Volkhov River


Volkhov River

Geobox River
name = Volkhov River
native_name = Peка Волхов
other_name =
other_name1 =



image_size =
image_caption = Volkhov River near Velikiy Novgorod, and the Yuriev Monastery.
country = Russia
country1 =
state =
state1 =
region = Novgorod Oblast
region1 = Leningrad Oblast
district =
district1 =
city = Velikiy Novgorod
city1 = Kirishi
city2 = Volkhov
city3 = Novaya Ladoga
city4 =
city5 =
length = 224
watershed = 80200
discharge_location = mouth
discharge = 580
discharge_max = 2900
discharge_min = 44
discharge1_location =
discharge1 =
source_name = Lake Ilmen
source_location =
source_district =
source_region =
source_state =
source_country =
source_lat_d = 58
source_lat_m = 28
source_lat_s =
source_lat_NS = N
source_long_d = 31
source_long_m = 17
source_long_s =
source_long_EW = E
source_elevation = 18
source_length =
mouth_name = Lake Ladoga
mouth_location =
mouth_district =
mouth_region =
mouth_state =
mouth_country =
mouth_lat_d = 60
mouth_lat_m = 07
mouth_lat_s =
mouth_lat_NS = N
mouth_long_d = 32
mouth_long_m = 19
mouth_long_s =
mouth_long_EW = E
mouth_elevation = 5
tributary_left =
tributary_left1 =
tributary_right = Vishera
tributary_right1 =
free_name =
free_value =


map_size =
map_caption =

Volkhov ( _ru. Во́лхов) is a river in Novgorod Oblast and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia.

Geography

The Volkhov flows out of Lake Ilmen north into Lake Ladoga, the largest lake of Europe. It is the second largest tributary of Lake Ladoga. It is navigable over its whole length. Discharge is highly variable depending primarily on the level of Lake Ilmen. The Volkhov is reported to reverse the direction of its flow in its upper section in exceptional circumstances. The river freezes up in late November, and breaks up in early April.

The level of water is regulated by the dam of the Volkhov hydroelectric plant (the first Soviet regional hydroelectric dam opened on December 19, 1926 in the framework of the GOELRO plan) situated 25 km upstream from the mouth of the river. Apart from hydroelectric generating purposes, the dam serves to facilitate navigation in the lower part of the river previously known for its rapids.

The upstream part of the Volkhov is connected to the Msta River by the Siversov Canal bypassing Lake Ilmen. The downstream part is connected with the Neva, the Syas River, and the Svir River by the New Ladoga Canal bypassing Lake Ladoga.

Main tributaries are: Vishera (right), joins the Maly Volkhovets armlet; Kerest (left); Oskuya (right); Pchezhva (right); Tigoda (left); Chyornaya (right); Vloya (left); Olomna (left)

History

Despite its relatively small size, Volkhov has played a large role in Russian history and economy. In recognition of that, a figure representing the Volkhov appears among the allegorical monuments to the four major rivers of Russia on the rostral columns in the ensemble of the Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange and Rostral Columns.

In the mid-9th century, the Volkhov was a heavily populated trade artery of the Varangian-dominated Rus' Khaganate. It was a vital part of the most important trade route connecting Northern Europe to the Orient, by way of the Volga (Volga trade route) and Dnieper (trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks). The ancient Russian capital Staraya Ladoga and one of the principal Russian medieval cities Velikiy Novgorod are located along the Volkhov.

After entering the Volkhov near Gorchakovshchina and Lyubsha, commercial vessels of the Vikings cast anchor at the major trade emporium of Aldeigja (Ladoga). Then they rowed upstream past a series of rapids, guarded by the fortified settlements at Novye Duboviki and Gorodishche. There was another outpost at Kholopy Gorodok, 13 km north of present-day Velikiy Novgorod, or rather Holmgard, which was founded near the point where the Volkhov flows from Lake Ilmen.

"Most of these were initially small sites, probably not much more than stations for re-fitting and resupply, providing an opportunity for exchange and the redistribution of items passing along the river and caravan routes". ["A Comparative Study of Thirty City-state Cultures" (ed. by Mogens Herman Hansen). Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 2000. Page 266.] It seems on the whole likely that such pre-urban settlements gave the country its Norse name of Gardariki.

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Volkhov River — ▪ river, Russia also spelled  Volchov , Russian  Reka Volkhov        river, northwestern Russia. It is the major outlet for Lake Ilmen, whence it flows past Novgorod and directly north northeast into Lake Ladoga across a level, swampy basin. The… …   Universalium

  • Volkhov River — noun a river in northwestern Russia flowing generally north into Lake Ladoga • Syn: ↑Volkhov • Instance Hypernyms: ↑river • Part Holonyms: ↑Russia, ↑Russian Federation …   Useful english dictionary

  • Volkhov (disambiguation) — Volkhov may refer to: *Volkhov, a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia; *Volkhov River, a river in north western Russia; **Volkhov hydroelectric plant in Russia; *Volkhov, an artillery ship of the Baltic Fleet, USSR (1950 1952) …   Wikipedia

  • Volkhov — ( ru. Волхов) is an industrial town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, situated 122 km east of St. Petersburg, on the Volkhov River. Population: 46,100 (2005 est.), 46,596 (2002 Census).HistoryThe town grew up during the industrialization in the first… …   Wikipedia

  • Volkhov hydroelectric plant — ( ru. Волховская ГЭС), named after V.I. Lenin, is a hydroelectric station on the Volkhov River located in the town of Volkhov, Leningrad Oblast, in northwestern Russia. It is the oldest and longest serving hydroelectric plant in Soviet Union and… …   Wikipedia

  • Volkhov Front — The Volkhov Front ( ru. Волховский фронт) was a Front (i.e. a military formation of roughly Army Group size) of the Soviet Army during the First Period of the Second World War. It was formed as an expediency of an early attempt to halt the… …   Wikipedia

  • Volkhov — noun a river in northwestern Russia flowing generally north into Lake Ladoga • Syn: ↑Volkhov River • Instance Hypernyms: ↑river • Part Holonyms: ↑Russia, ↑Russian Federation …   Useful english dictionary

  • Maly Volkhovets River — A village of Volotovo, a few miles east of Veliky Novgorod, seen from across the Maly Volkhovets …   Wikipedia

  • Tigoda River — Origin Ogorel e Mouth Volkhov River Basin countries Russia Length 143 km (89 mi) Source elevation 55 m (180 ft) …   Wikipedia

  • Neva River — Neva redirects here. For other uses, see Neva (disambiguation). Coordinates: 59°57′50″N 30°13′20″E / 59.96389°N 30.22222°E / 5 …   Wikipedia


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