Poncho


Poncho

A poncho is a simple garment designed to keep the body warm, or if made from a watertight material, to keep dry during rain.

Types of Ponchos

The poncho is essentially a single large sheet of fabric with an opening in the center for the head. Rainproof ponchos normally are fitted with fasteners to close the sides once the poncho is draped over the body, with openings provided for the arms; many have hoods attached to ward off wind and rain.

Alternative ponchos are now designed as fashion accessories. They are the same shape but of different material. They are designed to look fashionable and provide warmth while remaining breathable and comfortable, rather than too ward off wind and rain. These are often made out of wool or yarn, knitted or crocheted. Ponchos with festive designs or colors can be worn at special events as well.

Traditional Ponchos

The poncho, commonly associated with the Americas, has spread worldwide. As traditional clothing, the local names and variants are:

* Paunchu, in Kashmir, usually made of Cashmere wool
* Poncho, most of Latin America, Spain and worldwide
* Chamanto, Only in central Chile, poncho in the north and south
* Jorongo or Sarape, Mexico
* Kotze or "Wetterfleck" in Austria, Switzerland and Bavaria; a dark green or brown clothing for hunting
* Paenula, in ancient Rome; some kind of cape or jacket
* Kasel or Pluviale, Roman Catholic Church clothing
* Pelerine, Redingote and Cape; a weatherjacket without arms
* Poncho Chilote, a heavy poncho made of wool
* Gugel, in the Middle Ages; short, sometimes with hood
* Ruana, in cold regions of Colombia

Military Ponchos

The poncho was first used on a regular basis in the 1850s for irregular U.S. military forces operating on the U.S. Western Plains. [ Marcy, Randolph B. (Capt), "The Prairie Traveler", U.S. War Department (1859), reprinted by Applewood Books (1988)] These early military ponchos were made of "gutta percha" muslin, a latex-coated, waterproof cloth. [Kearny, Cresson H., "Jungle Snafus...And Remedies", Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine (1996), pp. 231-236] Ponchos made of gutta-percha or "India rubber" coated cloth were officially adopted during the U.S. Civil War, both as rain clothing and as a ground sheet for sleeping. While originally intended for cavalry forces, they were widely used by infantry as well; General Sherman's Union troops, lightly equipped and living off procurement demand from the local populace, wore ponchos during wet weather encountered during the march through Confederate Georgia to the sea. [Kearny, Cresson H., "Jungle Snafus...And Remedies", Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine (1996), pp. 231-236]

Discontinued after the Civil War, the U.S. Army again issued ponchos of waterproof rubberized canvas to its forces during the Spanish-American War of 1898. ["Spanish American War Poncho", Oshkosh Public Museum, http://www.oshkoshmuseum.org/Virtual/exhibit4/e40126a.htm] Two years later, both the Army and the Marines were forced to issue waterproof rubberized cloth ponchos with high neck collars during the Philippine Insurrection in 1900. [Kearny, Cresson H., "Jungle Snafus...And Remedies", Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine (1996), pp. 231-236] With the entry of the United States into World War I, both doughboys and marines in France wore the poncho; it was preferred over the raincoat for its ability to keep both the wearer and his pack dry, as well as serving as a roof for a makeshift shelter. [Keene, Jennifer D., " World War I", Greenwood Publishing Group (2006), ISBN 0313331812, 9780313331817, p. 130]

Just prior to World War II, ponchos were significantly improved during testing with the U.S. Army Jungle Experimental Platoon in the jungles of Panama, incorporating new, lighter materials and a drawcord hood that could be closed off to form a rain fly or ground sheet. [Kearny, Cresson H., "Jungle Snafus...And Remedies", Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine (1996), pp. 231-236] Ponchos were widely used by United States armed forces during World War II; even lightly-equipped foot-mounted forces such as Merrill's Marauders, forced to discard tentage and all other unnecessary equipment, retained their blanket and poncho. [George, John B. (Lt. Col.), "Shots Fired In Anger", NRA Press (1981), p. 459] During the 1950s, new lightweight coated nylon and other synthetic materials were developed for military ponchos. The poncho has remained in service ever since as a standard piece of U.S. military field equipment. [Kearny, Cresson H., "Jungle Snafus...And Remedies", Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine (1996), pp. 231-236] Today, the United States Armed Forces issue ponchos that may be used as a field expedient shelter. These garments are also used by hunters, campers, and rescue workers. During the Second World War, the German Army (Wehrmacht) issued the Zeltbahn, a poncho that could be combined to form tents. A typical four-man tent used four "Zeltbahnen".

In the infantry of Australia and the UK, a "poncho" is termed a shelter half, which may serve as a raincoat or as an individual shelter. In operations in which ponchos are used, one shelter half is carried by each person as rain gear; when two are combined, they form a two-person tent.

Famous ponchos

*The poncho has become a fashionable item both in fashion as in pop culture, after being the most notable outtfit, of the Man with No Name, in Sergio Leone's "Dollars Trilogy", played by Clint Eastwood.

*The Colombian poncho is a typical item of Colombian coffee recollectors hence it can be seen worn by famous commercial icon Juan Valdez.

*Betty Suarez of the American show, Ugly Betty, owns a poncho from Guadalajara which has appeared in several episodes.

*Frank Zappa sings about a woman and "her rancid poncho" in the song Camarillo Brillo, from the 1973 album Over-Nite Sensation. During the song's fade-out, Zappa inquires, "Is that a real poncho? I mean is that a Mexican poncho or is that a Sears poncho?"

*In the British television series The Mighty Boosh one of the main characters Vince Noir states "It is impossible to be unhappy in a poncho" and later on in the same episode both Vince Noir and Howard Moon are seen dancing in ponchos and sombreros.

ee also

* Cape
* Cloak

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • poncho — [ pɔ̃(t)ʃo ] n. m. • 1716; mot esp. d Amérique du Sud ♦ Manteau fait d un grand rectangle de laine tissée, présentant une ouverture en son milieu pour le passage de la tête, porté en Amérique du Sud. Les ponchos des gauchos. Un poncho en poil de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Poncho — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Niña ecuatoriana con un poncho. Un poncho es una prenda típica de Sudamérica. Se trata de un abrigo de diseño sencillo, consistente en un trozo rectangular de tela pesada y gruesa, en cuyo centro se ha practicado un… …   Wikipedia Español

  • poncho — PÓNCHO, ponchouri, s.n. Pelerină (scurtă), de formă pătrată, cu o deschizătură pentru cap. [pr.: poncio] – Din sp. poncho. Trimis de oprocopiuc, 02.04.2004. Sursa: DEX 98  PONCHO [pr.: póncio] m. invar. (în America de Sud) Pelerină constând… …   Dicționar Român

  • Poncho — Sm Umhang per. Wortschatz exot. (19. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus span. poncho, dieses aus der südamerikanischen Indianersprache Arauka poncho Wollgewebe .    Ebenso nndl. poncho, ne. poncho, nfrz. poncho, nnorw. poncho. ✎ DF 2 (1942), 592f.… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Poncho — (spanisch, sprich pon tscho, ursprünglich aus der Mapuche Sprache Mapudungun) ist ein in Teilen Südamerikas gebräuchlicher Mantel, der seinen Ursprung bei den Indigenas hat. Ursprünglich war der Poncho ein Stück Tuch mit einem Schlitz in der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Poncho — en laine, sur un marché aux puce de Gènes Le poncho est un vêtement originaire d Amérique du sud ample de forme simple apprécié par les amateurs de sports de plein air tout comme par divers peuples montagnards pour la protection qu il offre… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • poncho — (n.) South American cloak, 1717, from Amer.Sp. poncho, from Araucanian (Chile) pontho woolen fabric, perhaps influenced by Sp. poncho (adj.), variant of pocho discolored, faded …   Etymology dictionary

  • Poncho — Pon cho, n.; pl. {Ponchos}. [Sp.] 1. A kind of cloak worn by the Spanish Americans, having the form of a blanket, with a slit in the middle for the head to pass through. A kind of poncho made of rubber or painted cloth is used by the mounted… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • poncho — s. m. 1. Espécie de cobrejão usado na América do Sul, principalmente pelos gaúchos. 2.  [Brasil] Guarda pó para jornadas.   ‣ Etimologia: espanhol poncho …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • Poncho — (span., spr. ponntscho), in Südamerika eine Art Mantel, besteht aus einem viereckigen Stück Tuch oder Wollenzeug, mit einem Ausschnitt oder Schlitz in der Mitte, durch den der Kopf gesteckt wird; der P. ist das wertvollste Kleidungsstück in… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Poncho — (span., spr. tscho), Mantel in Südamerika, Stück Tuch mit einem Ausschnitt in der Mitte für den Kopf …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon


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