- Emergency medical services in Germany
common_name = Germany
capital = Berlin [cite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gm.html|title=All facts unless otherwise cited, are from: The CIA World Fact Book|accessdate=2008-10-06]
area_km2 = 357021
population_estimate = 82,369,522
population_estimate_year = July 2008
population_density_km2 = 230.71
healthcare = Public/private mix
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in
Germanyis a service of public pre-hospital emergency healthcare, including (but not limited to) ambulanceservice, provided by individual German cities and counties. It is primarily financed by the German health insurancecompanies.
In Germany the individual German states are legally responsible for the provision of emergency services, but typically delegate these responsibilities to the individual community level. Municipalities, including both smaller communities ("Gemeinden") and cities ("Städte") are given responsibility by the State for equipping and operating
fire departments("Feuerwehr"). German law mandates the provision of fire and rescue services, including EMS, staffing and equipping according to levels which correspond to local population. In cities, this is usually provided directly by the Fire Prevention Bureau (sometimes called "Amt 37"); one of the higher-ranking departments in a municipality. [ [http://st.juris.de/st/RettDG_ST_2006_P3.htm Emergency Medical Services Act, state of Schsen-Anhalt, §3] ] [ [http://www.berlin.de/imperia/md/content/seninn/organigramme/organigramm.pdf Organisation of the Senator of the Interiors bureau, Berlin] ] [ [http://www.frankfurt.de/sixcms/detail.php?id=2711 Organisation of Frankfurt/Mains city council] ]
Unlike fire protection, the task of providing EMS, while legally mandated, is not necessarily performed directly by the municipality. In some cases, the municipality will provide the service directly, usually through the fire department. EMS may, however, be contracted out by the municipality to a number of other potential service providers, including both community non-profit organizations and privately owned companies.Thus, EMS in Germany may be provided by any of the following, or in some cases, a combination of modes:
* The Fire Department
* The "Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe e. V." (The German organisation of the
St. John Ambulance)
* The "Malteser Hilfsdienst" (The German organisation of the
Order of Malta Ambulance Corps)
German Red Cross
* The "Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund"
* Privately-owned companies
In Germany, EMS is a component of one of the key tasks (
public safety) which every municipal governmentis required by law to perform. As a result, there are strict regulations regarding qualifications, job performance, EMS system performance including response time, and the types of vehicles and equipment required. Compliance with those regulations is usually evaluated with respect to effectiveness and meeting public need by the local cities/communities, assisted by specialised physicians.
Typically, community or service area ("Rettungsdienstbereich") employs a "
Medical Director, EMS" (Ärztlicher Leiter Rettungsdienst), with a role that is similar to EMS Medical Directors elsewhere. The Medical Director is responsible for the creation and issue of regulations, protocols, and standards of careon behalf of the community. Compliance with such regulations and medical protocols is mandatory for both EMS provider organisations, and for their personnel. The Medical Director usually performs these tasks with considerable latitude. Regulations and protocols may be developed and issued at the discretion of the Medical Director, who is required to govern their actions according to the general guidelines and financial guidance provided by his county or municipality. [ [http://www.bundesaerztekammer.de/page.asp?his=0.7.47.3215 German Federal Board of Physicians: Guidelines regarding the responsibilities of the Medical Director, EMS] ] The position Medical Director is that of a Consultant, and in some German statesis required by law.
As in many other places, in Germany, the EMS system performs two major functions:
*"Emergency Services" - Responding to all calls concerning immediate danger to the life and/or health of a person. This is the core component of the service, which is called "Notfallrettung" or "Rettungsdienst" in German. This service addresses acute onset illness and injury conditions, such as
myocardial infarction, or accidents with severe injuries, to name just two.
*"Non-Emergency Services" - Arranging and performing the transport of non-emergency patients (i.e. transfer to, from, and between hospitals). This service is called "Krankentransport" in German, and provides service to non-ambulatory patients with low-acuity or chronic conditions, or to those who are recovering from acute care situations, and who lack the ability to use other means of transport (i.e. by taxi, own car or public transport).
In addition to regular emergency and non-emergency services, there are Mobile Intensive Care Units
MICUstationed in most of the major cities. These units correspond to the Critical Care Transport function found in other places. They are brought into action whenever a patient with a serious and complex medical condition, requiring advanced levels of support during transit needs to be transferred between hospitals. This service usually applies to ICUpatients, hence the German name "Intensivtransport".
While not formally affiliated with the EMS system, the
General Practitioner(GP) frequently interacts with that system. In Germany, it is still commonplace for physicians to make house calls for those patients who are not able to visit a medical practice. Additionally, most cities and counties run a service called "Ärztlicher Hausbesuchsdienst"(Physician Home Call Service), which provides a GP to make housecalls for all people in the specific area. The physician will not only respond to patients from their own practice, but will also visit and treat patients all over the area. The GP service is delivered and maintained by an organisation known as the "Kassenärztliche Vereinigung" (Union of Health Fund Approved Physicians) and is usually only used for minor illnesses (i.e. fever, common cold), where a hospital stay is not necessary but the intervention of a Physician may be advisable. The availability of this service provides a better treatment option to those patients who, in other EMS systems, might generate low-acuity ambulance calls or emergency departmentvisits. Occasionally, the visiting GP will contact the EMS dispatcher and order a "Krankentransport", should it be determined following medical assessment, that the patient could be cared for in a safer and better manner in a hospital.
There are only two major qualifications in German EMS, one being the
Emergency physicianand the other being the Rettungsassistent.
The Emergency Physician, in German "Notarzt", must be a
Physicianwith a post-graduate"Arzt im Rettungsdienst" certification. Having a formal medical specialty field (i.e. surgery) is not required, however a minimum term of residencyand additional training following medical schoolis required in order to obtain certification. While the position is technically open to any physician who completes the certification process, due to the inderdisciplinary nature of medical emergencies, most of the physicians employed as "Notarzt" are anaesthetists. [ [http://www.band-online.de/index.php?aktiv=32&menuoffen=3&bereich=&inhaltvon=43 Federal Association of Emergency Physicians: Curriculum, duration and schedule of qualifikation "Arzt im Rettungsdienst"] ] Once on scene, the "Notarzt" performs all tasks associated with physicians in the field, acts as the Crew Chief, and provides medical direction to all subordinate EMS staff.
German Paramedic ("Rettungsassistent") skills and training
The "Rettungsassistent" has a similar skill set to that of the anesthesia
nurse practitioner(NP)(or Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist(CRNA) in United States), but works in the field, instead of a hospital setting. Literally, the term means "rescue assistant", meaning that those in this role assist the Emergency Physician during pre-hospital treatment. The closest profession in other countries is that of Paramedic. The German "Rettungsassistent" possesses the highest level of training and skill sets available for paramedics in continental Europe, although the United Kingdom does have some paramedics who function as independent practitioners, instead of as technicians.
According to German law, however, the "Rettungsassistent" can perform treatment on their own. They are bound to specific rules and regulations, depending of the service and state in which they work [ [http://www.bundesaerztekammer.de/page.asp?his=0.7.47.3222 German Federal Board of Physicians: Directives regarding emergency powers for Paramedics ] ] . Under normal circumstances, the "Rettungsassistent" must work under the direction of the "Notarzt", who must be physically present. In normal circumstances, no ALS skills may be performed unless the "Notarzt" orders it. In rare circumstances, when there is an immediate threat to life, the "Rettungsassistent" may perform certain ALS skills without the presence of the "Notarzt" in order to save a life. In doing so, the "Rettungsassistent" actually violates German federal law (i.e. performing invasive treatments), but is usually protected by the State of Emergency law, if applicable.
With respect to the training of the "Rettungsassistent", this is described in some detail in the table above. The first stage of training, including classroom and hospital clinical, is normally done over about one year, normally while the candidate is working at one of the lower levels. This training period is followed by a written examination. Success at the exam permits the candidate to begin a preceptorship in the pre-hospital setting. After that, the candidate will ride either third or second seat on an
ambulancefor about nine months, until the required 1200 hours of preceptorship is completed. Depending on individual schedules and progress, this entire training process can typically take up to two years to complete. The title "Rettungsassistent" is protected by German law. [ [http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/rettassg/index.html Gesetz über den Beruf der Rettungsassistentin und des Rettungsassistenten - German Paramedic Act] ]
In Germany, there are two other lower level qualifications enabling a person to work in EMS. These are the Rettungshelfer, comparable to an
EMT-Band the Rettungssanitäter, comparable to an EMT-Iin the United States. Depending on the state in which they work, those in the "Rettungshelfer" role are usually the drivers of non-emergency patient transports, with a "Rettungssanitäter" acting as crew chief for the vehicle. In most German states, for emergency ambuance service, those in the "Rettungssanitäter" role are often the drivers of emergency ambulances and act as an assistant to the "Rettungsassistent".
Some additional qualifications closely connected to EMS include:
* Leitender Notarzt ("Senior Emergency Physician") - a "Notarzt" with leadership responsibilities connected to mass casualty incidents.
* Organisatorischer Leiter Rettungsdienst - A "Rettungsassistent" whose role is to assist the Senior Emergency Physician during mass casualty incidents.
* Lehrrettungsassistent ("Paramedic Instructor") - A "Rettungsassistent" responsible for the education and training of new personnel.
* HEMS Crew Member - A "Rettungsassistent" who works as medical aircrew, responsible for assisting the pilot and the physician on a rescue helicopter.
In the German system, not only paramedics, but also physicians have recognized roles and skill levels.The following table will give a brief overview about the major qualifications for both physicians and technicians, and their place within the German EMS structure.
The German EMS system's vehicles come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. All of its vehicles must conform to most aspects of the requirements of European standard
CEN 1789as reflected in the German standard DINEN 1789 (types A-C) or German standard DIN 75079. The visual identity requirements of the European standard are not yet being followed.The three major types of vehicle are:
# The Krankentransportwagen(KTW), a van-type ambulance used for non-emergency transport. It conforms to DIN EN 1789-A1/A2: "Patient Transport Ambulance single/multiple patient"
# The Rettungswagen (RTW), a larger van used for emergencies. It conforms to DIN EN 1789-C "Mobile Intensive Care Unit"
# The Notarzteinsatzfahrzeug (NEF), a station wagon or small van. Its purpose is to bring the "Notarzt" (emergency doctor) to the scene of the emergency, when required. It conforms to DIN 75079
Additionally, the Mehrzweckfahrzeug (MZF), or multi-purpose vehicle – often referred to as a "Notfallkrankenwagen" or "Kombinationsfahrzeug (KOM)" – serves a dual role as patient transport vehicle and as backup for emergency responses and usually conforms to type B of DIN EN 1789.
Other vehicles that are also employed include
helicopters for the performance of air ambulanceservices and, in some coastal areas, boats. Hannover
Germany has a well-developed air ambulance network, operated in cooperation between Germany's largest automobile club (
ADAC), the non-profit "Deutsche Rettungsflugwacht e.V." (DRF) and the German Ministry of the Interior. ADAC currently operates about 35 helicopter ambulances strategically located around Germany, whereas the DRF operates close to 50 aircraft at 28 stations. The helicopter fleet of the Ministry of the Interior operates a small fleet of rescue helicopters, operated by the Bundespolizei. Each of these is staffed by both a Notarzt and a Rettungsassistent. In addition, ADAC operates a fleet of fixed wing air ambulances, including jets, primarily to provide service to their members. An additional 15 helicopters are operated by the Ministry of the Interior, and staffed by German Police pilots. These aircraft are multi-purpose, but will perform emergency responses when required. The intent of this system is to deliver a suitably staffed and equipped medical helicopter to the scene of an emergency within 15 minutes, anywhere in Germany. ADACrescue helicopter
The basic equipment of the above mentioned vehicles are obligatory and are minimal requirements:
* Dressings and Bandages
* Flexible stretcher, also called a Reeves stretcher.
* Rigid or collapsible transport chair, also called a stair chair in the United States
* Basic diagnostic equipment, like blood-pressure cuffs.
defibrillatorDepending on the type of the vehicle, there are numerous items which have to be on the ambulance, among them are:
* An ECG monitor
* Rescue equipment
* Immobilization equipment like
Cervical collars or spine boards
* Equipment for
Additionally, several different kinds of drugs are found on an Ambulance, typically a selection of
analgesics, anaesthetics, cardiac stimulants, substances for circulatory problems and antidotes. Narcoticsare not widely carried on ambulances. Usually only the physician will carry a small amount of Morphine, Fentanylor and closely guard them.
2 - bottles (cabinet in the rear) and the medical ventilator (right foreground)
Emergency phone number
emergency telephone numberfor EMS in Germany is most often 112. This is not, however, universal, although the system is slowly moving towards making this a national emergency number. In many locations, dialling "112" will connect the caller to the nearest EMS dispatcher. Other emergency telephone numbers include the emergency number for the police 110, who will forward the call or the information given in the call to an EMS dispatcher. Police and EMS dispatchers usually operate separately. In those states which were a part of the former East Germany(GDR), the old emergency number "115" will often still reach an EMS dispatch centre. It should be noted, however, that this number is no longer advertised, and its use is discouraged. In some sections of the former West Germany, a lot of EMS calls can still only be made by using the old "19222" number. This is true in locations where "112" is only used for fire/rescue calls. In those EMS systems which use "112" the old emergency number, "19222", is often used for non-emergency calls like the dispatch of a "Krankentransport".
All emergency calls, regardless of the emergency number on which they originate, are routed to Dispatch Centres; in German "Leitstelle". At present, most municipalities operate on a integrated system called "Integrierte Leitstelle" (joint dispatch), in which all calls involving fire and EMS are answered at the same location, and by the same personnel. There have been attempts to incorporate the police dispatch centers as well, more closely mirroring the U.S.-based
911Public Safety Answering Point concept, however, due to the significantly different nature of the calls, it has been concluded that there are more disadvantages than advantages to this incorporation of all dispatch functions.
Once a call via the local emergency number is placed, a dispatcher will answer and ask the caller about the nature of the emergency. Due to dual training in joint dispatch centers, the dispatcher is able to answer calls concerning both the fire department and EMS. While the caller is being interviewed about call specifics, the dispatcher is already working on the computer, which will provide prompt questions, provide advice, and suggest response resources for this emergency. This computer system, while operating in German, is extremely similar to the
AMPDS algorithmused by Emergency Medical Dispatchers in the United States.
To illustrate, a call is received in the dispatch center about a possibly unconscious person. The dispatcher will immediately identify the call location, and will then ask further questions, in order to assess precipitating symptoms, specific location, and any special circumstances (no house number, a neighbor is calling, etc.). While this interview is occurring, the dispatcher will enter the command "Bewußtlosigkeit" into the dispatch computer, resulting in an automatic suggestion to dispatch of a "Rettungswagen" (emergency ambulance) and a "Notarzteinsatzfahrzeug" (Doctor's Car). Upon entering the address of the patient, the computer will look for the emergency vehicles closest to this address. Now the dispatcher can send the whole package over the air and those two vehicles are alarmed, similar to
Computer-assisted dispatch(CAD) in the United States. After sending the alarm, the dispatcher may remain on the line with the caller, providing telephone advice or assistance until the EMS resources arrive on the scene.
Emergency vehicles are sent on runs by a number of means. The most common system is by
pager, issued to every crew. Pagers may operate on either an analogor a digitalsystem. Analog pagers will silently listen on the air for a 5-tone signal being transmitted. Once the individual signal for that pager is detected, the pager will sound an alarm, and will often open the channel for the crew to hear the dispatcher. Further information is being given via radio. The digital pagers will listen on a different channel and once its individual address is transmitted, will prepare to receive a data package. This package normally consists of a short message, providing the address and nature of the emergency as well as additional information. This clears the radio channel of lengthy calls. Theoretically, no additional radio traffic is required when using such a system.
taging and deploying resources
There are two different strategies used in dispatching EMS vehicles in Germany; the "Rendezvous system" and the "Station system"
In this model, the emergency ambulance (RTW) and Doctor's car (NEF) are not necessarily co-located. In most emergencies, only the ambulance is deployed for providing patient care and transport. However, when the situation on scene is of a more severe nature, the ambulance crew can radio in for support by a physician and the "NEF" will be deployed.There are some medical situations where the "NEF" will be deployed automatically; those are usually
pediatricemergencies, patients who are unconscious, mass-casualty incidents, and situations where the need for analgesicsand anestheticsis foreseeable.The advantage of this system is the fact that the physician is available for other emergencies, while the ambulance crew can handle minor cases on their own.
In this system, the physician on duty will actually staff the ambulance, which is now called a "Notarztwagen", will be deployed to any serious medical case. The advantage with this approach lies in the ability to perform more difficult tasks without delay, however, on most calls the presence of the physician is not actually required.
Notes and References
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