Caria (Turkish Karya,
Ancient Greek, Καρία) was a region of western Anatoliaextending along the coast from mid- Ionia( Mycale) south to Lyciaand east to Phrygia. The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Carian population in forming Greek-dominated states there. The eponymous inhabitants of Caria were known as Carians, and they had arrived in Caria before the Greeks. They were described by Herodotos as being of Minoandescent, ["The Histories", Book I Section 171.] while the Carians themselves maintained that they were Anatolian mainlanders intensely engaged in seafaringand were akin to the Mysiansand the Lydians. The Carians did speak an Anatolian language, which does not necessarily reflect their geographic origin, as Anatolian once may have been widespread. Also closely associated with the Carians were the Leleges, which could be an earlier name for Carians or for a people who had preceded them in the region and continued to exist as part of their society in a reputedly second-class status.
Municipalities of Caria
Cramer's detailed catalog of Carian towns in
classical Greeceis based entirely on ancient sources. [Cramer (1832), pages 170-224.] The multiple names of towns and geomorphic features, such as bays and headlands, reveal an ethnic layering consistent with the known colonization.
Coastal Caria begins with
Didymasouth of Miletus, [Page 170.] but Miletus had been placed in the pre-Greek Caria. South of it is the Iassicus Sinus ( GüllükKörfezi) and the towns of Iassus and Bargylia, giving an alternative name of Bargyleticus Sinus to Güllük Körfezi, and nearby Cindye, which the Carians called Andanus. After Bargylia is Caryanda or Caryinda, and then on the BodrumPeninsula Myndus(Mentecha or Muntecha), convert|56|mi|km|0|lk=on miles from Miletus. In the vicinity is Naziandus, exact location unknown.
On the tip of the Bodrum Peninsula (Cape Termerium) is Termera (Telmera, Termerea), and on the other side Ceramicus Sinus (Gökova Körfezi). It "was formerly crowded with numerous towns." [Page 176.]
Halicarnassus, a Dorian Greek city, was planted there among six Carian towns: Theangela, Sibde, Medmasa, Euranium, Pedasa or Pedasum, and Telmissus. These with Myndus and Synagela, Syagela or Souagela, where the tomb of Car is located, constitute the eight Lelege towns. Also on the north coast of the Ceramicus Sinus is Ceramusand Bargasus.
On the south of the Ceramicus Sinus is the Carian Chersonnese, or Triopium Promontory (
Cape Krio), also called Doris after the Dorian colony of Cnidus. At the base of the peninsula ( Datça Peninsula) is Bybassus or Bybastus from which an earlier names, the Bybassia Chersonnese, had been derived. It was now Acanthus and Doulopolis ("slave city").
South of the Carian Chersonnese is Doridis Sinus, the "Gulf of Doris" (Gulf of
Symi), the locale of the Dorian Confederacy. There are three bays in it: Bubassius, Thymnias and Schoenus, the last enclosing the town of Hyda. In the gulf somewhere are Euthene or Eutane, Pitaeum, and an island: Elaeusor Elaeussa near Loryma. On the south shore is the Cynossema, or Onugnathos Promontory, opposite Symi.
South of there is Peraea, a section of the coast under
Rhodes. It includes Lorymaor Larymna in Oedimus Bay, Gelos, Tisanusa, the headland of Paridion, Panydon or Pandion (Cape Marmorice) with Physicus, Physca or Physcus, also acalled Cressa ( Marmaris). Beyond Cressa is the Calbis River ( DalyanRiver). On the other side is Caunus (near Dalyan), with Pisilis or Pilisis and Pyrnos between.
Then follow some cities that some assign to Lydia and some to Caria: Calynda on the Indus River, Crya, Carya, Carysis or Cari and Alina in the Gulf of Glaucus (Katranci Bay or the Gulf of Makri), the Glaucus River being the border. Other Carian towns in the gulf are Clydae or Lydae and Aenus.
At the base of the east end of
Latmusnear Selimiyewas the district of Euromus or Eurome, possibly Europus, formerly Idrieus and Chrysaoris (Stratonicea), apparently the ethnic center of non-Hellenic Caria. The name Chrysaoris once applied to all of Caria; moreover, Euromus was originally settled from Lycia. Its towns are Tauropolis, Plarassa and Chrysaoris. These were all incorporated later into Mylasa. Connected to the latter by a sacred way is Labranda. Around Stratonicea is also Laginaor Lakena as well as Tendeba and Astragon.
Further inland towards
Aydinis Alabanda, noted for its marbleand its scorpions, Orthosia, Cosciniaor Coscinus on the upper Maeanderand Halydienses, Alinda or Alina. At the confluenceof the Maeander and the Harpasus is Harpasa(Arpaz). At the confluence of the Maeander and the Orsinus, Corsymus or Corsynus is Antioch on the Maeanderand on the Orsinus in the mountains a border town with Phrygia, Gordiutichos ("Gordius' Fort") near Geyre. Founded by the Pelasgi Lelegesand called Ninoe it became Megalopolis ("Big City") and Aphrodisias, sometime capital of Caria.
Other towns on the Orsinus are Timeles and Plarasa.
Tabaewas at various times attributed to Phrygia, Lydia and Caria and seems to have been occupied by mixed nationals. Caria also comprises the headwaters of the Indus and Eriya or Eriyus and Thabusion on the border with the small state of Cibyra.
Pre-Hellenic states and people
The name of "Caria" appears in a number of early languages: Hittite "Karkija" (a member state of the
Assuwaleague, ca. 1250 BC), Babylonian"Karsa", Elamiteand Old Persian"Kurka". According to some accounts, the land was originally called "Phoenicia", because a Phoenician colony settled there in early times. Allegedly, the region would have then received the name of "Caria" from Kar, a legendary early king of the Carians.
overeign state hosting the Greeks
Caria arose as a
Neo-Hittitekingdom around the 11th century BC.The coast of Caria was part of the Dorian hexapolis (six-cities) when the Doriansarrived after the Trojan Warin the last and southernmost waves of Greek migration to western Anatolia's coastline and occupied former Mycenaeansettlements such us Knidosand Halicarnassos (present-day Bodrum). Herodotus, the famous historian was born in Halicarnassus during the 5th century BC. But Greek colonization touched only the coast and the interior remained Carian organized in a great number of villages grouped in local federations.
Iliad" records that at the time of the Trojan War, the city of Miletusbelonged to the Carians, and was allied to the Trojan cause.
Lemprière notes that "As Caria probably abounded in
figs, a particular sort has been called Carica, and the words "In Care periculum facere", having been proverbially used to signify the encountering of danger in the pursuit of a thing of trifling value."
Caria was then incorporated into the Persian
Achaemenidempire as a satrapyin 545 BC. The most important town was Halicarnassus, from where its sovereigns reigned. Other major towns were Latmus, refounded as Heracleia under Latmus, Antiochia, Myndus, Laodicea, Alinda and Alabanda.
Halicarnassus was the location of the famed Mausoleum dedicated to
Mausolus, a satrapof Caria between 377– 353 BCby his wife, Artemisia. The monument became one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and from which the Romans named any grand tomb a "mausoleum."
Caria was conquered by Alexander III of Macedon in
334 BCwith the help of the former queen of the land Ada of Cariawho had been dethroned by the Persian Empireand actively helped Alexander in his conquest of Caria on condition of being reinstated as queen. After their capture of Caria, she declared Alexander as her heir.
As part of the
Roman Empirethe name of Caria was still used for the geographic region but the territory administratively belonged to the province of Asia. During the administrative reforms of the 4th century this province was abolished and divided into smaller units. Caria became a separate province as part of the Diocese of Asia.
Dissolved by Constantinople
In the 7th century provinces were abolished and the new theme system was introduced.
Traces in modern Turkey
The Greek population of the coast of Anatolia persisted through the fall of
Constantinoplein 1453 CE and went on under the Ottoman Empire. In the early 20th century as a result of various social conflicts and power vacuum, the Ottoman Empire came under the rule of the Three Pashaswho first socially and then militarily attacked populations they considered foreign. The Greeks of the western coast suffered pogromsand were reduced to second-class citizens.
Subsequently the three pashas were removed from power, court-martialed and sentenced to death in absentia but meanwhile the Ottoman Empire had been on the losing side in
World War Iand lost sovereignty to the Entente Powers. They were not long under the Entente, conducted a Turkish War of Independenceresulting in a new Turkish Republicunder the presidency of Mustafa Kemal Atatürkstarting in 1923.
Atatürk set about resolving the ethnic difficulties he inherited, making the decision to westernize Turkey and seeking the assistance of westerners, notably of president
Woodrow Wilson. Together they hammered out a border between Turkey and the new state of Armenia. Part of the difficulty was to make the border ethnically tidy; that is, with Turks on one side and Armenians on the other, and the same difficulties applied to the border between Turkey and Greece. As a result of the Treaty of Lausannea decision was made to tidy the border by moving populations to either side of it. In the resulting Population exchange between Greece and Turkeythe population of Greeks in western Anatolia greatly diminished, as did the population of Turks on the Aegean Islands and mainland Greece.
The exchange ended a 3000-year Greek presence in Anatolia; however, modern Turkey cherishes the ruins and culture of ancient times, having turned much of the coast into national parks and granting licenses to western archaeologists. Modern Turkish scholarship also is significant. Many of the names remain intact or they have been converted to local tongue; for example, Caria:
Geyre; Myndos: Menteşe.
Ada of Caria
Melankomasof Caria, an ancient Olympic boxer
* Downloadable Google Books.
*cite wikisource|History of Herodotus|
* [http://www.livius.org/cao-caz/caria/caria.html History and Culture of Ancient Caria]
* [http://www.losttrails.com/pages/Hproject/Caria/Caria.html Black and White Photos of Carian Cities]
* [http://www.livius.org/cao-caz/caria/caria.html Livius.org: Caria]
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