- Fermentation starter
Fermentation starters (called simply starters within the corresponding context) are preparations to assist the beginning of the fermentation process in preparation of various foods and fermented drinks. A starter culture is a microbiological culture which actually performs fermentation. These starters usually consist of a cultivation medium, such as grains, seeds, or nutrient liquids that have been well colonized by the microorganisms used for the fermentation.
In descriptions of national cuisines, fermentation starters may be referred to by their national names:
- Qū (simplified: 曲; traditional: 麴, also romanized as chu) (China)
- Nuruk or Nulook < HS code: 2102.20.2000 > (누룩), meju or Mae-joo < HS code: 2103.90.9040 > or Mae-zu (메주) (Korea)
- Koji (麹) (Japan)
- Ragi (Southeast Asia)
- Bakhar, ranu, marchaar (murcha) (India)
- Bubod (Philippines)
- Loopang (look pang Thai: ลูกแป้ง) (Thailand)
- Levain (France)
- Bread zakvaska (закваска, sourdough) (Russia, Ukraine)
- Opara (опара), (Russia), a starter based on yeast
Typical microorganisms used in starters include various bacteria and fungi (yeasts and molds): Rhizopus, Aspergillus, Mucor, Amylomyces, Endomycopsis, Saccharomyces, Hansenula anomala, Lactobacillus, Acetobacter, etc. Various national cultures have various active ingredients in starters, and often involve mixed microflora.
- Bread starter
- ^ a b c Norman F. Haard, S.A. Odunfa, Cherl-Ho Lee, R. Quintero-Ramírez, Argelia Lorence-Quiñones, Carmen Wacher-Radarte, Fermented Cereals: A Global Perspective, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 1999, ISBN 92-5-104296-9.
- ^ Dilip K. Arora, Libero Ajello, K. G. Mukerji, Handbook of Applied Mycology: Foods and Feeds, Volume 3, CRC Press, 1991, ISBN 082478491.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Starter — may refer to: * Automobile self starter, or motor starters, used to start large electrical motors * Fluorescent lamp Starter, used to jump start fluorescent lights since they require a charge in order to turn on (Refer to section 2.3) * Bread… … Wikipedia
starter — [stärt′ər] n. a person or thing that starts; specif., a) the first in a series b) a person or animal that starts in a race or game c) a person who gives the signal to start, as in a race d) a person who supervises the departure of commercial… … English World dictionary
starter — /ˈstatə / (say stahtuh) noun 1. someone or something that starts. 2. a person who gives the signal for starting, as in a race: *officials declared a no race because of a recall by the starter –aap news, 2000. 3. a self starter (def. 1). 4. any… … Australian English dictionary
starter — /stahr teuhr/, n. 1. a person or thing that starts. 2. a person who gives the signal to begin, as for a race, the running of a train, bus, elevator, etc. 3. a device that starts an internal combustion engine without a need for cranking by hand. 4 … Universalium
starter — noun 1》 a person or thing starting in a specified way: a slow starter. ↘a person who signals the start of a race. ↘a competitor taking part in a race or game at the start. ↘Baseball the pitcher who starts the game. 2》 an automatic… … English new terms dictionary
starter — I. noun Date: 1622 1. a person who initiates or sets going: as a. an official who gives the signal to begin a race b. one who dispatches vehicles 2. a. one that engages in a competition; especially a member of a starting lineup b. one that begins … New Collegiate Dictionary
starter — start•er [[t]ˈstɑr tər[/t]] n. 1) a person or thing that starts 2) a person who gives the signal to begin, as for a race or the running of a train, elevator, etc 3) aum a device that starts an internal combustion engine without a need for… … From formal English to slang
starter culture — An inoculum, consisting of a mixture of carefully selected microorganisms, used to start a commercial fermentation … Dictionary of microbiology
starter dough — noun A small amount of live dough used in traditional bakery to start the fermentation process necessary for preparing sourdough. Syn: mother sponge … Wiktionary
starter — SYN: primer (1). * * * start·er (stahrґtər) a culture of microorganisms used to initiate fermentation, as in dairy products … Medical dictionary