- Renaissance Latin
New Latinby 16th century
Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of
Latinstyle developed during the European Renaissanceof the fourteenth to fifteenth centuries, particularly by the humanist movement.
Ad fontes" was the general cry of the humanists, and as such their Latin style sought to purge Latin of the medieval Latinvocabulary and stylistic accretions that it had acquired in the centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire. They looked to golden age Latin literature, and especially to Ciceroin proseand Virgilin poetry, as the arbiters of Latin style. They abandoned the use of the sequence and other accentual forms of metre, and sought instead to revive the Greek formats that were used in Latin poetryduring the Roman period. The humanists condemned the large body of medieval Latin literature as "gothic" — for them, a term of abuse — and believed instead that only ancient Latin from the Roman period was "real Latin".
The humanists also sought to purge written Latin of medieval developments in its
orthography. They insisted, for example, that "ae" be written out in full wherever it occurred in classical Latin; medieval scribes often wrote "e" instead of "ae". They were much more zealous than medieval Latin writers that "t" and "c" be distinguished; because the effects of palatalizationmade them homophones, medieval scribes often wrote, for example, "eciam" for "etiam". Their reforms even affected handwriting; Humanists usually wrote Latin in a script derived from Carolingian minuscule, the ultimate ancestor of most contemporary lower-case typefaces, avoiding the black-letterscripts used in the Middle Ages. Erasmuseven proposed that the then-traditional pronunciations of Latin be abolished in favour of his reconstructed version of classical Latinpronunciation.
The humanist plan to remake Latin was largely successful, at least in
education. Schools now taught the humanistic spellings, and encouraged the study of the texts selected by the humanists, to the large exclusion of later Latin literature. On the other hand, while humanist Latin was an elegant literary language, it became much harder to write books about law, medicine, scienceor contemporary politicsin Latin while observing all of the Humanists' norms about vocabulary purging and classical usage.
Renaissance Latin gradually developed into the
New Latinof the 16th-19th centuries, used as the language of choice for authors discussing subjects considered sufficiently important to merit an international (i.e., pan-European) audience.
Renaissance Latin authors
William of Ockham(c. 1288-c. 1348)
Leonardo Bruni(c. 1370-1444)
Leone Battista Alberti(1404-1472)
*Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini,
Pope Pius II(1405-1464)
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola(1463-1494)
* [http://www.philological.bham.ac.uk/bibliography/index.htm An Analytic Bibliography of On-line Neo-Latin Titles] — Bibliography of Renaissance Latin and Neo-Latin literature on the web.
* [http://www.digitalbookindex.com/_search/search010literatureneolatina.asp Neo-Latin Humanist Texts] from DigitalBookIndex
* René Hoven, "Lexique de la prose latine de la Renaissance. Dictionary of Renaissance Latin from prose sources", with the collaboration of [http://alor.univ-montp3.fr/cercam/article.php3?id_article=468 Laurent Grailet] , Leiden, Brill, 2006 (2nd edition), 683 p.
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