- Beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2
summary_text = The beta-adrenergic receptor kinase specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and related G protein-coupled receptors. Overall, the beta adrenergic receptor kinase 2 has 85% amino acid similarity with beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1, with the protein kinase catalytic domain having 95% similarity. These data suggest the existence of a family of receptor kinases which may serve broadly to regulate receptor function.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: ADRBK2 adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 2| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=157| accessdate = ]
Beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2 (ARBK2, BARK-2, G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 3, GRK3) is an intracellular enzyme that phosphorylates G protein-coupled receptors. It was cloned from mice and rats in 1991, [cite journal
last = Benovic
first = J. L.
title = "Cloning, expression, and chromosomal localization of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2: a new member of the receptor kinase family"
journal = J. Biol. Chem.
volume = 266
pages = 14939–14946
date = 1991
accessdate = ] . The human gene was cloned in 1993. [cite journal
last = Parruti
first = G.
title = "Molecular cloning, functional expression and mRNA analysis of human beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2."
journal = Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
volume = 190
pages = 475–481
date = 1993
accessdate = ]
In 2003, a group of American and Canadian researchers published a paper that used gene linkage techniques to identify a mutation in the GRK3 gene as a possible cause of up to 10% of cases of
bipolar disorder. [cite journal
last = Barrett
first = T B
title = "Evidence that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter of the G protein receptor kinase 3 gene is associated with bipolar disorder"
journal = Molecular Psychiatry
volume = 8
pages = 546–557
date = 2003
accessdate = ] Beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2 appears to affect
Subsequent studies, while noting that chromosome 22q12 may harbor a risk gene for
schizophrenia, did not find that the gene coding for beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2 was linked to schizophrenia. [cite journal
last = Yu
first = SY
title = "Mutation screening and association study of the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 gene in schizophrenia families."
journal = Psychiatry Res.
volume = 125
pages = 95–104
date = 2004
accessdate = ]
*cite journal | author=Benovic JL, Onorato JJ, Arriza JL, "et al." |title=Cloning, expression, and chromosomal localization of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2. A new member of the receptor kinase family. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=266 |issue= 23 |pages= 14939–46 |year= 1991 |pmid= 1869533 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Calabrese G, Sallese M, Stornaiuolo A, "et al." |title=Chromosome mapping of the human arrestin (SAG), beta-arrestin 2 (ARRB2), and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 (ADRBK2) genes. |journal=Genomics |volume=23 |issue= 1 |pages= 286–8 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7695743 |doi= 10.1006/geno.1994.1497
*cite journal | author=Parruti G, Ambrosini G, Sallese M, De Blasi A |title=Molecular cloning, functional expression and mRNA analysis of human beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2. |journal=Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. |volume=190 |issue= 2 |pages= 475–81 |year= 1993 |pmid= 8427589 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Oppermann M, Freedman NJ, Alexander RW, Lefkowitz RJ |title=Phosphorylation of the type 1A angiotensin II receptor by G protein-coupled receptor kinases and protein kinase C. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=271 |issue= 22 |pages= 13266–72 |year= 1996 |pmid= 8662816 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Premont RT, Claing A, Vitale N, "et al." |title=beta2-Adrenergic receptor regulation by GIT1, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase-associated ADP ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=95 |issue= 24 |pages= 14082–7 |year= 1998 |pmid= 9826657 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Oppermann M, Mack M, Proudfoot AE, Olbrich H |title=Differential effects of CC chemokines on CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) phosphorylation and identification of phosphorylation sites on the CCR5 carboxyl terminus. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=274 |issue= 13 |pages= 8875–85 |year= 1999 |pmid= 10085131 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Dunham I, Shimizu N, Roe BA, "et al." |title=The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22. |journal=Nature |volume=402 |issue= 6761 |pages= 489–95 |year= 1999 |pmid= 10591208 |doi= 10.1038/990031
*cite journal | author=Inngjerdingen M, Damaj B, Maghazachi AA |title=Human NK cells express CC chemokine receptors 4 and 8 and respond to thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, macrophage-derived chemokine, and I-309. |journal=J. Immunol. |volume=164 |issue= 8 |pages= 4048–54 |year= 2000 |pmid= 10754297 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Celver JP, Lowe J, Kovoor A, "et al." |title=Threonine 180 is required for G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 3- and beta-arrestin 2-mediated desensitization of the mu-opioid receptor in Xenopus oocytes. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=276 |issue= 7 |pages= 4894–900 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11060299 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M007437200
*cite journal | author=Blaukat A, Pizard A, Breit A, "et al." |title=Determination of bradykinin B2 receptor in vivo phosphorylation sites and their role in receptor function. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=276 |issue= 44 |pages= 40431–40 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11517230 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M107024200
*cite journal | author=Wang J, Guan E, Roderiquez G, "et al." |title=Role of tyrosine phosphorylation in ligand-independent sequestration of CXCR4 in human primary monocytes-macrophages. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=276 |issue= 52 |pages= 49236–43 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11668182 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M108523200
*cite journal | author=Obara K, Arai K, Tomita Y, "et al." |title=G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 and 3 expression in human detrusor cultured smooth muscle cells. |journal=Urol. Res. |volume=29 |issue= 5 |pages= 325–9 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11762794 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Mandyam CD, Thakker DR, Christensen JL, Standifer KM |title=Orphanin FQ/nociceptin-mediated desensitization of opioid receptor-like 1 receptor and mu opioid receptors involves protein kinase C: a molecular mechanism for heterologous cross-talk. |journal=J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. |volume=302 |issue= 2 |pages= 502–9 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12130708 |doi= 10.1124/jpet.102.033159
*cite journal | author=Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, "et al." |title=Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=99 |issue= 26 |pages= 16899–903 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12477932 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.242603899
*cite journal | author=Barrett TB, Hauger RL, Kennedy JL, "et al." |title=Evidence that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter of the G protein receptor kinase 3 gene is associated with bipolar disorder. |journal=Mol. Psychiatry |volume=8 |issue= 5 |pages= 546–57 |year= 2004 |pmid= 12808434 |doi= 10.1038/sj.mp.4001268
*cite journal | author=Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, "et al." |title=Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. |journal=Nat. Genet. |volume=36 |issue= 1 |pages= 40–5 |year= 2004 |pmid= 14702039 |doi= 10.1038/ng1285
*cite journal | author=Dzimiri N, Muiya P, Andres E, Al-Halees Z |title=Differential functional expression of human myocardial G protein receptor kinases in left ventricular cardiac diseases. |journal=Eur. J. Pharmacol. |volume=489 |issue= 3 |pages= 167–77 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15087239 |doi= 10.1016/j.ejphar.2004.03.015
*cite journal | author=Teli T, Markovic D, Levine MA, "et al." |title=Regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1alpha signaling: structural determinants for G protein-coupled receptor kinase-mediated phosphorylation and agonist-mediated desensitization. |journal=Mol. Endocrinol. |volume=19 |issue= 2 |pages= 474–90 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15498832 |doi= 10.1210/me.2004-0275
*cite journal | author=Feng YH, Wang L, Wang Q, "et al." |title=ATP stimulates GRK-3 phosphorylation and beta-arrestin-2-dependent internalization of P2X7 receptor. |journal=Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. |volume=288 |issue= 6 |pages= C1342–56 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15728711 |doi= 10.1152/ajpcell.00315.2004
*cite journal | author=Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, "et al." |title=Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network. |journal=Nature |volume=437 |issue= 7062 |pages= 1173–8 |year= 2005 |pmid= 16189514 |doi= 10.1038/nature04209
* [http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/mp/journal/v8/n5/abs/4001268a.html&dynoptions=doi1056040331 Online version of the paper in "Molecular Psychiatry"]
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12808434&dopt=Abstract PubMed abstract]
* [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/06/030617080403.htm Report from sciencedaily.com]
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