- Sea Frontier
Sea Frontiers were established by the United States Navy from 1 July 1941 during World War II as areas of defense against enemy vessels, especially submarines, along the American coasts. Sea Frontiers generally started at the shore of the United States and extended outwards into the sea for a nominal distance of two hundred miles.
The commander of a Sea Frontier had control and responsibility for convoys within its defined area, had its own vessels for convoy use or other uses as determined by the commander, and worked closely with the U.S. Army Air Force in the defense of the frontier. Usually, offices of the U.S. Navy and U.S. Army Air Force officers assigned to the frontier, had their offices side by side in order to create effective two-way communications and expedited reaction to reports of enemy presence.
In addition to providing escorts for convoys within its frontier, the frontier was responsible for sea-air rescue, harbor defense, shipping lane patrol, minesweeping, and air operations.
Sea Frontiers were intended for wartime use, but many continued on for some years after the end of World War II.
In addition to the Sea Frontiers under the cognizance of U.S. military authorities, the Canadian Coastal Zone was the responsibility of the Royal Canadian Navy. This formation was very active since the majority of trans-Atlantic convoys originated or terminated in Canadian waters.
List of Sea Frontiers
- Alaskan Sea Frontier
- Caribbean Sea Frontier - The Caribbean Sea Frontier (CARIBSEAFRON) was under the command of Vice Admiral John H. Hoover, Commander Caribbean Sea Frontier or COMCARIBSEAFRON, and the responsibility of the frontier was the protection of Allied shipping in the Caribbean Sea and along the Atlantic Coast of South America during World War II. The German U-Boat made a last bitter stand in the Trinidad area in the fall of 1942. Since then, coastal waters continued to be relatively safe of the U-boat menace.
- Eastern Sea Frontier - proved to be a "rich hunting ground" for German submarines during early years of the war. See Second Happy Time.
- Gulf Sea Frontier - Organized 6 February 1942 the Gulf Sea Frontier (GULFSEAFRON) was headquartered at Key West, Florida, and was later moved to Miami, Florida on 17 June 1942. Captain Russell S. Crenshaw was Commander, Gulf Sea Frontier (COMGULFSEAFRON) until June 3, 1942, when he was replaced by Rear Admiral James L. Kauffman. During World War II, it was responsible for protecting the waters of Florida and the Bahamas as well as the Gulf of Mexico, the Yucatan Channel and areas near Cuba.
- Hawaiian Sea Frontier
- Moroccan Sea Frontier - The Morocco Sea Frontier, sometimes called the North Africa Sea Frontier, was a U.S. naval unit on the east coast of French Morocco during World War II. It was established as a Sea Frontier under the command of Rear Admiral John L. Hall, Jr.
- Northwest Sea Frontier
- Panama Sea Frontier
- Philippine Sea Frontier - organised after U.S. return to the Philippines in 1944
- Western Sea Frontier
- Admiral Earnest J. King, First Report to the Secretary of the Navy: Covering our Peacetime Navy and our Wartime Navy and including combat operations up to 1 March 1944. April 1944, pp. 75–88.
- Samuel Eliot Morrison, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, The Battle of the Atlantic, 1939-1943. ISBN 0-7858-1302-0
- U-boat Archive - Eastern Sea Frontier
- U-boat Archive - Eastern Sea Frontier - War Diary March 1942
- Glossary of U.S. Naval Abbreviations (OPNAV 29-P1000)
- Naval Operations in the Atlantic and Mediterranean to March 1944
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Look at other dictionaries:
sea frontier — The naval command of a coastal frontier, including the coastal zone in addition to the land area of the coastal frontier and the adjacent sea areas … Military dictionary
sea frontier — noun : a large nonadministrative sea and land area command (as in the United States Navy) organized under a district commandant … Useful english dictionary
Eastern Sea Frontier — was located at 90 Church Street in Lower Manhattan and was responsible for the coastal waters from Canada to Jacksonville, Florida. The commander of the Eastern Sea Frontier, until the closing months of 1943, was Vice Admiral Adolphus Andrews… … Wikipedia
Hawaiian Sea Frontier — The Hawaiian Sea Frontier was established during World War II to provide responsibility for defense of the island of Oahu.The Hawaiian Sea Frontier (HawSeaFron) did not actually come into a settled form until September 1942. The Assistant Chief… … Wikipedia
Philippine Sea Frontier — The Philippine Sea Frontier (PHILSEAFRON) was a United States Navy Sea Frontier active in 1941, and reformed in 1944. On 8 December 1941 it was part of the 16th Naval District, a component of the United States Asiatic Fleet. (Naval Coastal… … Wikipedia
Panama Sea Frontier — The Panama Sea Frontier was responsible, during World War II, for the defense of the Pacific and Atlantic sea approaches to the Panama Canal and for naval shore facilities in the Central America region. The Sea Frontier headquarters were located… … Wikipedia
Gulf Sea Frontier — Organized 6 February 1942 the Gulf Sea Frontier was headquartered at Key West, Florida, and was later moved to Miami, Florida on 17 June 1942. Captain Russell S. Crenshaw was Commander of the Gulf Sea Frontier until June 3, 1942, when he was… … Wikipedia
Western Sea Frontier — The Western Sea Frontier, headquartered in San Francisco, California, USA, was responsible for the sea defense of the Pacific coast of the United States and Mexico during World War II. The Western Sea Frontier was composed of many forces and… … Wikipedia
Caribbean Sea Frontier — The Caribbean Sea Frontier was under the command of Vice Admiral J. H. Hoover, Commander Caribbean Sea Frontier, and the responsibility of the frontier was the protection of Allied shipping in the Caribbean Sea and along the Atlantic Coast of… … Wikipedia
Moroccan Sea Frontier — The Morocco Sea Frontier, sometimes called the North Africa Sea Frontier, was a U.S. naval unit on the east coast of French Morocco during World War II. It was established as a Sea Frontier under the command of Rear Admiral John L. Hall, Jr.ee… … Wikipedia