Rubella virus

Rubella virus

Taxobox | color=violet
name = "Rubella virus"

virus_group = iv
familia = "Togaviridae"
genus = "Rubivirus"
species = "Rubella virus"

:"This page is for the virus. For the disease, see Rubella."

Rubella virus is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus and the only member of the genus Rubivirus within the "Togaviridae" family. The virus has an average diameter of 58 nM and an icosahedral nucleoprotein core 30 nM in diameter. Glycoprotein "spikes", 5–8nM long, are embedded in the lipoprotein enevlope. The Rubella virus genome consists of a single strand of RNA which is 9,762 nucleotides long. It is capped at the 5' end and polyadenylated at the 3' end, and encodes 5 genes.


The virus particle, or virion, is enveloped and approximately 60nm in diameter. The surrounding envelope is derived from the host cell membrane and viral glycoproteins that form projections approximately 6nm long. cite journal
author=Bardeletti G, Kessler N, Aymard-Henry M
title=Morphology, biochemical analysis and neuraminidase activity of rubella virus
journal=Arch. Virol.
] The virion consists of a single polyadenylated molecule of RNA enclosed in a nucleocapsid. cite journal
author=Pugachev KV, Frey TK
title=Effects of defined mutations in the 5' nontranslated region of rubella virus genomic RNA on virus viability and macromolecule synthesis
journal=J. Virol.


Rubella virus replicates in the cytoplasm of host cells. The viral genomic RNA serves as a template for the synthesis of negative sense RNAs which are used to produce cytoplasmic messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNAs direct the production of viral proteins and are also packaged as genomic RNA in virions. cite journal
author=Tzeng WP, Frey TK
title=Rubella virus capsid protein modulation of viral genomic and subgenomic RNA synthesis


The viral RNA has two open reading frames (ORFs) and untranslated regions (UTRs) at the 5' and 3' ends of the genome.cite journal
author=Pugachev KV, Abernathy ES, Frey TK
title=Genomic sequence of the RA27/3 vaccine strain of rubella virus
journal=Arch. Virol.

tructural proteins

The virus contains three glycosylated, membrane-associated proteins, El,E2a and E2b, and one unglycosylated nucleocapsid protein, C .cite journal
author=Oker-Blom C, Kalkkinen N, Kääriäinen L, Pettersson RF
title=Rubella virus contains one capsid protein and three envelope glycoproteins, E1, E2a, and E2b
journal=J. Virol.


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