Bricolage


Bricolage

:"For the Amon Tobin album with this name, see Bricolage (album). For the content management system, see Bricolage (software)."Bricolage, pronEng|ˌbriːkoʊˈlɑːʒ/, /ˌbrɪkoʊˈlɑːʒ is a term used in several disciplines, among them the visual arts and literature, to refer to:
* the construction or creation of a work from a diverse range of things which happen to be available;
* a work created by such a process.

It is borrowed from the French word "bricolage", from the verb "bricoler" – the core meaning in French being, "fiddle, tinker" and, by extension, "make creative and resourceful use of whatever materials are to hand (regardless of their original purpose)."

A person who engages in bricolage is a "bricoleur".

Art

Music

Instrumental Bricolage in music would include the use of found objects as instruments:
*Irish Spoons
*Australian slap bass made from a tea chest
*comb and wax paper for humming through
*gumleaf humming
*Largophone (made from a stick and bottle tops)
*Trinidadian Steel drums (made from industrial storage drums)
*African drums and thumb pianos made from recycled pots and pans.
*American super instruments made from recorders and bicycle bells or metal rods and keys

Stylistic Bricolage is the inclusion of common musical devices with new uses. Shuker [1998 "Popular Music: Key Concepts "] writes "Punk best emphasized such stylistic bricolage".

Musical Bricolage flourishes in music of sub-cultures where:
*experimentation is part of daily life (pioneers, immigrants, artistic communities),
*access to resources is limited (such as in remote, discriminated or financially disconnected sub-cultures) which limits commercial influence (eg. acoustic performers, gypsies, ghetto music, hippie, folk or traditional musicians) and
*there is a political or social drive to seek individuality (eg. Rap music, peace-drives, drummers circles)

Unlike other bricolage fields
*intimate knowledge of resources is not necessary (many Punk musicians are not classically trained. Classical training discourages creativity in preference for accuracy).
*careful observation and listening is not necessary, it is common in spontaneous music to welcome 'errors' and disharmony.

Like other bricolage fields, Bricolage music still values
*trusting one's ideas
*self-correcting structures (targeted audiences, even if limited)

Visual Art

In art, bricolage is a technique where works are constructed from various materials available or on hand, and is seen as a characteristic of postmodern works.

These materials may be mass-produced or "junk". See also: Merz, polystylism, collage.

Bricolage can also be applied to theatrical form of improvisation. More commonly known as Improv. The idea of using one's environment and materials which are at hand is the main goal in Improv. The environment is the stage and the materials are often pantomimed. The use of the stage and the imaginary materials are all made up on the spot so the materials which are at hand ar actually things that the players know from past experiences. (i.e. an improvisation of ordering fast food: One player would start with the common phrase "How May I help You").

Academics

Children's Geographies

Hugh Matthews and Faith Tucker (2006) discuss the bricolage of rural teenaged girls. Their research is based in rural south Northamptonshire and portrays the ways in which young people carve out their own environments from otherwise adult-defined spaces. [Matthews, H. & Tucker, F. (2006) On the Other side of the tracks: the psychogeographies and everyday lives of rural teenagers in the UK. In: Spencer, C. & Blades, M. (eds) Children and their Environments: Learning, Using and Designing Spaces. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. p. 161-175.]

Cultural studies

In cultural studies bricolage is used to mean the processes by which people acquire objects from across social divisions to create new cultural identities. In particular, it is a feature of subcultures such as, for example, the punk movement. Here, objects that possess one meaning (or no meaning) in the dominant culture are acquired and given a new, often subversive meaning. For example, the safety pin became a form of decoration in punk culture.

Philosophy

In his book "The Savage Mind (1962, English translation 1966), French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss used the word bricolage"' to describe any spontaneous action, further extending this to include the characteristic patterns of mythological thought. The reasoning here being that, since mythological thought is all generated by human imagination, it is based on personal experience, and so the images and entities generated through 'mythological thought' rise from pre-existing things in the imaginer's mind. [Claude Lévi-Strauss, "La Pensée sauvage" (Paris, 1962). English translation as "The Savage Mind" (Chicago, 1966). ISBN 0-226-47484-4. See also [http://tesugen.com/archives/03/08/bricolage] [http://varenne.tc.columbia.edu/bib/info/levstcld066savamind.html] ]

Jacques Derrida extends this notion to any discourse. "If one calls bricolage the necessity of borrowing one's concept from the text of a heritage which is more or less coherent or ruined, it must be said that every discourse is bricoleur." [Jacques Derrida, [http://www.hydra.umn.edu/derrida/sign-play.html "Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences"] ]

Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, in their 1972 book "Anti-Oedipus", identify "bricolage" as the characteristic mode of production of the schizophrenic producer. [Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, "Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia". Trans. Robert Hurley, Mark Seem, and Helen R. Lane. Continuum edition. London: Continuum, 2004 (1972). p.7-8.]

Biology

In biology the biologist François Jacob uses the term "bricolage" to describe the apparently cobbled-together character of much biological structure, and views it as a consequence of the evolutionary history of the organism. [Molino, Jean (2000). "Toward an Evolutionary Theory of Music and Language", "The Origins of Music". Cambridge, Mass: A Bradford Book, The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-23206-5. (p.169). See also [http://pharyngula.org/index/weblog/comments/bicoid_nanos_and_bricolage/ "Bicoid, nanos, and bricolage"] by PZ Myers.]

Education

In the discussion of constructionism Seymour Papert discusses two styles of solving problems. Contrary to the analytical style of solving problems he describes bricolage as a way to learn and solve problems by trying, testing, playing around.

Joe L. Kincheloe has used the term bricolage in educational research to denote the use of multiperspectival research methods. In Kincheloe's conception of the research bricolage, diverse theoretical traditions are employed in a broader critical theoretical/critical pedagogical context to lay the foundation for a transformative mode of multimethodological inquiry. Using these multiple frameworks and methodologies researchers are empowered to produce more rigorous and praxiological insights into socio-political and educational phenomena. Kincheloe theorizes a critical multilogical epistemology and critical connected ontology to ground the research bricolage. These philosophical notions provide the research bricolage with a sophisticated understanding of the complexity of knowledge production and the interrelated complexity of both researcher positionality and phenomena in the world. Such complexity demands a more rigorous mode of research that is capable of dealing with the complications of socio-educational experience. Such a critical form of rigor avoids the reductionism of many monological, mimetic research orientations (see Kincheloe, 2001, 2005; Kincheloe & Berry, 2004).

Information technology

Information systems

In information systems, bricolage is used by Claudio Ciborra to describe the way in which Strategic Information Systems (SIS) can be built in order to maintain successful competitive advantage over a longer period of time than standard SIS. By valuing tinkering and allowing SIS to evolve from the bottom-up, rather than implementing it from the top-down, the firm will end up with something that is deeply rooted in the organisational culture that is specific to that firm and is much less easily imitated. [Ciborra, Claudio (1992). "From Thinking to Tinkering: The Grassroots of Strategic Information Systems", "The Information Society" 8, 297-309]

There is also a content management system called Bricolage.

Internet

In her book Life on the Screen (1995), Sherry Turkle discusses the concept of bricolage as it applies to problem solving in code projects and workspace productivity. She advocates the "bricoleur style" of programming as a valid and underexamined alternative to what she describes as the conventional structured "planner" approach. In this style of coding, the programmer works without an exhaustive preliminary specification, opting instead for a step-by-step growth and re-evaluation process. In her essay [http://www.papert.org/articles/EpistemologicalPluralism.html Epistemological Pluralism] , Turkle writes: "The bricoleur resembles the painter who stands back between brushstrokes, looks at the canvas, and only after this contemplation, decides what to do next."

Business

Organization and Management

Karl Weick identifies the following requirements for successful bricolage in organizations. [Karl Weick, "Organizational Redesign as Improvisation", reprinted in "Making Sense of the Organization"]
*intimate knowledge of resources
*careful observation and listening
*trusting one's ideas
*self-correcting structures, with feedback

References

Links

* [http://wiki.bricolage.cc Bricolage Wiki]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • bricolage — [ brikɔlaʒ ] n. m. • 1927; de bricoler 1 ♦ Action, habitude de bricoler. Travail de bricoleur. Le salon du bricolage. 2 ♦ Réparation ou travail manuel effectué approximativement. Un bricolage rapide. ♢ Fig. et péj. Travail d amateur, peu soigné.… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Bricolage — Bricolage …   Википедия

  • Bricolage — [brikɔlaʒ] bedeutet wörtlich aus dem Französischen übersetzt Bastelei oder Heimwerkerei. Im übertragenen Wortsinne kann es auch für Gebastel im Sinne von provisorisch stehen und wird so auch in einigen deutschsprachigen Gebieten (die nahe dem… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Bricolage — – del verbo en Idioma francés bricoler, es el equivalente de la frase en español hágalo usted mismo . Bricolage también se usa como equivalente al construir por prueba y error en lugar de basarse en la teoría. El que practica el bricolage crea… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • bricolage — [brē΄kō läzh′, brik΄ōläzh] n. 〚Fr < bricoler, to putter < bricole, odd job < a Prov or It n. < ?〛 1. the process of making or assembling something from materials at hand 2. something so made * * * bri·co·lage (brē kō läzhʹ, brĭk ō ) n. Something… …   Universalium

  • bricolage — |bricòláge| s. m. ou f. Conjunto de pequenas tarefas ou trabalhos manuais domésticos. • Plural: bricolages.   ‣ Etimologia: palavra francesa …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • Bricolage — er hobbybetonet arbejde …   Danske encyklopædi

  • bricolage — /brico laʒ/ s.m., fr. [der. di bricoler fare lavori vari di poco guadagno], in ital. invar. [lavoro manuale, fatto soprattutto come passatempo] ▶◀ fai da te, (non com.) far da sé, (non com.) fardasé. ‖ hobby …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • bricolage — /fr. bʀikɔˈlaʒ/ [vc. fr., da bricoler «passare da un occupazione ad un altra, fare piccoli lavori»] s. m. inv. lavoro per hobby, hobby (ingl.), passatempo, fare da sé, fai da te, do it yourself (ingl.) …   Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione

  • bricolage — [brē΄kō läzh′, brik΄ōläzh] n. [Fr < bricoler, to putter < bricole, odd job < a Prov or It n. < ?] 1. the process of making or assembling something from materials at hand 2. something so made …   English World dictionary


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