- War Department Light Railways
The War Department Light Railways were a system of
narrow gauge trench railwaysrun by the British War Department in World War I. Light railways made an important contribution to the Allied war effort in the first world war, being were used for the supply of ammunition and stores, the transport of troops and the evacuation of the wounded.
track gauges were used in different parts of the world including RailGauge|600mm, RailGauge|760mm, RailGauge|1m and 1.05 m.
The military light railways in
Francewere of RailGauge|600mm gauge and used a variety of steam and petrol locomotives from French, British and American builders. The Germans installed their RailGauge|600mm gauge Feldbahnsystem early in the war. Trench railwaysof the World War Iwestern front produced the greatest concentration of minimum gauge railway locomotives observed to date. [Small (1982) p.56]
Britain came to the belated realisation that it needed a flexible and reliable method of supplying the front lines, bringing shells, timber, and fodder from the rear areas and their standard gauge supply points. narrow gauge
light railways were the solution.
Hundreds of locomotives were built by companies such as Hunslet,
Kerr Stuart, ALCO, Davenport, Motor Railand Baldwin to work these lines. Also, Model T Ford conversions were used. Thirty or so Companies were formed within the Royal Engineersto staff the lines. These were mostly British ex-railwaymen pressed into service, though Australian, South African and Canadian gangs served with distinction. An American unit also served under the British flag.
Each area of the front would have its own light rail to bring up materiel. The British perfected roll on roll off train ferries Fact|date=February 2007 to bring fodder and supplies direct from England via train ferries to France. Northern French rail lines were under direct military control of the Army in the area.
By 1917, the Canadians led the way in showing the utility of light railways. Having built thousands of miles of new frontier track in Western Canada in the previous decades, these "colonials", led by J. Stewart, supplied the
Canadian Corpswho went on to victory at Vimy. From this the light railways were expanded to 700 miles of track, which supplied 7,000 tons of supplies daily. The ebb and flow of war meant that rail lines were built and rebuilt, moved and used elsewhere, but by the latter years of Passchendaele, Amiensand Argonne, light railways came into their own and pulled for the final victory.
A large number of locomotives (mostly of RailGauge|600mm gauge) was ordered for the WDLR. These included:
* Baguley (McEwan Pratt) 10 HP, petrol/paraffin
Motor Rail(Simplex) 20 HP, petrol
* Motor Rail (Simplex) 40 HP, petrol
British Westinghouse45 HP, petrol-electric
Dick, Kerr & Co.45 HP, petrol-electric
A few captured German
feldbahnlocomotives were also used but these usually had short lives because no spare parts were available for them.
Both the French Army and the U.S. Army had their own locomotives, which included:
* Baldwin 2-6-2T
After the War
Probably the most famous of these war service engines were of class 10-12-D, built by the
Baldwin Locomotive Works, U.S.A.Nearly 500 were built and those that survived the war found new homes around the world. Many went to Indiaand after the war a few went to railways in Britain including:
Ashover Light Railway
Glyn Valley Tramway
Snailbeach District Railways
Welsh Highland Railway
Railway Operating Division
Foley, Welch and Stewart
* [http://www.wdlr.org.uk War Department Light Railways homepage]
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