
*Lesser Whitethroat "Sylvia curruca"
*Barred Warbler "Sylvia nisoria"
*Western Orphean Warbler "Sylvia hortensis"
*Subalpine Warbler "Sylvia cantillans"
*Sardinian Warbler "Sylvia melanocephala"
*Spectacled Warbler "Sylvia conspicillata"

Old World flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Muscicapidae

Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is very varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. There 274 species worldwide and 31 species which occur in Senegal.

*Pale Flycatcher "Bradornis pallidus"
*Northern Black-Flycatcher "Melaenornis edolioides"
*White-browed Forest-Flycatcher "Fraseria cinerascens"
*Spotted Flycatcher "Muscicapa striata"
*Ussher's Flycatcher "Muscicapa ussheri"
*Swamp Flycatcher "Muscicapa aquatica"
*Gray Tit-Flycatcher "Myioparus plumbeus"
*European Pied Flycatcher "Ficedula hypoleuca"
*Collared Flycatcher "Ficedula albicollis"
*Red-breasted Flycatcher "Ficedula parva"
*Common Nightingale "Luscinia megarhynchos"
*Bluethroat "Luscinia svecica"
*Snowy-crowned Robin-Chat "Cossypha niveicapilla"
*White-crowned Robin-Chat "Cossypha albicapilla"
*Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin "Cercotrichas galactotes"
*African Scrub-Robin "Cercotrichas minor"
*Black Scrub-Robin "Cercotrichas podobe"
*Black Redstart "Phoenicurus ochruros"
*Common Redstart "Phoenicurus phoenicurus"
*Whinchat "Saxicola rubetra"
*African Stonechat "Saxicola torquata"
*White-tailed Wheatear "Oenanthe leucopyga"
*Northern Wheatear "Oenanthe oenanthe"
*Black-eared Wheatear "Oenanthe hispanica"
*Desert Wheatear "Oenanthe deserti"
*Isabelline Wheatear "Oenanthe isabellina"
*Familiar Chat "Cercomela familiaris"
*Northern Anteater-Chat "Myrmecocichla aethiops"
*Sooty Chat "Myrmecocichla nigra"
*White-fronted Black-Chat "Myrmecocichla albifrons"
*Mocking Cliff-Chat "Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris"

Wattle-eyes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Platysteiridae

The wattle-eyes or puffback flycatchers are small stout passerine birds of the African tropics. They get their name from the brightly coloured fleshy eye decorations found in most species in this group. There are 31 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Senegal.

*Brown-throated Wattle-eye "Platysteira cyanea"
*Senegal Batis "Batis senegalensis"

Monarch flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Monarchidae

The monarch flycatchers are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines, which hunt by flycatching. There are 99 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Senegal.

*African Blue-Flycatcher "Elminia longicauda"
*Black-headed Paradise-Flycatcher "Terpsiphone rufiventer"
*African Paradise-Flycatcher "Terpsiphone viridis"

Babblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Timaliidae

The babblers or timaliids are somewhat diverse in size and coloration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage. There are 270 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Senegal.

*Rufous-winged Illadopsis "Illadopsis rufescens"
*Puvel's Illadopsis "Illadopsis puveli"
*Brown Illadopsis "Illadopsis fulvescens"
*Fulvous Chatterer "Turdoides fulvus"
*Blackcap Babbler "Turdoides reinwardtii"
*Brown Babbler "Turdoides plebejus"
*Capuchin Babbler "Phyllanthus atripennis"

Chickadees and Titmice

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are species 59 worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Senegal.

*White-shouldered Black-Tit "Melaniparus guineensis"

Treecreepers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Certhiidae

Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Senegal.

*Spotted Creeper "Salpornis spilonotus"

Penduline tits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Remizidae

The penduline tits are a group of small passerine birds, related to the true tits. They are insectivores. There are 13 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Senegal.

*Sennar Penduline-Tit "Anthoscopus punctifrons"
*Yellow Penduline-Tit "Anthoscopus parvulus"

unbirds and Spiderhunters

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Nectariniidae

The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. Flight is fast and direct on their short wings. Most species can take nectar by hovering like a hummingbird, but usually perch to feed. There are 131 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Senegal.

*Mouse-brown Sunbird "Anthreptes gabonicus"
*Western Violet-backed Sunbird "Anthreptes longuemarei"
*Collared Sunbird "Hedydipna collaris"
*Pygmy Sunbird "Hedydipna platura"
*Green-headed Sunbird "Cyanomitra verticalis"
*Eastern Olive-Sunbird "Cyanomitra olivacea"
*Western Olive-Sunbird "Cyanomitra obscura"
*Buff-throated Sunbird "Chalcomitra adelberti"
*Scarlet-chested Sunbird "Chalcomitra senegalensis"
*Hunter's Sunbird "Chalcomitra hunteri"
*Olive-bellied Sunbird "Cinnyris chloropygius"
*Beautiful Sunbird "Cinnyris pulchellus"
*Splendid Sunbird "Cinnyris coccinigaster"
*Johanna's Sunbird "Cinnyris johannae"
*Variable Sunbird "Cinnyris venustus"
*Copper Sunbird "Cinnyris cupreus"

White-eyes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Zosteropidae

The white-eyes are small and are mostly of undistinguished appearance, the plumage above being generally either some dull color like greenish olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As their name suggests many species have a white ring around the eyes. There are 96 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Senegal.

*African Yellow White-eye "Zosterops senegalensis"

Old World Orioles

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Oriolidae

The Old World Orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Senegal.

*Eurasian Golden Oriole "Oriolus oriolus"
*African Golden Oriole "Oriolus auratus"

hrikes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Senegal.

*Rufous-tailed Shrike "Lanius isabellinus"
*Southern Gray Shrike "Lanius meridionalis"
*Woodchat Shrike "Lanius senator"
*Yellow-billed Shrike "Corvinella corvina"

Bushshrikes and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Malaconotidae

Bushshrikes are similar in habits to shrikes, hunting insects and other small prey from a perch on a bush. Although similar in build to the shrikes, these tend to be either colourful species or largely black; some species are quite secretive. There are 46 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Senegal.

*Brubru "Nilaus afer"
*Northern Puffback "Dryoscopus gambensis"
*Red-eyed Puffback "Dryoscopus senegalensis"
*Black-crowned Tchagra "Tchagra senegala"
*Turati's Boubou "Laniarius turatii"
*Tropical Boubou "Laniarius aethiopicus"
*Common Gonolek "Laniarius barbarus"
*Sulphur-breasted Bushshrike "Telophorus sulfureopectus"
*Gray-headed Bushshrike "Malaconotus blanchoti"

Helmetshrikes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Prionopidae

The helmetshrikes are similar in build to the shrikes, but tend to be colourful species with distinctive crests or other head ornaments, such as wattles, from which they get their name. There are 12 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Senegal.

*White Helmetshrike "Prionops plumatus"

Drongos

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Dicruridae

The drongos are mostly are black or dark grey in colour, sometimes with metallic tints. They have long forked tails, and some Asian species have elaborate tail decorations. They have short legs and sit very upright whilst perched, like a shrike. They flycatch or take prey from the ground. There are 24 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Senegal.

*Square-tailed Drongo "Dicrurus ludwigii"
*Fork-tailed Drongo "Dicrurus adsimilis"

Crows, Jays, Ravens and Magpies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behavior. There are 120 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Senegal.

*Piapiac "Ptilostomus afer"
*Pied Crow "Corvus albus"
*Brown-necked Raven "Corvus ruficollis"

tarlings

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Senegal.

*Greater Blue-eared Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis chalybaeus"
*Lesser Blue-eared Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis chloropterus"
*Bronze-tailed Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis chalcurus"
*Splendid Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis splendidus"
*Purple Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis purpureus"
*Long-tailed Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis caudatus"
*Chestnut-bellied Starling "Lamprotornis pulcher"
*Violet-backed Starling "Cinnyricinclus leucogaster"
*Neumann's Starling "Onychognathus neumanni"
*Yellow-billed Oxpecker "Buphagus africanus"

Weavers and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Ploceidae

The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 22 species which occur in Senegal.

*White-billed Buffalo-Weaver "Bubalornis albirostris"
*Speckle-fronted Weaver "Sporopipes frontalis"
*Chestnut-crowned Sparrow-Weaver "Plocepasser superciliosus"
*Slender-billed Weaver "Ploceus pelzelni"
*Little Weaver "Ploceus luteolus"
*Black-necked Weaver "Ploceus nigricollis"
*Orange Weaver "Ploceus aurantius"
*Heuglin's Masked-Weaver "Ploceus heuglini"
*Vitelline Masked-Weaver "Ploceus vitellinus"
*Village Weaver "Ploceus cucullatus"
*Black-headed Weaver "Ploceus melanocephalus"
*Compact Weaver "Pachyphantes superciliosus"
*Gray's Malimbe "Malimbus nitens"
*Red-headed Weaver "Anaplectes rubriceps"
*Red-headed Quelea "Quelea erythrops"
*Red-billed Quelea "Quelea quelea"
*Yellow-crowned Bishop "Euplectes afer"
*Black-winged Bishop "Euplectes hordeaceus"
*Orange Bishop "Euplectes franciscanus"
*Yellow-shouldered Widowbird "Euplectes macrourus"
*Red-collared Widowbird "Euplectes ardens"
*Grosbeak Weaver "Amblyospiza albifrons"

Waxbills and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Estrildidae

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have a wide variation in plumage colours and pattern. There are 141 species worldwide and 25 species which occur in Senegal.

*Chestnut-breasted Negrofinch "Nigrita bicolor"
*Gray-headed Oliveback "Nesocharis capistrata"
*Red-winged Pytilia "Pytilia phoenicoptera"
*Green-winged Pytilia "Pytilia melba"
*Crimson Seedcracker "Pyrenestes sanguineus"
*Western Bluebill "Spermophaga haematina"
*Dybowski's Twinspot "Euschistospiza dybowskii"
*Bar-breasted Firefinch "Lagonosticta rufopicta"
*Red-billed Firefinch "Lagonosticta senegala"
*Black-bellied Firefinch "Lagonosticta rara"
*African Firefinch "Lagonosticta rubricata"
*Pale-billed Firefinch "Lagonosticta landanae"
*Mali Firefinch "Lagonosticta virata"
*Black-faced Firefinch "Lagonosticta larvata"
*Red-cheeked Cordonbleu "Uraeginthus bengalus"
*Lavender Waxbill "Estrilda caerulescens"
*Orange-cheeked Waxbill "Estrilda melpoda"
*Black-rumped Waxbill "Estrilda troglodytes"
*Zebra Waxbill "Sporaeginthus subflavus"
*Black-faced Quailfinch "Ortygospiza atricollis"
*African Silverbill "Euodice cantans"
*Bronze Mannikin "Spermestes cucullatus"
*Black-and-white Mannikin "Spermestes bicolor"
*Magpie Mannikin "Spermestes fringilloides"
*Cut-throat "Amadina fasciata"

Indigobirds

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Viduidae

The indigobirds are finch-like species which usually have black or indigo predominating in their plumage. All are brood parasites, which lay their eggs in the nests of estrildid finch species. There are 20 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Senegal.

*Village Indigobird "Vidua chalybeata"
*Quailfinch Indigobird "Vidua nigeriae"
*Pale-winged Indigobird "Vidua wilsoni"
*Cameroon Indigobird "Vidua camerunensis"
*Pin-tailed Whydah "Vidua macroura"
*Northern Paradise-Whydah "Vidua orientalis"

Buntings, Sparrows, Seedeaters and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Emberizidae

The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are species 275 worldwide and 6 species which occur in Senegal.

*Ortolan Bunting "Emberiza hortulana"
*House Bunting "Emberiza striolata"
*Cinnamon-breasted Bunting "Emberiza tahapisi"
*Golden-breasted Bunting "Emberiza flaviventris"
*Brown-rumped Bunting "Emberiza affinis"
*Corn Bunting "Emberiza calandra"

iskins, Crossbills and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Senegal.

*Brambling "Fringilla montifringilla"
*Eurasian Linnet "Carduelis cannabina"
*White-rumped Seedeater "Serinus leucopygius"
*Yellow-fronted Canary "Serinus mozambicus"

parrows

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Passeridae

Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Senegal.

*House Sparrow "Passer domesticus" (I)
*Gray-headed Sparrow "Passer griseus"
*Sudan Golden-Sparrow "Passer luteus"
*Yellow-spotted Petronia "Petronia pyrgita"
*Bush Petronia "Petronia dentata"

Notes and references

Notes

References

*cite web
url=http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/search.php?kingname=ANIMALIA&phyname=CHORDATA&claname=MAMMALIA&freetext=&modifier=phrase&criteria=wholedb&taxa_species=1&redlistCategory%5B0%5D=all&redlistAssessyear%5B0%5D=all&country%5B0%5D=SN&aquatic%5B0%5D=all&regions%5B0%5D=all&habitats%5B0%5D=all&threats%5B0%5D=all&Submit_x=34&Submit_y=9&extendedResults=0&terrestrial=0&marine=0&freshwater=0&offset=0&sortorder%5B0%5D=spcscientificname&sortorder%5B1%5D=genname&sortorder%5B2%5D=spcname&sortorder%5B3%5D=spcauthor&sortorder%5B4%5D=spcinfrarank&sortorder%5B5%5D=spcinfraepithet&sortorder%5B6%5D=spcinfrarankauthor&sortorder%5B7%5D=spcstockname&sortorder%5B8%5D=comname_comp&sortorder%5B9%5D=rlcabb&sortorder%5B10%5D=rlscriteria&sortorder%5B11%5D=poptrend_code&sortorder%5B12%5D=rlcatcrit2001&sortorder%5B13%5D=spcrecid&sortorder%5B14%5D=kingname&debug=0&taxa_subspc=0&taxa_stock=0&newsort=Genus
title=The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Mammals of Senegal
publisher=IUCN
date=2001
accessdaymonth = 22 May
accessyear=2007

*cite web
url=http://nmnhgoph.si.edu/msw/
title=Mammal Species of the World
publisher=Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
date=2005
accessdaymonth = 22 May
accessyear=2007

*cite web
url=http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/index.html
title=Animal Diversity Web
publisher=University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
date=1995-2006
accessdaymonth = 22 May
accessyear=2007

*cite web
last = Lepage
first = Denis
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =
url = http://www.bsc-eoc.org/avibase/avibase.jsp?region=sn&pg=checklist&list=clements
title = Checklist of birds of Senegal
format =
work = Bird Checklists of the World
publisher = Avibase
accessdate = 27 April
accessyear = 2007

*cite book
title=Birds of the World: a Checklist
first= James F.
last = Clements
publisher = Cornell University Press
date = 2000
id = ISBN 0934797161
pages = 880

External links


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