- Factitious disorder
Name = Factitious disorder
ICD10 = ICD10|F|68|1|f|60
ICD9 = ICD9|300.16
Factitious disorders are conditions in which a person acts as if he or she has an illness by deliberately producing, feigning, or exaggerating symptoms. Factitious disorder by proxy is a condition in which a person deliberately produces, feigns, or exaggerates symptoms in a person who is in their care. People might be motivated to perpetrate factitious disorders either as a patient or by proxy as a caregiver to gain any variety of benefits including attention, nurturance, sympathy, and leniency that are unobtainable any other way. [Factitious Disorders [http://www.medicinenet.com/factitious_disorders/article.htm] ] However, other more tangible benefits might be derived. [Health Care Fraud & Abuse [http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/282/12/1163] ] Related to factitious disorders are
somatoform disorders which are characterised by multiple somatic complaints [Somatoform Disorders [http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/s/somatoform_disorders/intro.htm] ] ; yet, while the presence of symptoms might be difficult to adequately diagnose, persons suffering from somatoform disorders do not deliberately falsify symptoms or mislead others.
Munchausen syndromemay produce symptoms by contaminating urinesamples, taking hallucinogens, injecting themselves with bacteria to produce infections, and other such similar behaviour.
The motives of the patient can vary: for a patient with Munchausen syndrome the primary aim is to obtain sympathy, nurturance and attention, while in the case of
malingeringthe patient wishes to obtain external gains such as disability payments or to avoid an unpleasant situation, such as military duty. Strictly speaking, FD and malingering cannot be diagnosed in the same patient, yet clinicians find that patients' motives for the ruses can vary over time and, as a result, both diagnoses may apply. FD (sometimes called Munchausen) and malingering are both considered mental disorders. They are both, thus, listed in the DSM-IV-TR, but the difference is that malingering is done in reaction to the external stimuli; in other words, malingering is done to obtain some sort of benefit or to be relieved of something unwanted (i.e. a fake injury to sue in a car accident, etc). Individuals with FD wish to assume the role of a 'patient'(the disorder has been called various names, including polysurgical addiction, and professional patient syndrome).
Factitious disorders should be distinguished from conversion disorder, in which the patient is unaware that the symptoms being experienced are not medically caused. In hypochondriasis, the patient honestly believes he or she has a particular medical disorder and, like the FD patient, may seek contact from multiple physicians, emergency departments, and hospitals. In
somatization disordermedical examination detects the presence of physical symptoms that can't be attributed solely to a general medical condition, the effects of substances (drugs) or by other mental disorders (e.g. panic disorder). In other words, in somatization disorder, patients have a verifiable medical condition such as pain, gastrointestinal, sexual, or neurological symptoms that "cannot be fully explained by a known general medical condition or the direct effects of a substance."
Inclinations towards factitious disorder
Groups prone to the disorder include females employed in medical fields such as nursing or medical technology, women ages of 20-40 years old, and loners with early childhood trauma. Cases rarely occur over the age of 45; the disorder usually lasts from adolescence to mid-adulthood.
Criteria for diagnosis includes intentionally fabricating (or faking) to produce physical or psychological signs of symptoms. Motivation for their behaviour must be to assume the 'sick role', and they do not act sick for personal gain as in the case of malingering sentiments. When the individual applies this pretended sickness to a dependant (ex - child), it is often referred to as 'factitious disorder by proxy.'
There are three separate offshoots of factitious disorder. These include the
Munchausen syndrome(a chronic variant of FD), Munchausen by proxy, and Ganser syndrome. In order to have these mental disorders, the individual must reflect symptoms of both FD and the specified symptoms that their offshoot requires.
Munchausen syndrome, or chronic FD, have specified symptoms along with FD diagnosis. Specified symptoms are that FD symptoms are "greatly" exaggerated, individuals undergo major surgery repeatedly, and they 'hospital jump' or migrate in order to avoid detection. Many are in the health care business and the illness often begins in early adulthood. Individuals are typically unmarried men estranged from their families and are usually middle-aged.
Munchausen by proxy
The word " means 'substitute'.
Munchausen by proxyis the infliction of a disorder on another individual. Specific symptoms include FD produced in children because of their caregivers or parents (almost always mothers) who induce illnesses on their children. The parent may falsify the child's medical history or tamper with laboratory tests in order to make the child appear sick. Occasionally, in Munchausen by proxy, the caregiver will actually injure the child to ensure that the child will be treated. Such parents enjoy the indirect attention that they receive.
Ganser syndromeis an extremely rare variation of factitious disorder. It is a reaction to extreme stress; the patient suffers from approximation or giving absurd answers to simple questions. The syndrome can sometimes be diagnosed as merely malingering; however, it is more often defined as an FD.Symptoms include a clouding of consciousness, somatic conversion symptoms, confusion, stress, loss of personal identity, echolalia, and echopraxia. Individuals also give approximate answers to simple questions such as, "How many legs on a cat?" "Three"; "What's the day after Wednesday?" "Friday"; and so on. The disorder is extraordinarily rare with less than 100 recorded cases. While individuals of all backgrounds have been reported with the disorder, there is a higher inclination towards males (75% or more). The average age of those with Ganser syndrome is 32 and it stretches from ages 15-62 years old.
Causes of factitious disorder
There are many possible causes for this disorder. One such possibility is an underlying personality disorder. Individuals with FD may be trying to repeat a satisfying childhood relationship with a doctor. Perhaps also the individual has a desire to deceive or test authority figures. The underlying desire to resume the role of a patient and to be cared for can also be considered an underlying personality disorder. Abuse in childhood is also another probable cause for the disorder. A background of neglect and abandonment may contribute to the development of FD. These individuals may be trying to reenact unresolved issues with their parents. A history of frequent illnesses may also contribute to the development of this disorder. Perhaps the individual afflicted with FD is accustomed to actually being sick, and thus returns to their previous state in order to recapture what was once considered to be the 'norm.'
No true psychiatric medications are prescribed for Factitious Disorder. However,
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs) can help cure underlying problems. Medicines used to treat mood disorders such as SSRIs can be used to treat FD, as a mood disorder may be the underlying cause of FD. Some (authors such as Prior and Gordon 1997) also report good responses to antipsychotic drugs such as Pimozide. Family therapy can also prove to be of assistance. In such therapy, families are helped to better understand patients (the individual in their family with FD) and their need for attention. In this therapeutic setting, the family is urged not to condone or reward the FD individual's behavior. This form of treatment can be unsuccessful if the family is uncooperative or displays signs of denial and/or antisocial disorder. Psychotherapy is another method used to treat the disorder. These sessions should focus on the psychiatrist establishing and maintaining a relationship with the patient. Such a relationship may help to contain symptoms of FD. Monitoring is also a form that may be implicated for the FD patient's own good. Video cameras, etc. are not illegal to use in such monitoring, for in many cases, FD (especially proxy) can prove to be very detrimental to an individual's health if they are, in fact, causing true physiological illnesses. Even faked illnesses/injuries can be dangerous and might be monitored for fear that unnecessary surgery may subsequently be performed.
Treatment of Munchausen by proxy
Treatment for FD proxy is not so subtle. Physicians, upon suspecting the disorder, should notify authorities immediately. Authorities will then initiate steps for immediate protection of the affected child. Criminal charges may be deemed necessary. Many times, help may be sought for the parent with Munchausen by proxy as well as the child affected and perhaps even their siblings. Careful monitoring of the family for an extended period of time is often a necessary precaution. This is to prevent translocation (i.e. the family moving to return to old ways, etc.) and to prevent the insinuation of a possible upheaval of the detrimental disorder.
Some experience only a few outbreaks of the disorder. However, in most cases, the disorder is chronic, and factitious disorder is a long-term condition that is difficult to treat. There are relatively few positive outcomes for this disorder; in fact, treatment provided a poorer percentage of positive outcomes than did treatment of individuals with obvious psychotic symptoms such as schizophrenics. In addition, many individuals with factitious disorder do not present for treatment, often insisting their symptoms are genuine. Some degree of recovery, however, is possible. Age seems to help the disorder greatly. There are many possible explanations for this occurrence, although none are currently considered definitive. Some say perhaps it is because the FD individual has mastered the art of feigning sickness over so many years of practice that the disorder can no longer be discerned. Another hypothesis is that many times an FD individual will be put in a home or experience health issues that are not self-induced or feigned. Thus, in this way, the problem with obtaining the 'patient' status is resolved because symptoms arise without any effort on the part of the individual.
* cite book
last = American Psychiatric Association
title = DSM-IV Somatoform Disorders
pages = 445-450
publisher = APA
year = 1997
* cite book
last = Eisendrath
first = Stuart J.
title = Factitious illness: a clarification
pages = 25(2):110-3, 116-7
publisher = Psychosomatics
year = Feb 1984
url = http://psy.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/external_ref?access_num=6701283&link_type=MED
pmid = 6701283
* cite book
last = Feldman
first = Marc D.
coauthors = Charles V. Ford, Toni Reinhold
year = 1993
title = Patient or Pretender: Inside the Strange World of Factitious Disorders
publisher = John Wiley & Sons Inc
id = ISBN 0-471-58080-5
* cite book
last = Feldman
first = Marc D. (editor)
coauthors = Eisendrath, Stuart J. (editor)
title = The Spectrum of Factitious Disorders (Clinical Practice, 40)
pages = 229
publisher = American Psychiatric Publishing; 1st ed edition
month = August | year = 1996
id = ISBN 0-88048-909-X
* cite book
last = Feldman
first = Marc D.
title = Playing Sick? Untangling the Web of Munchausen Syndrome, Munchausen by Proxy, Malingering and Factitious Disorder
pages = 288
publisher = Brunner-Routledge
year = 2004
id = ISBN -415-94934-3
* [http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3125.htm eMedicine FD page]
* [http://www.munchausen.com Dr. Feldman's factitious disorder page]
* [http://dictionary.reference.com/wordoftheday/archive/2000/04/06.html Word of the Day page for Factitious]
* [http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3125.htm eMedicine from WebMD]
* [http://www.psychnet-uk.com/dsm_iv/factitious_disorder.htm Maunchausen disorder eMedicine]
* [http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/Marc_Feldman_2/ Marc Feldman's Page on FD]
* [https://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/common/standard/transform.jsp?requestURI=/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/factitious_disorders.jsp Health AtoZ]
* [http://andreisz.club.fr/Munchausen_genpres.html Andrei Szoke's Page to FD]
* [http://www.clevelandclinic.org/health/health-info/docs/2800/2820.asp?index=9832 Cleveland Clinic's Synopsis of Factitious Disorder]
* [http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/154/15/1690 Archives of Internal Medicine: Lab diagnosis of FD]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
factitious disorder — [DSM IV] a mental disorder characterized by repeated, intentional simulation of physical or psychological signs and symptoms of illness for no apparent purpose other than obtaining treatment. It differs from malingering in that there is no… … Medical dictionary
factitious disorder — Psychiatry. any of various syndromes, as Münchausen syndrome, characterized by physical or psychological symptoms intentionally produced by a person and under voluntary control. * * * … Universalium
factitious disorder — Psychiatry. any of various syndromes, as Münchausen syndrome, characterized by physical or psychological symptoms intentionally produced by a person and under voluntary control … Useful english dictionary
factitious disorder by proxy — a form of factitious disorder in which one person intentionally fabricates or induces signs and symptoms of one or more physical (Munchausen syndrome by proxy) or psychological disorders in another person under their care and subjects that person … Medical dictionary
Factitious dermatitis — Classification and external resources ICD 10 L98.1 (ILDS L98.100) ICD 9 698.4 Factitious derm … Wikipedia
factitious disease — /fækˈtɪʃəs dəziz/ (say fak tishuhs duhzeez) noun a syndrome in which a parent deliberately causes symptoms and signs of illness in a child as a device to gain attention for themself from medical professionals. Also, factitious disease by proxy,… … Australian English dictionary
disorder — A disturbance of function, structure, or both, resulting from a genetic or embryonic failure in development or from exogenous factors such as poison, trauma, or disease. adjustmen … Medical dictionary
Conversion disorder — Classification and external resources ICD 10 F44 ICD 9 300.11 … Wikipedia
Mental disorder — Classification and external resources Eight women representing prominent mental diagnoses in the 19th century. (Armand Gautier) ICD 10 F … Wikipedia
Bipolar disorder — Manic depression redirects here. For other uses, see Manic depression (disambiguation). Bipolar disorder Classification and external resources ICD 10 F … Wikipedia