Corregidora, Querétaro


Corregidora, Querétaro

Infobox Settlement
official_name = Corregidora, Querétaro, Mexico
latd = 20.32° N
longd = 100.26° W
Municipal_President = Germán Borja
Presidents_Party = PAN
area_total_km2 = 245.8
population_total = 104,218
Population_as_of = 2005
HDI = 0.8535
HDI_AsOf = 2000
timezone = CST
utc_offset= -6
gdp = 15.757,00
gdp_AsOf = 2000
gdp_currency = US$
website = http://www.corregidoramunicipioqro.gob.mx"'

Corregidora is a municipality in extreme southwestern Querétaro, on the border with the state of Guanajuato. Its municipal seat is the town of El Pueblito ("little town"), which had a population of 44,305 in the 2005 census.

It is named after the alias of the Mexican heroine Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez.

History

In this territory area and population had different names according to the political and religious incidents.

Precolonial aspects (before the Spanish conquest)

In the precolonial era, according to some historians, this place was named "Tlachco" because the existence of a venue for the ball game, but sadly there are not written documents about it. So it can not be sure that this name is correct.

The limits of the señorío of "El Cerrito" (little hill) in the precolonial era extended beyond the natural barrier that surround the valley of "El pueblito" (little town), with mountains and hills; there are no important archaeological ruins inside of it, although with a little more beyond the limits there where small towns that could well received its influence: to the southwest, San Bartolo, Guanajuato; to the southeast, "Puerta de Tepozán" in the municipality of Huimilpan in Queretaro; to the north "La Joya" and "Tlacote" in the city of Santiago de Queretaro, to the northwest "La Magdalena" in the municipality of Apaseo el Grande in Guanajuato.

Inside the municipal territory of Corregidora there is: to the south "La Cueva (Joaquín Herrera)" (The cave) and "El Recodo", in the center, to the west there is "Santa Barbara" and "La Negreta"; to the east "El Cerrito" (Little Hill), "El Shindo" (Fat Hill) join to this last with a Roman style road, in the skirts of the Shindo there is the urbanization of "Emiliano Zapata".

First settlers

The research on the site had been able to establish, based in the 1984 studies, the year in which the regional center of INAH was established, and in which the topographic studies where done in "El Cerrito", that: "the start of this center, (El Cerrito) occur in the beginnings of the Christian era".

The elements in which the researchers based this theory was the ceramics found in site and the original plan of the ceremonial platform, that consists in a four part systems in which the ceremonial space is limited by the platform that is divided in four portions, which axis are the cardinal points.

In this time the settlers of the place lived in the margins of the river "El Pueblito", which is related to the customs of sedentary tribes, which means that they lived of agriculture taking advantage of the fertile soil on the side of the river. The river is located next to the ceremonial center in "El Cerrito" and is the division between "Santa Barbara" and "La Negreta"

The valley of Querétaro

The studies made by personnel of the INAH and other investigators in the valley of Queretaro, have allowed us to know that in this one they were manifold vestiges of old establishments, being located to the greater number of these in the North part and the West, in surrounding hills and hills.

To the south of the valley of Querétaro and within the numerous vestiges of old establishments, is the architectonic center more substitute of this zone: The Ceremonial Center The Cerrito. The studies made by experts in the matter, establish as beginning of the establishment of this zone approximately in year 300 a. C. and thinks that this one reached an important number of settlers during the first millennium.

However, in direct reference to the more important archaeological monument of the valley, the pyramid of the Cerrito, and the region where she is based, have been managed to establish that its history includes a period of almost two thousand years, which are subdivided in several stages; beginning these when the first human groups that were based in these earth (possibly recolectores-hunting), realized advantage great that stops agriculture they meant rich fertile valleys of the river and decided to establish its habitat in the margins of the same one.

Since it has been indicated previously, the places in which they settled down were those that at the moment are known like: El Pueblito, La Negreta, El Recodo, Santa Barbara, El Shindó, El Molinito, La Cueva, Lourdes and others. This stage is located 350 years a. C. For such aim, those old settlers disassembled to the territories of the valley and slopes of hills; they dammed and they lead waters of the river of the Pueblito to take advantage of them in his ready for sowing ones; they laid ways to communicate and they made of the Cerrito the first nucleus of spiritual and political government in the region.

Economic development

Once the societies seated in the valley of Querétaro organized for the satisfaction of his more enormous necessities, like the food production, of domestic equipment, tools for Earth farming or the construction of their rooms, their ways, to make their dresses etc. also looked for to satisfy their spiritual necessities, for which, under the guide (probably) of a priest, they occurred to the task of erecting a building that had the own characteristics of a ceremonial center and also it fulfilled those of a regional political center. This would happen towards 650 years 400 and d. C. time at which "the Cerrito was host of a political center of importance in the valley, since it was elevated like one of the buildings of greater regional relevance."

This hypothesis is sustained in the evidences found in a habitacional enclave of the Cerrito, where carved obsidian pieces were found with a technique that did not leave place to doubts on the specialization that in the working of this material the old settlers of this site had. On the other hand, this place comprised of the commercial runner who was caused by Teotihuacán. The time of greater development began apparently, after century VII and continued until the century XII in which it continued being host of a local power of importance, same that was also reinforced when becoming center of regional cult.

It participated together in a calendárico adjustment with other centers of the plateau. Their priests settled down relation with Tula, religious center with which shared the symbolism that was pronounced through the lapidaria. With time, the population of the valley was increased; forming in the following centuries several towns, independent of others but with the same customs and inherited religious and cultural practices. To them they were added: Door of Tepozán, San Bartolo, the Jewel, Tlacote and the Magdalena. Between 950 years 800 to d. C., the conflicts between the population centers, that lasted more than two centuries, concluded with a unificadora action, without the cause is known that motivated it.

This could be the result of which they have been seen in danger to be put under by towns of other regions, or that some of them has created conflicts with its neighbors; reaching the victory and that this gave rise to a new arrangement of the population and the concentration of the government. This seems to agree with the height of the toltecas in Tula. At that time the Cerrito lived his second stage on splendor and was the center of the spiritual and civil government in the region. The pyramid was extended and hermoseada; agriculture and the exchange with neighboring regions caused the progress of the valley, but this one did not manage to last long time returning the place to be left.

Around century XI, the Cerrito was left without the exact causes are known. Nevertheless, the value that as political and religious center reached, obtains that its memory remains in the mind of the towns that crossed this zone in later centuries, because these, although the place already was in ruins, went with offerings to this site. Of year 950 to the 1450 of ours Era, in the place diverse situations followed one another since several groups were based intermittently.

The possibility that exists some rising religious practices have been carried out in the old place for ceremonies, where some of its materials, as they are the stonewares, were used for the construction of houses. In centuries XV and XVI, the place returned to be an important center.

Conquest of Querétaro

El Cerrito is the place where probably a battle for the conquest was carried out, that the historians locate in the Hill of Sangremal; being based on data that the investigators have put in judgment fabric, since according to these, El Cerrito was in that time the most prominent place in all the valley of Querétaro (1531).

In which one talks about the first name of this population, Valentin You cold, in its work: "Relation of the Cacique Nicholas of San Luis Montañez, the conquest of Querétaro", pp, 61-67, indicates the following thing: "On the environs of the Cerrito one was based, in the decade of 1530, the Town of Indians of San Francisco Galileo, as it leaves from the otomíes conquests and colonization of the region." This name, San Francisco Galileo, are associate to the name of the Founder of the Franciscana order, San Francisco de Asi's and of one of the names that occurred him, by its origin, to Our Mr. Jesus Christ, El Galileo.

A local version also exists on the individual, and is the one that tells that in the construction of the parochial temple that takes that name a man participated who put much enthusiasm and effort in the works and to which knew itself him indeed like "El Galileo".

piritual conquest

The catechizing and the education of the European culture to the natives it was in charge of the Franciscanos friars; who came periodically from the city of Querétaro, where they resided. In the year of 1632, year of the spiritual conquest, Fray Nicholas de Zamora, cures of Querétaro and in charge of Doctrina in the territorial demarcation that knew like "Town Indians San Francisco Galileo", secretly placed an image of the Virgin Maria in the Mystery of the Purest Conception, on the foot of the Pyramid of the Cerrito, where the inhabitants of the place went to make their traditional religious practices.

The Indians fell in love with the image and left, to a large extent, their own beliefs. In the previous century the Indians did not offer resistance to the preaching of the friars and, in addition they fulfilled his Christian duties. However, they continued practicing his own religion, going for it to the Cué with all regularity. But when they were there with the mentioned image, they based his affection in her, they left the old religion and they constructed a hermitage in where now it is the Sanctuary and they named "the Virgin of the Pueblito", although the origin of the sculpture is in the City of Querétaro.

The Captain Don Pedro Urtiaga, devotee of Our Santísima Mother of the Pueblito, entrusted to serious her in one and mortal disease, promising to him the construction of a Sanctuary. It was then when the friars constructed one second hermitage in the area that at the moment occupies the old cemetery of the Pueblito. In this place, the image lasted 22 years, from 1714 to 1736.

Meanwhile, the construction of the new temple was begun, practically with the dimensions that it at the moment has but without the two lateral chapels. This temple, constructed with the inheritance of the Captain Don Pedro Urtiaga, was entrusted by he himself its son. This one, helped by its wife Doña Petra of Campa and Cos, with alms of the devotee ones of the city of Querétaro and this place, could carry out so great entrusts which, once finished, could welcome in its enclosure in the Venerable Image of Our Lady of the Pueblito 5 February 1736, date in which solemnly was transferred from the second hermitage, in the middle of the rejoicing of all the inhabitants of this place, of the city, the travelling ones and the friars.

Although in so it dates totally was not constructed to the Sanctuary and its original dependencies. The 15 January 1745, once completely the work of the Sanctuary was finished, our Santísima Mother of the Pueblito was proclaimed and sworn like main pattern of this province, of her chapters and congregations, in the Temple of San Francisco de Querétaro.

Before the great affluence of travelling and the necessity to take care of them spiritually, in special to the administration of the sacraments, the Convent was constructed later, by real certificate of Carlos III, with date 26 May 1765. A curiosity: the friars also built the present parish of the Pueblito to be able to separate the parochial service from the Sanctuary to that new place, becoming the sanctuary a point of permanent affluence of visitors.

Colonial antecedents

It seems to be that the first personage who stepped on the Cerrito with spirit to present it the posteriority was Fray father Juan Agustín Morfi, Spanish of Galicia, that came to the New Spain and was university professor of theology in the school of Tlaltelolco.

In his "Part relative to Querétaro" of the "Newspaper from the trip to the Province of Roofing tiles" it comments the following thing: "To the South of Querétaro, to legua and average of distance of this city, it is the call population San Francisco Galileo or vulgarly Pueblito.

Its vecindario, according to consists in the registers that at the present time form, is of 9 050 souls, otomíes, independent Indians of the Group of judges of Querétaro." "We continued like a quarter of legua to the same course until a natural lomita that would have ten twigs of elevation on the level one.

Upon her towards the South, a building is discovered cuadrilongo of great extension, that being the deep excavation, does not only present/display one as cornice (...) notices (...) in its center a door that by its smallness and by not to have finished discovering, is not discerned if he is the main one of the facade, or some other of the interiors.

In the construction of these walls and cornices, it was not used of the lime and sand; the stones are united with a species of mud or mortar that seems tepetate white and of competent solidity."

Colonial era

The set of properties and farms that formed the jurisdiction of the municipality in the year of 1791, are in the "General Register of the City of Querétaro". This document was made by Don Ignacio Garcia Rebollo, Lieutenant Colonel of Cavalry.

During this same history which arose what "Historical Helmet of the Pueblito" could be called, was made by the Parochial Church, the Sanctuary of Our Santísima Mother of the Pueblito that was released 5 February 1736, and the convent of monks released the 8 of 1875 July. In which one talks about the Property of Balvanera, it is credited documentarily like owner of the same one to Don Jose Ponciano of Campa and Cos, in document dated in the year of 1765.

This Property several farms and some properties were come off (without letting belong to her): White pool, the Jaral, Prey of the Bravo, San Rafael, Purest of the Cave, the Negreta, Trojitas, the Ranchito, the Tinaja, Toots, the Quarry and the Romeral

Independent era

At the end of this time (1800), the material works arose that came to change the image of the Municipal Head. Among others, the building of the Presidency, the Garden was constructed, whose original name was Porfirio Diaz, the Corregidora Bridge on the river of the Pueblito already disappeared and that was in the same place that the present one. All these works were managed by the subprefect Mr. Eugene Tovar (1885).

The road Felipe Herrera and the New Street (today Pedro Urtiaga) were also of this time. In 1830 the Congress of the State elevated the town to the category of Villa, changing to him its denomination by the one of Villa of Santa Maria of the Pueblito. The water operation and the canalization of the same ones of the flowing Water Eye (at the moment covered by the prey of the Fulling mill), are dated 3 January 1903.

The 24 September 1903, were inaugurated the Train of Mulitas to which the name of "Street car" occurred him. This fact happened under the subprefecture of Mr. Isidro Hernandez. It is important to mention that in the Property of the Fulling mill a turbine settled, which generated a plant of electrical light that gave impulse as well to a mill.

A cardboard factory was constructed in the site known like "the Factory" and that was in the environs of the Property of the Fulling mill. The turbine of this factory was moved by originating waters of the spring of the Water Eye. The third name: Villa Corregidora, appeared by years 1927-1929, during the Law of cults promulgated by President Plutarco Elías Streets. Nevertheless, official documents do not exist that order their use.

In 1931, this community was elevated to the category of Municipality (before Villa Corregidora was Municipal Delegation) by Law of the Temporary Governor Ramon Anaya, who gave the name of the Pueblito for the Municipal Head, the 20 of May; and Corregidora for the municipality, 30 April 1931. The 21 February 1939, the Congress of the State approved the law project by which the Delegation of Corregidora in the Municipality of Corregidora constituted itself definitively.

Archaeology

In the environs of the ceremonial center the Cerrito were facilities for the residence of the priests and pre-Hispanic governors. The thickness of the inhabitants was located, in groups, strategic places.

This last one has verified by the findings of offerings and archaeological rest found recently in the Negreta, Santa Barbara, the Shindó or Fat Cerro and the School Fernando de Tapia. "the study of the human groups that occupied in pre-Hispanic times the Southeastern part of the sank bank, has received little attention on the part of the specialists, in spite of being a zone of vital importance for the best understanding of the historical process of the mesoamericans societies (...) Of no way can be considered to the site of the Negreta like an isolated and unique phenomenon in the zone, since there are sites like the one of the Pueblito (Cerrito), considered of early Postclsic that must have antecedents in this part of the valley, in addition to contemporary sites to him".

Population

According to the census of 2005 the municipality had a population of 104,218 inhabitants living on an area of 245.8 km² (94.9 sq mi). Besides El Pueblito, other important towns in the municipality are San José de los Olvera, Candiles, and Venceremos.

Economy

The economy in the city is based in part of agriculture, but mainly in industrial sector, and the most of the population work in the city of Santiago de Querétaro of which Corregidora is now part of.

Corregidora is one of the richest municipalities in Mexico and Latin America. According to the United Nations, in 2004 the municipality had the fifth highest income level in the country, below three boroughs of Mexico City and the municipality of San Pedro Garza García, part of Monterrey. In the same report, it was considered to have the 12th highest level of human deveolpment among Mexican municipalities.

Government

Executive: Presidente Municipal (Municipal President) or Alcalde (Mayor)The president serve for a period of 3 years without possibility of reelection.

Current President: Germán Borja of PAN (Partido Acción Nacional)

Delegations: in the city there are delegates elected by the President and approved by the Cabildo, each delegado works in a delegation, which is a section of the city.

Cabildo: formed by Sindicos and Regidores, they play the role of the legislative government, they are elected by indirect vote, they represent the political parties in the city and the population, they create rules that apply only to the city but are not laws.

Local celebrations

* First 15 days of February: Day of the Virgin of El Pueblito
* March 21 Spring Equinox in the pyramid of "El Cerrito"

Landmarks

The most important landmark is the Pyramid of El Pueblito

Bibliography

*Government of Corregidora
*Government of the State of Querétaro

References

* [http://www.inegi.gob.mx/est/contenidos/espanol/sistemas/conteo2005/localidad/iter/ Link to tables of population data from Census of 2005] INEGI: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática

* [http://www.e-local.gob.mx/wb2/ELOCAL/EMM_queretaro Querétaro] Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México

External links

* [http://www.corregidoramunicipioqro.gob.mx/ Municipio de Corregidora] Official website


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