- Red Buttes Wilderness
Infobox_protected_area | name = Red Buttes Wilderness
iucn_category = Ib
Oregonand California, USA
lat_degrees = 44
lat_minutes = 55
lat_seconds = 01
lat_direction = N
long_degrees = 118
long_minutes = 35
long_seconds = 03
long_direction = W
area = convert|19940|acre|km2|1|sing=off
United States Forest ServiceThe Red Buttes Wilderness is a wilderness areain the U.S. states of Oregonand California. It comprises convert|19940|acre|km2|0|sing=off, approximately convert|16190|acre|km2|0|sing=off of which is located in California, and convert|3750|acre|km2|0|sing=off in Oregon. [http://www.wilderness.net/index.cfm?fuse=NWPS&sec=wildView&wname=Red%20Buttes Red Buttes Wilderness] - Wilderness.net] It was established in 1984 under the Wilderness Actof 1964.
Red Buttes Wilderness is situated in both Oregon and California and includes the crest of the
Siskiyou Mountainsbetween the Rogue Riverand Klamath Riverdrainages. The wilderness is convert|13|mi|km|0 long and six miles (10 km) wide, with elevations ranging from convert|2800|ft|m|0 in Butte Fork Canyon to convert|6740|ft|m|0 at the east summit of the Red Buttes. [http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/rogue/wilderness_redbutte.html Rogue River National Forest - Red Buttes Wilderness] ]
The main waterways that flow through Red Buttes Wilderness are all part of the
Rogue Riverwatershed, including the Butte Fork and the Middle Fork of the Applegate River, as well as Sucker Creek, a tributary of the Illinois River. The Wilderness contains the headwaters of the Illinois River.
Siskiyou Mountainsare part of the larger "Klamath Mountains Province" of southwestern Oregon and northwestern California, and they include some of the oldest rocks in the region. The former ocean-bottom sediments that make up most of the Wilderness are several hundred-million years old. Over time they were slowly changed by pressure and heat into the complex variety of metamorphicrocks present today: schist, quartzite, gneiss, and several outcrops of white marble. During the last ice agesmall glaciers sculpted the Siskiyou basins that now contain lakes and meadows. [http://www.wilderness.net/index.cfm?fuse=NWPS&sec=wildView&wname=Red%20Buttes Red Buttes Wilderness] - Wilderness.net]
At the lowest elevations of the Red Buttes Wilderness is found a magnificent
old-growthforest of ponderosa pine, sugar pine, Douglas-firand incense-cedar, with an understory of Pacific madrone, canyon live oak, and chinquapin. O n the higher slopes are found white fir, Shasta red fir, and mountain hemlock. Knobcone pineis also common along some dry, rocky ridges. Perhaps the most distinctive vegetation community is that found on the peridotite/serpentinite outcrops - Jeffrey pine, western white pine, and Brewer's spruce.
Some of the plant species in the Wilderness - such as Brewer's spruce, Sadler oak, "Siskiyou lewisia", and a number of "sclerophyllous" shrubs - are found only in southwestern Oregon and northwestern California. [ [http://www.conifers.org/pi/pic/breweriana.htm "Picea breweria"] ]
The Wilderness is home to a wide variety of animals. Blacktail deer are common, while black bear,
coyotes, bobcats, ring-tail cats, and mountain lionsare less common but still may be seen. A number of small mammals, particularly members of the rodent and weasel families, inhabit the area. Many species of birds can be seen in the Wilderness, including eagles, hawks, falcons, goshawks, owls, Steller's jays, and ravens.
Beginning perhaps as early as 8,000 years ago, Native American groups traveled and hunted along this portion of the Siskiyou Crest. By late prehistoric times, the
DakubetedeIndians of the Applegate Valleyused this area, probably sharing it on occasion with their neighbors the Shasta, the Karok, and the Takelma. They hunted deer, bighorn sheep, elk, and grizzly bear. Arrowheads, scrapers, and other stone tools from several thousand years of human prehistory have been found in the Red Buttes Wilderness.
The first non-native people to visit the Red Buttes Wilderness most likely came through during the Siskiyou Mountain
gold rushin the early 1850s. Prospecting and small-scale mining, along with trapping, hunting, livestock grazing, continued to bring local residents up into the Wilderness during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In the 1920s and 1930s the Forest Service built trails and a few cabins in the remote area, and during World War II the U.S. government constructed a narrow mining road from the Klamath River to the chromite deposits on the south slope of the Red Buttes. In 1945 a single-engine airplane crashed in the Red Buttes Wilderness. A bronze plaque along the Butte Fork Trail marks the grave of three victims on board. In 1984 the area was designated Wilderness and afforded the protections laid out in the Wilderness Actof 1964.
Primary recreational activities in the Wilderness include hiking, camping, horseback riding, and wildlife watching. Several hiking trails run throughout the Wilderness, including Azalea Lake Trail, Frog Pond Trail, Cameron Meadows Trail, and Butte Fork Trail.
List of Oregon Wildernesses
List of U.S. Wilderness Areas
List of old growth forests
* [http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/rogue/wilderness_redbutte.html Red Buttes Wilderness near Rogue River National Forest]
* [http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/rogue-siskiyou/recreation/wilderness/red-buttes.shtml Red Buttes Wilderness Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest]
* [http://www.redbutteswilderness.org Red Buttes Wilderness Campaign]
* [http://www.mdvaden.com/red_buttes.shtml Photo of Historic Red Buttes Toolhouse / Red Buttes Hiking]
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